Chapt 3 perspectives

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  • 1. CHAPTER 3 Causal Factors and Viewpoints
  • 2. The Biological Model
  • 3. Neurotransmitters Serotonin Mood regulation, behavior, thought processes Norepinephrine Regulation of arousal, mood, behavior, and sleep Dopamine Influences pleasure, reward, noveltyseeking, coordination, and motor movement Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Regulation of mood (esp. anxiety), arousal, behavior Acetylcholine Motor behavior, arousal, reward, attention, learning Glutamate Learning, memory
  • 4. Genetics Genetic heritability % 100 80 82 65 60 40 35 34 40 20 0 Major depression Bipolar disorder Anxiety disorder Substance dependence Schizophrenia
  • 5. Genetics • Genotype: genetic composition • Phenotype: observable characteristic • Genotype-environment interaction • Example: phenylketonuria
  • 6. Genetics: Research methods Family history method Traditional methods Twin method Adoption method More recent methods Linkage analysis Association studies
  • 7. Psychodynamic Model • Sigmund Freud
  • 8. Psychodynamic structure Superego Guiding principle: Morality Tasks: Develop conscience; block id impulses Ego Guiding principle: Reality Tasks: Mediate demands of id and superego; cope with real world Id Guiding principle: Pleasure Tasks: Attain gratification of wants, needs, and impulses
  • 9. Defense mechanisms Intrapsychic Conflict (Between Id, Ego, and Superego) Anxiety Reliance on Defense Mechanisms
  • 10. The Behavioral Model Classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned stimulus (CS)
  • 11. Classical conditioning • Extinction: when CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, the CR gradually extinguishes • Spontaneous recovery: CR may still reappear later
  • 12. Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Behavior Positive reinforcement: pleasant event or reward Repetition of behavior is more likely
  • 13. The Cognitive-Behavioral Model Focuses on how thoughts and information processing become distorted Cognitive-behavioral perspective Leads to maladaptive emotions and behavior
  • 14. Cognitive processes Schema: • Underlying representation of knowledge that guides current processing of information Attributions: • Process of assigning causes to things that happen Attributional style: • Characteristic way in which individual may tend to assign causes to bad or good events
  • 15. Sociocultural Model • Individuals and families within cultural context • Impact of culture on some disorders • Culture-specific disorders • Cultural risk factors • Gender • Low income • Ethnic minorities and discrimination • Urban violence
  • 16. Diathesis Stress Model Interactive Model: Additive Model:
  • 17. Risk factors: Abuse and Neglect Depriving essential resources Institutionalization Neglect and abuse at home Separation from parents
  • 18. Risk and protective factors: Parenting
  • 19. Risk factors • Marital stress, divorce • Maladaptive peer relationships • Deviant peers • Peer rejection