Chapt 2 history

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  • 1. CHAPTER 2 Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior
  • 2. Ancient views of abnormal behavior • Possession by spirits, demons, or gods • Ancient treatments: • Trepination (Stone Age) • Surgery and prayers (ancient Egypt) • Variations on exorcisms
  • 3. Ancient Greece and Rome • Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.E.) • Mental disorders have physical causes • “humors”-four types of body fluids • Basic classifications of mental disorders • Galen (130-200 C.E.) • Refined physical causes of mental disorders
  • 4. Ancient China • Chung Ching (200 C.E.) • Built on traditional Chinese concepts of physical balance • Physical and mental health interrelated
  • 5. Middle Ages (500-1500 C.E.) • Middle East • Scientific approach maintained • Mental hospitals established • Europe • Focus returns to supernatural causes • Exorcisms and witch hunts • China • Shift to supernatural causes
  • 6. Humanitarian Approaches: Europe • Europe (approx 1500-1800) • Return to scientific view • Early asylums- terrible conditions • Prisons • Pinel (1792) • Improved conditions in Paris hospital
  • 7. Humanitarian Approaches: America • Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) • Mental Hygiene movement • Humane hospitals • Clifford Beers (1876-1943) • Publicized problems with hospitals
  • 8. Deinstitutionalization • 1950’s-1970’s • Psychoactive medications • Treatment in community • Problems: insufficient community resources
  • 9. Contemporary views • Development of mental disorders classification system • Kraepelin (1856-1926) • Dementia praecox • Manic depression • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) • Biological discoveries • Psychological causation • Experimental psychological research