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Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology

Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology

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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 Abnormal Psychology: An Overview
  • 2. What is Abnormal? Suffering Elements of abnormality include: Maladaptiveness Deviancy Violation of the Standards of Society Social Discomfort Irrationality and Unpredictability Dangerousness
  • 3. What is Abnormal: key concepts • Statistical deviance from the norm • Impairment of functioning • Distress
  • 4. Advantages of classification • Provide nomenclature • Permits sharing information • Social and political implications • Classify disorders, not people
  • 5. Disadvantages of classification • Stigma • Public • Private/self-concept • Stereotyping • Lose sight of individual differences
  • 6. Culture and Abnormality • Cultural factors influence • Presentation of disorders • Culture-specific disorders • Example: ataque de nervios
  • 7. Prevalence Prevalence Number of active cases in population during any given period of time Typically expressed as percentages Different types of prevalence estimates
  • 8. Incidence Incidence Number of new cases in population over given period of time Incidence figures are typically lower than prevalence figures
  • 9. Research Approaches: Self-Report Participants asked to provide information about themselves Interviews and Questionnaires May be inaccurate
  • 10. Research Approaches: Observation Collecting information without asking participants directly for it Outward behavior can be observed directly Biological variables can be observed via technologically advanced methods
  • 11. Research Designs • Case study • Correlational Research • Experimental Design
  • 12. Case Studies Specific individual observed and described in detail Subject to bias of author of case study Low generalizability
  • 13. Correlation • Relationship between two variables • Correlation coefficient • Statistically significant? • Positive or negative? • How strong? • Correlation does not mean causation • A→B • B→A • C→B A
  • 14. Experimental Method • Independent Variable • Manipulated by the researcher • Typically an experimental group vs. control group • Dependent Variable • The outcome of interest • Random Assignment • Participants have equal chance of being in experimental group or control • Supposed to reduce confounding variables
  • 15. Single-case experiments: ABAB Design
  • 16. Issues to consider • Internal validity • How controlled? • Can we trust results of the study? • External validity • Are the results relevant outside the study itself? • Generalizability

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