International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia<br />http://www.icty.org/<br />
The War in Former Yugoslavia<br />Serbs<br />Bosniak<br />Croat<br />
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<br />
The Fall of Yugoslavia<br />
Desetdnevnavojna, Slovenia<br />
Croatian War of Independence1991-1995<br />
the development of war<br />
Population: 4,750,000=> 4,400,000<br />
RepublikaHrvatska<br />RepublikaSrpskaKrajina, RSK<br />
Bosnian War, 1992-1995<br />
RepublikaSrpska, RS<br />RepublikaSrpska, RS<br />Federacija Bosne <br />i Hercegovine, BiH<br />
Dayton Agreement, 1995 <br />
Serbs in former Yugoslavia<br />
Serious Violation <br />of International Humanitarian Law<br />
serious violation of international humanitarian law<br />Croatian War<br /> former Stajićevo camp in Serbia<br />BorovoSel...
former Stajićevo camp in Serbia<br />where Croatian prisoners of war and civilians were kept by Serbian authorities<br />1...
BorovoSelo killings<br />May 2 1991<br />Border of Serbia / Croatia<br />Fight between Croat police and Serb military<br /...
Lovas massacre<br />1991.10 – 12<br />Done by JNA<br />Village occupied,<br />	Killing began<br /> 75 killed<br />
Ethnic cleansing of Lipovača, Vukovići and SaborskoZagrebro<br />Location: Croatia<br />By JNA, Militia of RS Krajina<br /...
Zagreb rocket attacks<br />Perpetrators: Military of Serbian Krajina<br />Randomly target city streets<br />Zagreb, Croati...
Bosnian War<br />Ethnic cleansing<br />Genocide<br />Mass rape and psychological oppression<br />serious violation of inte...
Ethnic cleansing<br />a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspir...
included "murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, confinemen...
Genocide<br />Srebrenica massacre<br />July 1995, more than 8,372 Bosniak male killed<br />Described by SG as the worst cr...
Mass rape and psychological oppression<br />Estimates of the numbers raped range from 20,000 to 50,000<br />ICTY declared ...
UN Resolution on the violation of International Humanitarian Law in the former Yugoslavia<br />
Resolution 808, 22 Feb. 1993<br />Recalling obligation under Geneva Convention<br />Expressing grave alarm at violation of...
Report of the S.G. Doc S/2504<br />Resolution 808 not mentioning how to do it<br />The treaty shall be drawn up and adopte...
Resolution 827, 25 May 1993<br />Acting the Ch. 7 of the Charter of the UN<br />Approve the report from SG<br />Establish ...
theInternational Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia<br />
ICTY<br />
The Statute<br />Art. 1 Competence of the International Tribun<br />Art. 2 Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 194...
Art. 3 Violations of the laws or customs of war<br />employment of poisonous weapons or other weapons calculated to cause ...
Art.4 Genocide<br />killing members of the group; <br />causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; <br...
Punishable for genocide:<br />genocide; <br />conspiracy to commit genocide; <br />direct and public incitement to commit ...
Art. 5 Crimes against humanity<br />murder; <br />extermination; <br />enslavement; <br />deportation; <br />imprisonment;...
Art.7 Individual criminal responsibility<br />A person who planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and ...
Art. 10 Non-bis-in-idem<br />No person shall be tried before a national court for acts constituting serious violations of ...
Art. 20 about proceeding: the accused, victims, witnesses; public trial<br />Art. 21 Right of the Accused<br />All persons...
Art. 22 Protection of victims & witnesses<br />Art. 24 Penalties: <br />limited to imprisonment<br />Art. 29 Cooperation &...
DuškoTadić<br /><ul><li>Born Oct 1, 1955
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前南斯拉夫國際刑事法庭 ICTY

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前南斯拉夫國際刑事法庭 ICTY

  1. 1. International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia<br />http://www.icty.org/<br />
  2. 2. The War in Former Yugoslavia<br />Serbs<br />Bosniak<br />Croat<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. The Fall of Yugoslavia<br />
  8. 8. Desetdnevnavojna, Slovenia<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Croatian War of Independence1991-1995<br />
  11. 11. the development of war<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Population: 4,750,000=> 4,400,000<br />
  14. 14. RepublikaHrvatska<br />RepublikaSrpskaKrajina, RSK<br />
  15. 15. Bosnian War, 1992-1995<br />
  16. 16. RepublikaSrpska, RS<br />RepublikaSrpska, RS<br />Federacija Bosne <br />i Hercegovine, BiH<br />
  17. 17. Dayton Agreement, 1995 <br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Serbs in former Yugoslavia<br />
  20. 20. Serious Violation <br />of International Humanitarian Law<br />
  21. 21. serious violation of international humanitarian law<br />Croatian War<br /> former Stajićevo camp in Serbia<br />BorovoSelo killings<br />Lovas massacre<br />Ethnic cleansing of Lipovača, Vukovići and Saborsko<br />Zagreb rocket attacks<br />
  22. 22. former Stajićevo camp in Serbia<br />where Croatian prisoners of war and civilians were kept by Serbian authorities<br />1700 detainees<br />Conditions:<br />2 meals a day, no toilets<br />Electric shocks<br />Killing<br />
  23. 23. BorovoSelo killings<br />May 2 1991<br />Border of Serbia / Croatia<br />Fight between Croat police and Serb military<br />15 died<br />
  24. 24. Lovas massacre<br />1991.10 – 12<br />Done by JNA<br />Village occupied,<br /> Killing began<br /> 75 killed<br />
  25. 25. Ethnic cleansing of Lipovača, Vukovići and SaborskoZagrebro<br />Location: Croatia<br />By JNA, Militia of RS Krajina<br />1991.10 – 11<br />Planned ethnic cleansing<br />in Republic Serbian Krajina<br />
  26. 26. Zagreb rocket attacks<br />Perpetrators: Military of Serbian Krajina<br />Randomly target city streets<br />Zagreb, Croatia<br />May2-3, 1995<br />Death: 7<br />Injured: 175+<br />
  27. 27. Bosnian War<br />Ethnic cleansing<br />Genocide<br />Mass rape and psychological oppression<br />serious violation of international humanitarian law<br />
  28. 28. Ethnic cleansing<br />a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas (UNSC Resolution 780)<br />Serbs on Bosniak and Croats<br />
  29. 29. included "murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, confinement of civilian population in ghetto areas, forcible removal, displacement and deportation of civilian population, deliberate military attacks or threats of attacks on civilians and civilian areas, and wanton destruction of property"<br />
  30. 30. Genocide<br />Srebrenica massacre<br />July 1995, more than 8,372 Bosniak male killed<br />Described by SG as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War<br />Perpetrators: army of the RepublikaSrpska<br />
  31. 31. Mass rape and psychological oppression<br />Estimates of the numbers raped range from 20,000 to 50,000<br />ICTY declared that "systematic rape", and "sexual enslavement" in time of war was a crime against humanity, second only to the war crime of genocide. <br />According to Margot Wallström, U.N. Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, only 12 cases out of an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 have been prosecuted<br />
  32. 32. UN Resolution on the violation of International Humanitarian Law in the former Yugoslavia<br />
  33. 33. Resolution 808, 22 Feb. 1993<br />Recalling obligation under Geneva Convention<br />Expressing grave alarm at violation of Int’l humanitarian law in former Yugoslavia<br /> decide to establish an int’l tribunal<br />Request Secretary General to submit a report<br />
  34. 34. Report of the S.G. Doc S/2504<br />Resolution 808 not mentioning how to do it<br />The treaty shall be drawn up and adopted by an appropriate international body<br />Involvement of the General Assembly<br />The tribunal should be established by a decision of the SC on the basis of Ch. 7 of the Charter of UN<br />The tribunal should function independently, not subject to the UNSC<br />
  35. 35. Resolution 827, 25 May 1993<br />Acting the Ch. 7 of the Charter of the UN<br />Approve the report from SG<br />Establish an international tribunal for the sole purpose of prosecuting persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia<br />All state shall cooperate fully with the tribunal<br />The tribunal shall carried without prejudice to the right of the victims <br />
  36. 36. theInternational Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia<br />
  37. 37. ICTY<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. The Statute<br />Art. 1 Competence of the International Tribun<br />Art. 2 Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 <br />wilfulkilling; <br />tortureor inhuman treatment, including biological experiments; <br />wilfullycausing great suffering or serious injury to body or health; <br />extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; <br />compelling a prisoner of war or a civilian to serve in the forces of a hostile power;<br />wilfullydepriving a prisoner of war or a civilian of the rights of fair and regular trial;<br />unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a civilian; <br />taking civilians as hostages.<br />
  41. 41. Art. 3 Violations of the laws or customs of war<br />employment of poisonous weapons or other weapons calculated to cause unnecessary suffering; <br />wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity; <br />attack, or bombardment, by whatever means, of undefended towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings; <br />seizureof, destruction or wilful damage done to institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, historic monuments and works of art and science; <br />plunderof public or private property<br />
  42. 42. Art.4 Genocide<br />killing members of the group; <br />causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; <br />deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; <br />imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; <br />forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. <br />
  43. 43. Punishable for genocide:<br />genocide; <br />conspiracy to commit genocide; <br />direct and public incitement to commit genocide; <br />attempt to commit genocide; <br />complicityin genocide<br />
  44. 44. Art. 5 Crimes against humanity<br />murder; <br />extermination; <br />enslavement; <br />deportation; <br />imprisonment; <br />torture; <br />rape; <br />persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds;<br />other inhumane acts. <br />
  45. 45. Art.7 Individual criminal responsibility<br />A person who planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted in the planning, preparation or execution of a crime referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute, shall be individually responsible for the crime.<br />Official position<br />Subordinate (knew/had reason to know; necessary & reasonable measure to prevent)<br />
  46. 46. Art. 10 Non-bis-in-idem<br />No person shall be tried before a national court for acts constituting serious violations of international humanitarian law under the present Statute, for which he or she has already been tried by the International Tribunal.<br />A person who has been tried by a national court for acts constituting serious violations of international humanitarian law may be subsequently tried by the International Tribunal only if: <br />the act for which he or she was tried was characterized as an ordinary crime; or<br />the national court proceedings were not impartial or independent, were designed to shield the accused from international criminal responsibility, or the case was not diligently prosecuted.<br />
  47. 47. Art. 20 about proceeding: the accused, victims, witnesses; public trial<br />Art. 21 Right of the Accused<br />All persons equal before the tribunal<br />Entitled to a fair and public hearing<br />Shall be presumed innocent<br />Entitled to a fair trial in full equality<br />
  48. 48. Art. 22 Protection of victims & witnesses<br />Art. 24 Penalties: <br />limited to imprisonment<br />Art. 29 Cooperation & judicial assistance<br />Art. 32 Expenses: regular budget of the UN<br />
  49. 49. DuškoTadić<br /><ul><li>Born Oct 1, 1955
  50. 50. War criminal
  51. 51. Former Serbian Democratic Party Leader
  52. 52. former member of the paramilitary forces supporting the attack on the district of Prijedor
  53. 53. sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment</li>
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