DEFINITION: PERSUADE 1 : to cause (someone) to do something by asking, arguing, or giving reasons 2 : to cause (someone) to believe something : convinceSource: Merriam Webster’s Learners Dictionary(Online)
EFFECTIVE PERSUASION For persuasion to be truly effective, according to Aristotle, three elements must be present: Trust (Ethos) –Reputation, Character, Credibility Logic (Logos) –Evidence, Reason Emotions (Pathos) –Values, Goals, Interests, Beliefs
PREREQUISITES OF PERSUASIONTrust (Ethos). Trust is the expectancy of people that they can rely on your word. It can be granted automatically based on your job title, your credentials, or your reputation, or built through integrity and consistency in relationships.Logic (Logos). Your point must make perfect sense.Emotion (Pathos). Your argument must appeal to the emotional man – to his or her imagination, and thus to the emotions.
ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION Source: the quality and credibility of source Message: what, when and how you say; repeat your key points Medium: use the right channel to reach your audience Public: you must know your audience Effect: Did the persuaded audience do what you wanted it to do?
MONROE’S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE Attention: Get their attention Need: Trigger a need that the listener has. A stimulated need = the person seeking a solution. Satisfaction: Propose a way to meet and satisfy the need that you have just stimulated. Visualization: Help them visualize the solution in place. Action: Prompt the person into implementing the solution that you proposed.
SIMPLICIT Y If you want somebody to remember something, make it simple. If you want to reinforce a point, say things in threes. Use repetition.
PERCEIVED SELF-INTEREST People do things that they think are in their own interest. If you can convince other people that an idea is good for them, then they will likely go along with it. Always remember WIIFM and WAMI. WIIFM: Whats In It For Me. WAMI : Whats Against My Interests.
INCONGRUIT Y Incongruous things do not fit together. When things are not as they should be, we become confused. We seek any solution, including self-deception, to resolve our discomfort. We will see what we want to see rather than what is actually there. We may pay a lot of attention to the incongruity, and miss all kinds of other things going on, or ignore the incongruity completely as we are unable to process it. In persuasion, this means the confused person may pay attention to incongruity and miss things you want them to miss.
CONFIDENCE Be assertive. Act big and people will assume you are big. If you speak like you know what you are saying, then it is amazing what you can get away with.
EMPATHY Definition: ’Feeling what others feel Showing empathy gains trust which increases your chance of persuading.Things to do: Know what the other person is feeling. Show that you care.
THE 16 MOST PERSUASIVE WORDS1. Discover 9. New2. Easy 10.Results3. Good 11.Own4. Save 12.Free5. Guaranteed 13.Freedom6. Proven 14.Health7. Money 15.Best8. Safe 16.Investment
DEFINITION: COMPLAIN 1: to say or write that you are unhappy, sick, uncomfortable, etc., or that you do not like something 2: to say (something that expresses annoyance or unhappiness)Source: Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary (Online)
COMPLAINING Complaining and Grammar Complaining in person State your case – tell them what was wrong Be clear about what you would like them to do and when you want it done. Stay calm. Be assertive but not aggressive. Complaining over the phone Record what was said and who you spoke to in writing. Keep records of when you called. How To Complain in a Restaurant
DEFINITION: DEMAND 1 : to say in a forceful way that something must be done or given to you : to say that you have a right to (something) 2 : to say or ask (something) in a very forceful way 3 : to require (something)Source: Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary (Online)
DEMANDING EXPLANATIONS Use Can you tell me why a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?). Use I dont understand why a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is a statement and does NOT require a question mark (? ) Use Can you explain why a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?) . Use Why is it that a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?) .
DEMANDING EXPLANATIONS Use How come a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?). Use Does this mean (that) a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?). Use Do you (really) expect me to believe (that) a full clause in the positive statement form (S V O). Notice that this is an indirect question and requires a question mark (?).
DEFINITION: APOLOGIZE To express regret for doing or saying something wrong : to give or make an apology Source: Merriam Webster’s Learners Dictionary (Online)
EXPRESSIONS Im very sorry for / that ... I apologize if I ... I apologize for (+ ing form of verb) Please forgive me for … I didn’t mean to …
FORMULA FOR APOLOGIES Apology Take responsibility and say you are sorry. Ex. I am sorry that I ate your apple. Reason Tell them why you did what you did (if appropriate). Ex. It was on my desk, and I didn’t know it belonged to you. Promise Promise you will try not to do it again. Ex. Next time, I will ask before eating something.
DEFINITION: INTERRUPT 1 : to ask questions or say things while another person is speaking : to do or say something that causes someone to stop speaking [+ obj] 2 [+ obj] : to cause (something) to stop happening for a time 3 [+ obj] : to cause (something) to not be even or continuous : to change or stop the sameness or smoothness of (something)
WHEN TO INTERRUPT When the person has finished saying what they have to say When the person speaking slows down When the speaker pauses When they send non-verbal signals that they are finishing or are ready for interruption. When the speaker has had a fair amount of time to speak.
WAYS TO INTERRUPT Agreement Interrupt: Enthusiastically agree. Body Language Interrupt: Non-verbal signal intent to butt in. Clarification Interrupt: Ask for clarification. Check you understand. Continuation Interrupt: Pick up where they might leave off. Disagreement Interrupt: Disagree with what is said. Disinterest Interrupt: Appear disinterested in what they say .
WAYS TO INTERRUPT Distraction Interrupt: Become distracted by something else. Encouragement Interrupt: Keep them talking. External Interrupt: Use a third party to interrupt. Identity Interrupt: Prod the identity of the person. Loudmouth Interrupt: Talk more loudly than the other person. Motormouth Interrupt: Jump in and talk quickly.
WAYS TO INTERRUPT Question Interrupt: Just ask them a question. Power Interrupt: Use your power to grab control. Permission Interrupt: Ask if you can interrupt. Touch Interrupt: Touch them gently as you interrupt. Yes, and Interrupt: Say Yes, and,... Yes, but Interrupt: Say Yes, but...’