Negotiating Meaning


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  • July 8, 2009: Candice Quinones
  • For lack of background knowledge and lack of vocabulary
  • Mad gabs.
  • Negotiating Meaning

    1. 1. Negotiating Meaning Do you understand me?
    2. 2. Hmm…Do you understand? <ul><li>Do you understand the words that are coming out of my mouth? (Rush Hour, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand the words that are coming out of my mouth? (Rush Hour 2, 2001) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Negotiation of Meaning <ul><li>Communication Strategies are used when: </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker desires to communicate an intended meaning. * </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker and/or his/her [listener] believe the [manner] to communicate this meaning is unavailable in their interlanguage system.* </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker and/or their [listener] choose to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid – the speaker does not attempt to communicate the intended meaning – or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>try out an alternative means of expression to communicate the intended meaning.* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Within this process, learners and their [listeners] may use: </li></ul><ul><li>one single CS </li></ul><ul><li>a combination of different CSs, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resort to both verbal and nonverbal behavior.* ) </li></ul></ul>*Fernandez Dobao & Palacios Martinez, 2007
    4. 4. Possible sources of miscommunication? <ul><li>Lack of background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding the question </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any others? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Well now I know why but how do I do it? <ul><li>Strategies for negotiating meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main types to use for lack of background of vocabulary: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul></ul>*Fernandez Dobao & Palacios Martinez, 2007
    6. 6. Avoidance Strategies <ul><li>1 – Topic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Message Abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Semantic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>4 – Message Reduction </li></ul>
    7. 7. Avoidance Strategy # 1 <ul><li>Topic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker avoids any mention of the object or action because they lack the vocabulary to refer to it. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Avoidance Strategy # 2 <ul><li>Message Abandonment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker begins to talk about something but, feeling unable to continue, stops before achieving communication of that concept. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Avoidance Strategy # 3 <ul><li>Semantic Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker says something different than what he/she originally intended. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Avoidance Strategy # 4 <ul><li>Message Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker reduces their original message and reports the same idea less precisely and in less detail. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Achievement Strategies <ul><li>1 – Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>2- Concious transfer </li></ul>
    12. 12. Achievement Strategy # 1 <ul><li>3 Ways to Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word coinage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumlocution </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 3 Ways to Paraphrase <ul><ul><li>Approximation – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the speaker substitutes an approximation to the unknown language item. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word coinage – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker makes up a new word following the rules of derivation and composition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumlocution – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the speaker describes an item or action instead of using the word for it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Achievement Strategy # 2 <ul><li>4 Methods of Concious Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mime </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 4 Methods of Concious Transfer <ul><li>Borrowing – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a word from the speaker’s native language and modifying it according to the new language’s rules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Switch – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the speaker uses a word from their language with zero modifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal for Assistance - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker asks the listener for help in determining the word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mime </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker uses body language to communicate their meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Well what if I misunderstood the question? <ul><li>Ask for clarification. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you heard the key word in the question. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeat the question back to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them to repeat themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them to slow down if necessary. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Now you try!