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  • Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature are (Leech & Svartvik, 1.975:135): indeed, utterly, absolute, terrific, tremendous, awfully, terribly, great, grand, really, definitely, truly, literally, extremely, surely, completely, barely, entirely, very (adverb), very (adjective), quite, too, enough, pretty, far, especially, alone, only, own, -self.
  • Intonation

    1. 1. + English Stress and Intonation Ms. Quiñones, Lehigh University English Intonation
    2. 2. + Overview • Stress • Tone • Pitch
    3. 3. + Stress
    4. 4. + Intonation Units An 'intonation unit' is a piece of utterance, a continuous stream of sounds, bounded by a fairly perceptible pause. (Celik) This is also known as a “thought group”  Ex. “the very special man” or “pedaled quickly” or “which was late”
    5. 5. + Intonation and Stress ’Stress' applies to individual syllables, and involves, most commonly, loudness, length, and higher pitch (Roach, 1983:73)
    6. 6. + Stress More Information, Less Predictability = Higher Stress on that Word The word(s) that informs the hearer the most is usually the most emphasized.  These are called “content” words
    7. 7. + Stress: Content & Function Words  verbs  nouns  adjectives  adverbs  question words (wh-, how)  modal auxiliaries  articles  conjunctions  prepositions  pronouns Content Words Function Words
    8. 8. + Types of Stress There are 4 main types of stress  Unmarked tonic stress  Emphatic stress  Contrastive stress  New information stress
    9. 9. + Tonic Stress An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress, which is called 'tonic stress', or 'nucleus'. Tonic stress is almost always found in a content word in an utterance’s final position. Ex. Tonic syllable is underlined: I'm going.  I'm going to London.  I'm going to London for a holiday.
    10. 10. + Emphatic Stress  One reason to move the tonic stress from the final position is to assign an emphasis to a content word, usually a modal auxiliary, an intensifier, an adverb, etc.  Compare the following examples adapted from Roach (1983:144).  i. It was very BOring. (unmarked) ii. It was VEry boring. (emphatic)  i. You mustn't talk so LOUDly. (unmarked) ii. You MUSTN'T talk so loudly. (emphatic)
    11. 11. + Intensifying Adverbs and Modifiers  indeed  utterly  absolute  terrific  tremendous  awfully  terribly  great  grand  really  definitely  truly  literally  extremely  surely  completely  barely  entirely  very (adverb)  very (adjective)  quite  too  enough  pretty  far  especially  alone  only  own  -self
    12. 12. + Contrastive Stress  In contrastive contexts, any word or syllable can receive the tonic stress. Key word = contrast.  Consider the following examples:  a) Do you like this one or THAT one? b) I like THIS one.  Consider the following sentences and their meanings:  She played the piano yesterday. (It was her who...)  She played the piano yesterday. (She only played (not harmed) ...)  She played the piano yesterday. (It was the piano that...)  She played the piano yesterday. (It was yesterday...)
    13. 13. + New Information Stress  In a response given to a wh-question, the new information supplied is stressed.  a) What's your NAME b) My name's GEORGE.  a) Where are you FROM? b) I'm from WALES.  a) Where do you LIVE b) I live in BONN  a) When does the school term END b) It ends in MAY.  a) What do you DO b) I'm a STUdent.
    14. 14. + Tone
    15. 15. + Types of Tones fall low-rise high-rise fall-rise
    16. 16. + Example- Types of Tones
    17. 17. + Fall (A Falling Tone) signals a sense of finality, completion, belief in the content of the utterance, and so on. A speaker, with a falling tone, also indicates he is done speaking, and offers a chance (turn-taking) for the addressee to respond.  The choice to respond lies with the addressee
    18. 18. + Uses of Falling Tone Simple statements:  I'll report you to the HEADmaster Referring expressions:  I've spoken with the CLEAner. Questions that begin with wh-questions:  Where is the PENcil?  Imperative statements:  i) Go and see a DOCtor. ii) Take a SEAT.
    19. 19. + Uses of Falling Tone  Requests or orders:  i) Please sit DOWN ii) Call him IN. Exclamations: Watch OUT!  Yes/No questions and tag questions seeking or expecting confirmation:  a) You like it, DON'T you? b) YEES.  In a Yes/No question, speaker knows or assumes they know the answer:  a) Have you MET him? b) YES.
    20. 20. + Low Rise (A Rising Tone)  This tone is used in genuine 'Yes/No' questions where the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer, and that the addressee knows the answer.  Consider the following question uttered with a rising tone, the answer of which could be either of the three options:  A) Isn't he NICE?  B) i) Yes. ii) No. iii) I don't know.
    21. 21. + Low Rise Other examples which are uttered with a rising tone are:  Do you want some COFfee?  Do you take CREAM in your coffee?
    22. 22. + High Rise (A Rising Tone) If the tonic stress is uttered with higher pitch, we may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification, or indicating disbelief.  a) I'm taking up TAxidermy this autumn. b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification)  a) She passed her DRIving test. b) She PASSED? (disbelief)
    23. 23. + Fall Rise (followed by Fall)  Fall-rise signals dependency, continuity, and non- finality (Cruttenden, 1986:102)  Generally used in 'dependent' clauses such as those involving adverbs, subordinate clauses, compound sentences, and so on.  It generally occurs in sentence non-final intonation units.  Consider the following (the slash indicates a pause):  Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient.  A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE.  PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN.  Usually / he comes on SUNday.
    24. 24. + Combinations  Fall-rise + Low Rise  Typically this tone pattern involves a dependent clause followed by a Yes/No question.  If I HELPED you / would you try aGAIN?  Despite its DRAWbacks / do you favor it or NOT?  Fall + Fall  When the speaker expects or demands agreement  It's a bit TOO good to be true / ISN'T it?  When reinforcing w/ adverbials as an expression of after-thought.  Ann said she'd help as much as she COULD / NATUrally.
    25. 25. + Pitch and Pitch Range (Key)
    26. 26. + Pitch Range High Low
    27. 27. + High Pitch Used for  exclamation  contrastivity  the act of echoing/repeating –  may involve a genuine attempt to recover unrecognized, unheard information, or to indicate disbelief, disappointment and so on
    28. 28. + Low Pitch Co-reference, Appositives  used to indicate co-referential, additional or supplementary information. Non-defining Relative Clauses  non-defining relative clauses, parenthetical statements expressions of dis/agreement, reduced clauses etc. Statements of Opinion  short statements of opinion, involving clarification, certainty/uncertainty, are attached to propositional statements
    29. 29. + Questions?
    30. 30. + References “Teaching English Intonation to EFL/ESL Students” by Mehmet Celik.  Published in The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 12, December 2001  Available: Intonation.html