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  • 1. Does Listening to YourPreferred Music Genre Affect Your Task Persistence? By: Michelle Godzinski & Chelsea Perry
  • 2. Previous Research• Listening to Mozart’s music will increase spatial task performance. (Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky’s,1993)• Driving simulation with music (North and Hargreaves,1999) • Found participants performed better while listening to music
  • 3. Previous Research cont’d• Arousal, Mood and the Mozart Effect (Thompson, Schellenberg, and Husain, 2001) – Mozart sonata = heightened arousal and positive mood – Albinoni adagio = low arousal and a sad mood. – Differences in arousal and mood as well as enjoyment.• Success versus Failure (Feather, 1961) • More likely to be motivated on a task that is viewed as simple and is familiar to participants
  • 4. Purpose of Our Study• Examine whether a person’s musical genre preference has an influence on their visiospatial task persistence.• Hypotheses: – Participants will persist longer while listening to a music genre that they like in comparison to a genre that they do not like. – Participants will persist longer while listening to fast tempo music in comparison to slow tempo music and the no music applicable group. – Males will enjoy the harder forms of music (rock, hip-hop) significantly more than females • Females will enjoy more relaxing forms of music (country, pop) significantly more than males
  • 5. Independent Variables– Genre group: 3 levels – Gender of Participant: 2 levels • chosen genre group • male • assigned genre group • female • control group (no noise) – Music Tempo: 2 levels– Music Genre: 4 levels • fast • rock • slow • rap/hip-hop • pop • country
  • 6. Dependent Variables – Persistence on Task • Time – Enjoyment of Music Genre• 1 = not at all 2 = not very much 3 = neutral 4 = somewhat 5 = very much – Mood • Pre/Post
  • 7. Methods• 83 students attending Penn State Behrend – 36 Males, 47 Females• Mazes- 6 given in order of increasing difficulty• Music: participants were randomly assigned to one of five conditions – Songs: • (Slow) Gone Crazy by Alan Jackson • (Fast) Knee Deep by The Zac Brown Band
  • 8. Impossible Maze
  • 9. Procedure Informed Consent SurveysChosen Chosen Control Assigned AssignedGenre Genre Genre Genre Fast Slow Fast SlowTempo Tempo Tempo Tempo Maze Completio n Post Study Survey Debriefing
  • 10. Gender differences in Genre 5 Preference 4.5 4 3.5Reported Enjoyment 3 2.5 Males 2 Females 1.5 1 0.5 0 Hip-Hop Country Rock Pop Music Genre F (1, 78) = 6.03, p = .02
  • 11. Condition’s Effect on Mood Ratings 5 4.5 Mean Mood Scores 4 3.5 3 2.5 Pre Study 2 Post Study 1.5 1 Chosen Chosen Assigned Assigned Control Genre Genre Genre Genre Fast Slow Fast Slow Tempo Tempo Tempo Tempo F (4, 75) = 3.15, p = .02 F (1, 78) = 30.89, p <.001
  • 12. Condition’s Effect on Time 700 Persisted 600 500Time Persisted 400 300 Males Females 200 100 0 Chosen Genre Chosen Genre Assigned Assigned Control Fast Tempo Slow Tempo Genre Fast Genre Slow Tempo Tempo F (4, 70) = 2.52, p < .048
  • 13. Correlations Frequency of listening to N = 83 music while studying Frequency of listening to music in general .47** ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Frequency of Frequency ofN= Enjoyment of Enjoyment of listening to music in listening to music83 Hip-Hop music Country music general while studyingRockMusic .35** .26** .43** .39** ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  • 14. Conclusions• Primary hypothesis was supported. – Those who chose their music persisted longer• Fast versus Slow tempo difference• Gender differences• Limitations• Implications
  • 15. References• American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual (6th ed., pp. 233-234).• Washington, DC: Author.• Baumeister, R, & Tice, D. (1985). Self-esteem and responses to success and failure: Subsequent performance and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality, 53(3).• Carey, B. (2005, January 20). Life Science: Current News on Space, Animals, Technology, Health, Environment, Culture and History. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from Life Science: www.lifescience.com .• Cassidy, G.G. & MacDonald, R.A.R. (2010). The effects of music on time perception and performance of a driving game. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 51, 455-464.• Christenson, P.G. and Peterson, J.B. (1988) ‘Genre and gender in the structure of music preferences’, Communication Research 15(3): 282–301.• Curran, Shelly L.; Andrykowski, Michael A.; Studts, Jamie L. Psychological Assessment, Vol 7(1), Mar 1995, 80-83.• Dandeneau, S., & Baldwin, M. W. (2009). The buffering effects of rejection- Inhibiting attentional training on social performance thread among adult students. Contemporary Educational Psychology , 42-50.
  • 16. References cont’d• Feather, N. (1961). The relationship of persistence at a task to expectation of success and achievement related motives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63(3), 552-561.• Glassman, R.B, Leniek, K.M., Haegerich, T.M. (1998). Human working memory capacity is 7 ± 2 in a radial maze with distracting interruption: Possible implication for neural mechanisms of declarative and implicit long-term memory. Brain Research Bulletin, 47(3), 249-256. 10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00083-5.• Goldstein, D., Haldane, D., & Mitchell, C. (1990). Sex differences in visual-spatial ability: The role of performance factors. Memory & Cognition, 18(5), 546-550. 10.3758/BF03198487• Labbe`, E., Pharr, M., Babin, J., & Schmidt, N. (2007). Coping with stress: The effectiveness of different types of music. Applied PsychoPhysiology And Biofeedback , 163-168.• North, A. C., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1999). Music and driving game performance. Scadanavian Journal of Psychology, 40, 285-292• Pietschnig, J., Voracek, M., & Formann, A. K. (2010). Mozart effect–Shmozart effect: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 38, 314-323.• Piocuda, J. E. (2009). The Interaction between Music and Task Performance: The Tower of Hanoi & Missionaries and Cannibals (Masters thesis). 29 April Retrieved October 11, 2011, from PsychInfo.• Rauscher, F., & Shaw, G., & Ky, K. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365, 611.• Thompson, W. F. , Schellenberg, G.E., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect. Psychological Science, 248-251.
  • 17. Acknowledgments• We would like to thank Dr. Dawn Blasko for her help and guidance to make this project run smoothly. Also, we would like to thank Dr. Robert W. Light, Associate Dean of research for his contributions to the undergraduate research process through the grant program at Penn State Erie, the Behrend College.
  • 18. Questions?