Does Listening to YourPreferred Music Genre Affect Your Task Persistence? By: Michelle Godzinski & Chelsea Perry
Previous Research• Listening to Mozart’s music will increase spatial task performance. (Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky’s,1993)• Driving simulation with music (North and Hargreaves,1999) • Found participants performed better while listening to music
Previous Research cont’d• Arousal, Mood and the Mozart Effect (Thompson, Schellenberg, and Husain, 2001) – Mozart sonata = heightened arousal and positive mood – Albinoni adagio = low arousal and a sad mood. – Differences in arousal and mood as well as enjoyment.• Success versus Failure (Feather, 1961) • More likely to be motivated on a task that is viewed as simple and is familiar to participants
Purpose of Our Study• Examine whether a person’s musical genre preference has an influence on their visiospatial task persistence.• Hypotheses: – Participants will persist longer while listening to a music genre that they like in comparison to a genre that they do not like. – Participants will persist longer while listening to fast tempo music in comparison to slow tempo music and the no music applicable group. – Males will enjoy the harder forms of music (rock, hip-hop) significantly more than females • Females will enjoy more relaxing forms of music (country, pop) significantly more than males
Independent Variables– Genre group: 3 levels – Gender of Participant: 2 levels • chosen genre group • male • assigned genre group • female • control group (no noise) – Music Tempo: 2 levels– Music Genre: 4 levels • fast • rock • slow • rap/hip-hop • pop • country
Dependent Variables – Persistence on Task • Time – Enjoyment of Music Genre• 1 = not at all 2 = not very much 3 = neutral 4 = somewhat 5 = very much – Mood • Pre/Post
Methods• 83 students attending Penn State Behrend – 36 Males, 47 Females• Mazes- 6 given in order of increasing difficulty• Music: participants were randomly assigned to one of five conditions – Songs: • (Slow) Gone Crazy by Alan Jackson • (Fast) Knee Deep by The Zac Brown Band
Procedure Informed Consent SurveysChosen Chosen Control Assigned AssignedGenre Genre Genre Genre Fast Slow Fast SlowTempo Tempo Tempo Tempo Maze Completio n Post Study Survey Debriefing
Gender differences in Genre 5 Preference 4.5 4 3.5Reported Enjoyment 3 2.5 Males 2 Females 1.5 1 0.5 0 Hip-Hop Country Rock Pop Music Genre F (1, 78) = 6.03, p = .02
Condition’s Effect on Mood Ratings 5 4.5 Mean Mood Scores 4 3.5 3 2.5 Pre Study 2 Post Study 1.5 1 Chosen Chosen Assigned Assigned Control Genre Genre Genre Genre Fast Slow Fast Slow Tempo Tempo Tempo Tempo F (4, 75) = 3.15, p = .02 F (1, 78) = 30.89, p <.001
Condition’s Effect on Time 700 Persisted 600 500Time Persisted 400 300 Males Females 200 100 0 Chosen Genre Chosen Genre Assigned Assigned Control Fast Tempo Slow Tempo Genre Fast Genre Slow Tempo Tempo F (4, 70) = 2.52, p < .048
Correlations Frequency of listening to N = 83 music while studying Frequency of listening to music in general .47** ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Frequency of Frequency ofN= Enjoyment of Enjoyment of listening to music in listening to music83 Hip-Hop music Country music general while studyingRockMusic .35** .26** .43** .39** ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Conclusions• Primary hypothesis was supported. – Those who chose their music persisted longer• Fast versus Slow tempo difference• Gender differences• Limitations• Implications
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Acknowledgments• We would like to thank Dr. Dawn Blasko for her help and guidance to make this project run smoothly. Also, we would like to thank Dr. Robert W. Light, Associate Dean of research for his contributions to the undergraduate research process through the grant program at Penn State Erie, the Behrend College.