PROPORTION is getting the sizes of objects correct in relation to other objects in a composition.
Human proportions from a full frontal view. Vitruvian man by Leonardo Da Vinci
Dead Christ by Andrea Mantegna Foreshortening: Method of rendering a specific object or figure in a picture in depth. The artist records, in varying degrees, the distortion that is seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle.
Compare the proportions in these renderings of the human form. Observation is the key to finding and reproducing proper proportions in a drawing, this is especially true if foreshortening is necessary.
Observing and drawing the negative space surrounding the foreshortened form can help you properly draw objects at odd angles.
Try looking for basic shapes within the object you are drawing and draw them first. Be careful to draw the shapes as close to the correct size as possible.
Measuring with your pencil can help you determine proper proportions.
Hold your pencil straight out and use it to help you judge the size of the parts of what you are drawing. This lamp is as wide across the top as it is tall.
A viewfinder can be helpful in determining the composition of your drawing as well as providing a further division of space to help determine proportions.
Hold the viewfinder in front of you. Adjust how much or little of the scene before you will be in the composition by holding the viewfinder closer or farther away from your face.
Divide your page into quarters. Now you can begin to look at your composition as if you are dealing with four separate parts. The grid provides you with more shapes to consider. Getting each shape correct within the four different rectangles will give you a well proportioned drawing.
Begin by looking for simple shapes and work toward more complex proportions. Be sure to consider the negative space around the object. If you can capture the negative space, the chances are that you can also draw the object.
Continue to check relationships of different shapes to each other and to the straight edges of your paper and your grid.
Use this method to judge where details in the drawing go as well. You can see that I did not get this shape quite right in my drawing!
When you feel as though you have finished, use the grid to check your work. Are there any areas that need adjusting?