Unpacking net interactions for restoration & management

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The importance of basic facilitation ecology for restoration and management in arid and semi-arid ecosystems.

#unpackingecology for the live tweets.

Some ecological systems are very tightly packed or integrated.

The packing of interactions in many systems can be anchored by basal plant species.

The overarching hypothesis examined is that nurse-plants are the foundation species in dryland systems.

Shrubs provide an anchor for community assembly and restoration

The study of net interactions within communities is a novel opportunity for restoration.

However, one answer is not enough and we must explore trophic and indirect interactions within these systems.

Globally, there are studies of both mechanisms and trophic effects but limited examination of net interactions.

Locally, we have established a set of experiments to explore these important concepts to provide management tools.

Local management can trump global change effects in grasslands. Consequently, basal plant species can be keystone.

The maintenance of contemporary biodiversity & function in drylands


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Unpacking net interactions for restoration & management

  1. 1. Unpacking net interactions within communities to inform restoration & management. @cjlortie #unpackingecology
  2. 2. http://bit.ly/unpacking-ecointeractions
  3. 3. plant communities can be very well packed
  4. 4. some systems even more tightly packed with basal anchors
  5. 5. particularly in severe environments
  6. 6. important for many organisms in these systems arthropods
  7. 7. pollinators
  8. 8. small mammals
  9. 9. lizards
  10. 10. subordinate plant species
  11. 11. unpacking interactions
  12. 12. unpacking interactions = the directions
  13. 13. more broadly, community ecology has evolved
  14. 14. to incorporate more diverse sets of interactions Sotomayor & Lortie 2014
  15. 15. for instance, indirect interactions Sotomayor & Lortie 2014
  16. 16. integrated community concept 1000 studies on plant facilitation 4000 studies on plant competition but the real evolution
  17. 17. integrated community concept
  18. 18. The sum of all direct and indirect, positive and negative influences which change in a non-proportional manner along productivity gradients. net interactions
  19. 19. keystone
 
 module non-keystone
 
 module
  20. 20. + - diversity predator H L
  21. 21. use dominant plants in dryland ecosystems Filazzola & Lortie 2014 many mechanistic pathways, many interactors
  22. 22. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  23. 23. studied globally Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  24. 24. but not to unpack interactions nor examine restoration & management
  25. 25. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  26. 26. Summing up evidence: one answer is not always enough. Lau et al. 1998
  27. 27. progress to date globally
  28. 28. globally restoration & other trophic levels understudied Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  29. 29. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  30. 30. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  31. 31. Gomez-Aparicio et al. 2004 yet there is every indication that dominants can facilitate restoration efforts in Mediterranean Ecosystems including tree species
  32. 32. Gomez-Aparicio 2009 yet there is also every indication that dominants can facilitate restoration in degraded ecosystems globally
  33. 33. Ruttan & Lortie 2014 restoration not just through abiotic amelioration but
 through consumer pressures as well
  34. 34. very novel opportunities to capitalize on existing
 dominants within ecosystems for management
  35. 35. progress to date locally
  36. 36. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  37. 37. foundational research: map & describe effects
  38. 38. Lortie,Westphal, Filazzola 2014 in prep Panoche Hills Reserve Mojave National Preserve N = 1000 topological gradient soil moisture RDM seedbank scat Ephedra californica Larrea tridentata N = 800 elevational gradient soil moisture plants seedbank
  39. 39. Lortie et al. 2014 in prep Ephedra californica at Panoche Hills Reserve
  40. 40. Lortie et al. 2014 in prep
  41. 41. arthropods Spafford & Lortie 2013 Reid & Lortie 2012
  42. 42. arthropods Molenda & Lortie 2012
  43. 43. arthropods Reid & Lortie 2012 differential & more rapid accumulation of species with dominants dominant subordinates
  44. 44. arthropods Spafford & Lortie 2013 different species associated with dominants
  45. 45. seeds Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep Kelso Dunes, Mojave seeds 4 species
  46. 46. seeds ! ! Rii Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep germination 50 % germination
 rate
  47. 47. seeds Rii Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep germination ! ! source-sink dynamics
  48. 48. annuals shrub canopy removal to emulate human impacts on public lands Michalet, Lortie et al 2014 in review x
  49. 49. annuals Michalet, Lortie et al 2014 in review
  50. 50. next steps: entire shrub removal & addition track insects & animals x +
  51. 51. feeding trials with animal cams animals Filazzola, Liczner, Lamb,Westphal, & Lortie ongoing
  52. 52. animals Filazzola, Liczner, Lamb,Westphal, & Lortie ongoing
  53. 53. pollinators Ruttan & Lortie 2014 in prep
  54. 54. pollinators Ruttan & Lortie 2014 in prep magnet 
 hypothesis
  55. 55. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  56. 56. implications local management can trump global change effects Thebault, Lortie, et al. 2014
  57. 57. novel implications for range management magnet for indirect pollinators for crop 
 & species of interest refuge for target species & source-sink nodes
 in rangelands benefactors for tree species & key forage crops
  58. 58. excellent opportunity here to merge 
 simple facilitation ecology & restoration many dryland systems are degraded or facing significant impacts
  59. 59. perhaps not to restore to former status but maintain 
 appropriate contemporary function for biodiversity

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