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Unpacking net interactions for restoration & management
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Unpacking net interactions for restoration & management

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The importance of basic facilitation ecology for restoration and management in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. …

The importance of basic facilitation ecology for restoration and management in arid and semi-arid ecosystems.

#unpackingecology for the live tweets.

Some ecological systems are very tightly packed or integrated.

The packing of interactions in many systems can be anchored by basal plant species.

The overarching hypothesis examined is that nurse-plants are the foundation species in dryland systems.

Shrubs provide an anchor for community assembly and restoration

The study of net interactions within communities is a novel opportunity for restoration.

However, one answer is not enough and we must explore trophic and indirect interactions within these systems.

Globally, there are studies of both mechanisms and trophic effects but limited examination of net interactions.

Locally, we have established a set of experiments to explore these important concepts to provide management tools.

Local management can trump global change effects in grasslands. Consequently, basal plant species can be keystone.

The maintenance of contemporary biodiversity & function in drylands


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  • 1. Unpacking net interactions within communities to inform restoration & management. @cjlortie #unpackingecology
  • 2. http://bit.ly/unpacking-ecointeractions
  • 3. plant communities can be very well packed
  • 4. some systems even more tightly packed with basal anchors
  • 5. particularly in severe environments
  • 6. important for many organisms in these systems arthropods
  • 7. pollinators
  • 8. small mammals
  • 9. lizards
  • 10. subordinate plant species
  • 11. unpacking interactions
  • 12. unpacking interactions = the directions
  • 13. more broadly, community ecology has evolved
  • 14. to incorporate more diverse sets of interactions Sotomayor & Lortie 2014
  • 15. for instance, indirect interactions Sotomayor & Lortie 2014
  • 16. integrated community concept 1000 studies on plant facilitation 4000 studies on plant competition but the real evolution
  • 17. integrated community concept
  • 18. The sum of all direct and indirect, positive and negative influences which change in a non-proportional manner along productivity gradients. net interactions
  • 19. keystone
 
 module non-keystone
 
 module
  • 20. + - diversity predator H L
  • 21. use dominant plants in dryland ecosystems Filazzola & Lortie 2014 many mechanistic pathways, many interactors
  • 22. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  • 23. studied globally Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  • 24. but not to unpack interactions nor examine restoration & management
  • 25. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  • 26. Summing up evidence: one answer is not always enough. Lau et al. 1998
  • 27. progress to date globally
  • 28. globally restoration & other trophic levels understudied Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  • 29. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  • 30. Filazzola & Lortie 2014
  • 31. Gomez-Aparicio et al. 2004 yet there is every indication that dominants can facilitate restoration efforts in Mediterranean Ecosystems including tree species
  • 32. Gomez-Aparicio 2009 yet there is also every indication that dominants can facilitate restoration in degraded ecosystems globally
  • 33. Ruttan & Lortie 2014 restoration not just through abiotic amelioration but
 through consumer pressures as well
  • 34. very novel opportunities to capitalize on existing
 dominants within ecosystems for management
  • 35. progress to date locally
  • 36. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  • 37. foundational research: map & describe effects
  • 38. Lortie,Westphal, Filazzola 2014 in prep Panoche Hills Reserve Mojave National Preserve N = 1000 topological gradient soil moisture RDM seedbank scat Ephedra californica Larrea tridentata N = 800 elevational gradient soil moisture plants seedbank
  • 39. Lortie et al. 2014 in prep Ephedra californica at Panoche Hills Reserve
  • 40. Lortie et al. 2014 in prep
  • 41. arthropods Spafford & Lortie 2013 Reid & Lortie 2012
  • 42. arthropods Molenda & Lortie 2012
  • 43. arthropods Reid & Lortie 2012 differential & more rapid accumulation of species with dominants dominant subordinates
  • 44. arthropods Spafford & Lortie 2013 different species associated with dominants
  • 45. seeds Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep Kelso Dunes, Mojave seeds 4 species
  • 46. seeds ! ! Rii Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep germination 50 % germination
 rate
  • 47. seeds Rii Liczner & Lortie 2014 in prep germination ! ! source-sink dynamics
  • 48. annuals shrub canopy removal to emulate human impacts on public lands Michalet, Lortie et al 2014 in review x
  • 49. annuals Michalet, Lortie et al 2014 in review
  • 50. next steps: entire shrub removal & addition track insects & animals x +
  • 51. feeding trials with animal cams animals Filazzola, Liczner, Lamb,Westphal, & Lortie ongoing
  • 52. animals Filazzola, Liczner, Lamb,Westphal, & Lortie ongoing
  • 53. pollinators Ruttan & Lortie 2014 in prep
  • 54. pollinators Ruttan & Lortie 2014 in prep magnet 
 hypothesis
  • 55. direct indirect + - restoration
 management
 a b c d e pollinators
 (5) animals
 (20) annuals
 (400) seedbanks
 (25)
 arthropods (5) video
 sweeps tracking/trapping exclosures addition/removal surveys 
 density series addition/removal 
 surveys
 seed traps pan traps
 exclosures experimentstool trophic unpacking indirect contrasts
  • 56. implications local management can trump global change effects Thebault, Lortie, et al. 2014
  • 57. novel implications for range management magnet for indirect pollinators for crop 
 & species of interest refuge for target species & source-sink nodes
 in rangelands benefactors for tree species & key forage crops
  • 58. excellent opportunity here to merge 
 simple facilitation ecology & restoration many dryland systems are degraded or facing significant impacts
  • 59. perhaps not to restore to former status but maintain 
 appropriate contemporary function for biodiversity