The ecological detective lab manual for second year courses
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This is a revision to the second year ecology lab manual. More process is included. The implications and linkages of various sampling approaches are now directly discussed. Figures pasted in from Cain ...

This is a revision to the second year ecology lab manual. More process is included. The implications and linkages of various sampling approaches are now directly discussed. Figures pasted in from Cain el al Second Edtion

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The ecological detective lab manual for second year courses Document Transcript

  • 1. Biol2050 2 The ecological detective workbook. Ecology Lab Manual, Second Year Course. Nature is a wonderful mystery. In these labs, we explore some of the opportunities quantitatively to practice the art of detection and critical thinking for the natural sciences.
  • 2. Biol2050 3 Schedule & Resources All templates needed to complete the labs are posted on the course website. Please use them. The schedule is also listed on the course website and as a google calendar for your convenience. WK Lab 1 Introduction, logistics, group formation, & data skills. 2 Basic ecological sampling techniques. 3 Life-history field survey. 4 Population distribution & abundance field survey. 5 Competition field survey. 6 No labs. 7 Herbivory field survey. 8 Library science research skills workshop. 9 Simbio liebig's barrel virtual lab. 10 Simbio niche wars virtual lab. 11 Simbio top-down control virtual lab. 12 Library research skills follow-up lab.
  • 3. Biol2050 4 Purpose of the ecological detective exercises Learning outcomes: The primary objective of the labs is to provide you with experience collecting real, relevant data. Here are the learning outcomes from the activities we conduct in this course. 1. To become familiar with data collection. 2. To be able to analyze data and plot results. 3. To practice and refine scientific writing skills. 4. To be able to approach natural and human systems with an ecological perspective. To realize these objectives we will focus on 3 primary sets of skills. Skills: (1) Data collection, data entry, and data handling. (2) Statistics (t-test, One-way ANOVA, and correlation) and graphs. (3) Succinct scientific writing. Activities: The activities or exercises associated with these skills include fieldwork on YorkU campus, exercises in the lab, and writing. Products & evaluation: In these labs, you are responsible for generating the following products that will be used to provide feedback via evaluation. Lab reports from fieldwork x4 5% each. Library science assignment 5% Report on simbio labs 5% Total 30%
  • 4. Biol2050 5 WK1. Introduction, logistics, group formation, & data skills. Location: Meet in the lab. Tasks: Form groups, discuss lab structure with teaching assistant, and discuss data handling with teaching assistant. Products: Familiarity with Excel, campus map, and structure of labs in course. Description 1. In this lab, please work with the teaching assistant to form small groups of 4-5 individuals. Please ensure that at least one person in the lab has a laptop and is comfortable entering the data for the group and letting others look over their shoulder in the simbio virtual lab weeks. 2. The teaching assistant will explain the structure of the term in detail and how to prepare for the labs. 3. Familiarity with Excel is necessary for the labs. The templates for data entry are on the course website. Please download them. If you are not familiar with Excel, please let the teaching assistant know now. She/he will give a brief tutorial on how to use formulas, generate random number tables, and potentially even do basic statistics. 4. There are four field labs wherein we collect data on the plants & animals on York University Campus. Please take a moment to review the map and discuss the different types of habitats present on campus. Excel elements to master Columns versus rows. Formulas Random number tables Sheets Meta-data sheet http://spreadsheets.about.com/od/excel101/ss/enter_data.htm
  • 5. Biol2050 6 YorkU campus As you can see, there are four small woodlots on campus. Two of these woodlots are impacted by the TTC subway extension. Boyer’s Woodlot is the most studied on campus and is located just north of Lumbers. However, the woodlot just north of Pond Rd now has a tunnel underneath it. There are several large meadows on campus. The largest is just West of Black Creek and South of the tennis centre. However, there are numerous other meadows or old fields on campus. Finally, there are several other habitats on campus that may be very important to invertebrates, squirrels, and some bird species as they are disturbed with lot’s of food. Let’s also explore and sample these.
  • 6. Biol2050 7 Quick statistics primer for ecology. In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. The phrase ‘test of significance’, like so much in modern statistics, was coined by Ronald Fisher "Critical tests of this kind may be called tests of significance, and when such tests are available we may discover whether a second sample is or is not significantly different from the first."[1] Statistical significance is different from the standard use of the term "significance," which suggests that something is important or meaningful. For example, a study that included tens of thousands of participants might be able to say with very great confidence that people of one race are more intelligent than people of another race by 1/20th of an IQ point. This result would be statistically significant, but the difference is so small as to be completely unimportant. Many researchers urge that tests of significance always be accompanied by effect size statistics, which approximate the size and practical importance of the difference. The amount of evidence required to accept that an event is unlikely to have arisen by chance is known as the significance level or critical p-value: in traditional frequentist statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value is the frequency or probability with which the observed event would occur, if the null hypothesis were true. If the obtained p-value is smaller than the significance level, then the null hypothesis is rejected. In simple cases, the significance level is defined as the probability that a decision to reject the null hypothesis will be made when it is in fact true and should not have been rejected: a "false positive" or Type I error. More typically, the significance level of a test is such that the probability of mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis is no more than the stated probability. This allows for cases where the probability of deciding to reject may be much smaller than the significance level for some sets of assumptions encompassed within the null hypothesis. The significance level is usually denoted by the Greek symbol, α (alpha). Popular levels of significance are 5% (0.05), 1% (0.01) and 0.1% (0.001). If a test of significance gives a p-value lower than the α-level, the null hypothesis is rejected. Such results are informally referred to as 'statistically significant'. For example, if someone argues that "there's only one chance in a thousand this could have happened by coincidence," a 0.001 level of statistical significance is being implied. The lower the significance level, the stronger the evidence being required. Interpretations Statistical error: Type I and Type II Statisticians speak of two significant sorts of statistical error. The context is that there is a "null hypothesis" which corresponds to a presumed default "state of nature", e.g., that an individual is free of disease, that an accused is innocent, or that a potential login candidate is not authorized. Corresponding to the null hypothesis is an "alternative hypothesis" which corresponds to the opposite situation, that is, that the individual has the disease, that the accused is guilty, or that the login candidate is an authorized user. The goal is to determine accurately if the null hypothesis can be discarded in favor of the alternative. A test of some sort is conducted (a blood test, a legal trial, a login attempt), and data are obtained. The result of the test may be negative (that is, it does not indicate disease, guilt, or authorized identity). On the other hand, it may be positive (that is, it may indicate disease, guilt, or identity). If the result of the test does not correspond with the actual state of nature, then an error has occurred, but if the result of the test corresponds with the actual state of nature, then a correct decision has been made. There are two kinds of error, classified as "Type I error" and "Type II error," depending upon which hypothesis has incorrectly been identified as the true state of nature. Type I error Type I error, also known as an "error of the first kind", an α error, or a "false positive": the error of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true. Plainly speaking, it occurs when we are observing a difference
  • 7. Biol2050 8 when in truth there is none. An example of this would be if a test shows that a woman is pregnant when in reality she is not. Type I error can be viewed as the error of excessive skepticism. Type II error Type II error, also known as an "error of the second kind", a β error, or a "false negative": the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact not true. In other words, this is the error of failing to observe a difference when in truth there is one. An example of this would be if a test shows that a woman is not pregnant when in reality she is. Type II error can be viewed as the error of excessive credulity. See Various proposals for further extension, below, for additional terminology. Understanding Type I and Type II errors When an observer makes a Type I error in evaluating a sample against its parent population, they are mistakenly thinking that a statistical difference exists when in truth there is no statistical difference (or, to put another way, the null hypothesis should not be rejected but was mistakenly rejected). For example, imagine that a pregnancy test has produced a "positive" result (indicating that the woman taking the test is pregnant); if the woman is actually not pregnant though, then we say the test produced a "false positive". A Type II error, or a "false negative", is the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is the true state of nature. For example, a type II error occurs if a pregnancy test reports "negative" when the woman is, in fact, pregnant. From the Bayesian point of view, a type one error is one that looks at information that should not substantially change one's prior estimate of probability, but does. A type two error is that one looks at information which should change one's estimate, but does not. (Though the null hypothesis is not quite the same thing as one's prior estimate, rather it is one's pro forma prior estimate.) Common statistical tests in ecology Correlation In statistics, correlation (often measured as a correlation coefficient, ρ) indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables. That is in contrast with the usage of the term in colloquial speech, which denotes any relationship, not necessarily linear. In general statistical usage, correlation or co-relation refers to the departure of two random variables from independence. In this broad sense there are several coefficients, measuring the degree of correlation, adapted to the nature of the data. Several authors have offered guidelines for the interpretation of a correlation coefficient. Cohen (1988) has observed, however, that all such criteria are in some ways arbitrary and should not be observed too strictly. This is because the interpretation of a correlation coefficient depends on the context and purposes. A correlation of 0.9 may be very low if one is verifying a physical law using high-quality instruments, but may be regarded as very high in the social sciences where there may be a greater contribution from complicating factors. Along this vein, it is important to remember that "large" and "small" should not be taken as synonyms for "good" and "bad" in terms of determining that a correlation is of a certain size. For example, a correlation of 1.0 or −1.0 indicates that the two variables analyzed are equivalent modulo scaling. Scientifically, this more frequently indicates a trivial result than a profound one. For example, consider discovering a correlation of 1.0 between how many feet tall a group of people are and the number of inches from the bottom of their feet to the top of their heads. Correlation Negative Positive Small −0.3 to −0.1 0.1 to 0.3 Medium −0.5 to −0.3 0.3 to 0.5 Large −1.0 to −0.5 0.5 to 1.0
  • 8. Biol2050 9 T-tests A t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t distribution if the null hypothesis is true. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known. When the scaling term is unknown and is replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test statistic (under certain conditions) follows a Student's t distribution. Among the most frequently used t-tests are: * A one-sample location test of whether the mean of a normally distributed population has a value specified in a null hypothesis. * A two sample location test of the null hypothesis that the means of two normally distributed populations are equal. All such tests are usually called Student's t-tests, though strictly speaking that name should only be used if the variances of the two populations are also assumed to be equal; the form of the test used when this assumption is dropped is sometimes called Welch's t-test. These tests are often referred to as "unpaired" or "independent samples" t-tests, as they are typically applied when the statistical units underlying the two samples being compared are non-overlapping. * A test of the null hypothesis that the difference between two responses measured on the same statistical unit has a mean value of zero. For example, suppose we measure the size of a cancer patient's tumor before and after a treatment. If the treatment is effective, we expect the tumor size for many of the patients to be smaller following the treatment. This is often referred to as the "paired" or "repeated measures" t-test:[5][6] see paired difference test. * A test of whether the slope of a regression line differs significantly from 0. Two sample t-tests for a difference in mean can be either unpaired or paired. The unpaired, or "independent samples" t-test is used when two separate independent and identically distributed samples are obtained, one from each of the two populations being compared. For example, suppose we are evaluating the effect of a medical treatment, and we enroll 100 eligible subjects into our study, then randomize 50 subjects to the treatment group and 50 subjects to the control group. In this case, we have two independent samples and would use the unpaired form of the t-test. The randomization is not essential here — if we contacted 100 people by phone and obtained each person's age and gender, and then used a two-sample t-test to see whether the mean ages differ by gender, this would also be an independent samples t-test, even though the data are observational. Dependent samples (or "paired") t-tests typically consist of a sample of matched pairs of similar units, or one group of units that has been tested twice (a "repeated measures" t-test). A typical example of the repeated measures t-test would be where subjects are tested prior to a treatment, say for high blood pressure, and the same subjects are tested again after treatment with a blood-pressure lowering medication. A dependent t-test based on a "matched-pairs sample" results from an unpaired sample that is subsequently used to form a paired sample, by using additional variables that were measured along with the variable of interest [8]. The matching is carried out by identifying pairs of values consisting of one observation from each of the two samples, where the pair is similar in terms of other measured variables. This approach is often used in observational studies to reduce or eliminate the effects of confounding factors. Suppose students in a particular school are given the opportunity to receive after-school mathematics tutoring. If only a fraction of the students complete the tutoring program, one might wish to evaluate the effectiveness of the program by comparing the students who did and who did not complete the program, using scores on a standardized test given after the program is finished. A difficulty is that the students who completed the tutoring program may already have differed in mathematical achievement before the tutoring program began. To reduce the confounding effect of baseline mathematical achievement, one can attempt to match each subject who completed the tutoring program to a subject who did not, matching on the students' mathematics grades from the previous semester. If we then
  • 9. Biol2050 10 compare the students within matched pairs using a paired t-test, baseline mathematical knowledge should have little effect on the results. Note that a paired data set can always be analyzed using the unpaired or paired versions of the t-test, but an unpaired dataset must be analyzed using the unpaired t-test unless some form of pairing can be defined. An ideal pairing takes the form of blocking. For example, when comparing pre-treatment and post-treatment blood pressure within individuals, characteristics such as age and gender which are unrelated to the treatment but that may affect blood pressure do not affect the results of the paired t-test. In this case, the paired t-test will have greater power than the unpaired test. A different situation arises when following the matched-pairs strategy, where the goal is to reduce confounding. The cost of matching to reduce confounding is usually a reduction in power. ANOVAs In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. In its simplest form ANOVA gives a statistical test of whether the means of several groups are all equal, and therefore generalizes Student's two-sample t-test to more than two groups. In practice, there are several types of ANOVA depending on the number of treatments and the way they are applied to the subjects in the experiment: * One-way ANOVA is used to test for differences among two or more independent groups. Typically, however, the one-way ANOVA is used to test for differences among at least three groups, since the two- group case can be covered by a T-test (Gossett, 1908). When there are only two means to compare, the T-test and the F-test are equivalent; the relation between ANOVA and t is given by F = t2. * One-way ANOVA for repeated measures is used when the subjects are subjected to repeated measures; this means that the same subjects are used for each treatment. Note that this method can be subject to carryover effects. * Factorial ANOVA is used when the experimenter wants to study the effects of two or more treatment variables. The most commonly used type of factorial ANOVA is the 22 (read "two by two") design, where there are two independent variables and each variable has two levels or distinct values. However, such use of Anova for analysis of 2k factorial designs and fractional factorial designs is "confusing and makes little sense"; instead it is suggested to refer the value of the effect divided by its standard error to a T- table.[1] Factorial ANOVA can also be multi-level such as 33, etc. or higher order such as 2×2×2, etc. but analyses with higher numbers of factors are rarely done by hand because the calculations are lengthy. However, since the introduction of data analytic software, the utilization of higher order designs and analyses has become quite common. * Mixed-design ANOVA. When one wishes to test two or more independent groups subjecting the subjects to repeated measures, one may perform a factorial mixed-design ANOVA, in which one factor is a between-subjects variable and the other is within-subjects variable. This is a type of mixed-effect model. * Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is used when there is more than one dependent variable. All this information is available online including wikipedia and various statistics primers, freely available. Selected text reprinted from wikipedia, i.e. what you need to know for this ecology course.
  • 10. Biol2050 11 Quick primer on effective writing in ecology. Here is a quick template for you to consider that parallels the lecture on critical thinking. The main goal here is to give you a very clear idea of how ecological studies are communicated. Title page. List your name, have an informative title, list the date, and put the course information. Abstract. This is a short, 300 word summary of the entire paper. Usually it is 1-2 general sentences from each section of the paper (introduction, methods, results, discussion). The final sentence should be the picture significance or relevance of the study. Introduction. This is a single paragraph in this course. It is broad and introduces the relevant ideas to the topic, the final sentences state what you will test in this study. Methods. In a single paragraph with no citations, state the ‘relevant’ information so that someone could repeat the study. Results. Here the main findings are listed in direct, simple language and the figure is cited. Do not start sentences with Table 1 shows that… just state the finding directly and cite the table or figure. For instance, ‘The addition of water increased degree of branching in this species (Figure 1).’ Discussion. Do not repeat the results here. In a single paragraph, state ‘What it means’ in ecology is usually one of the following. Supports/differs from previous studies on this topic. Relevance to theory or hypotheses. Relevance to management. Explain why you found the pattern you detected and what it means. Literature Cited. List the sources that you cite throughout the paper. See formatting below. Formatting for citations. In the text use the following style: Basically state your fact and cite your source by listing the number in parenthesis in the order they occur in the paper. For this course, do not cite the textbook. Three citations are needed per report. Example: In a previous study, tree height was related to insect damage (1). Formatting for literature cited. In the list of references, the following usage should be conformed to: Journal 1. Haila, Y. and Järvinen, O. 1983. Land bird communities on a Finnish island: species impoverishment and abundance patterns. - Oikos 41: 255-273. 2. etc.. If more than two authors: Lindsay, A. et al. 2000. Are plant populations seed-limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. - Oikos 88: 225-238.
  • 11. Biol2050 12 WK2. Basic ecological sampling techniques. 230-3pm. Get equipment and get into groups. 3-4pm. Teaching assistant will explain equipment and demonstrate the sampling techniques. 4-530pm. Practice in your groups each of the sampling techniques. The big picture is that sampling natural systems in a structured repeatable way is critical for ecologists. We need to understand patterns in diversity, structure, and composition of systems before we can effectively manage them or infer important processes that make them look and function the way they do. This is the most important set of skills necessary for research. Today, you will do one set of sampling techniques in each of the three major habitat types on campus. Visit a forest, grassland, and human open-space. These techniques are fundamental to ecology. Group work: As groups, practice running transects, setting up quadrats, and doing bird observations. In touring campus, consider the disturbances, management practices, and potential reasons that some sites are meadows, others forest, while others more anthropogenic sites. All have potential ecological function and value and provide habitats for various species – even the more human-impacts locations. This week is your opportunity to look around campus with new eyes. Transect sampling is best used for plants, seeds, or individuals in general that are dispersed widely at various scales or when you seek to quantify patterns along greater areas. Quadrat sampling is best used for higher resolution data but is more sensitive to location of the sampling and less potential area is sampled (albeit in greater detail). This method does work well for slow moving invertebrates and various other point processes like seeds and plants. Point Counts are used to track changes in breeding bird abundances over time or make comparisons between sites with similar habitats by conducting point counts. Ecologists and ornithologists favor point counts because they are objective, standardized, reputable, and least biased of the methods. They provide us with a comparative index of occurrence, not a complete inventory. Points are laid out at regular intervals along a transect, and the surveyor spends a certain amount of time at each point and records all birds detected during the time period within a specific radius. Transects are also used for birds and imaginary lines drawn through the site to be surveyed (unlike in plant sampling where a tape is used). The surveyor simply follows the transect or transects through the site, recording all birds detected along the way. The surveyor should cover the transect in the same amount of time on each visit. A transect provides a "snapshot", an index of abundance of birds at a site. Skills: 1. Set up a transect in a grassland, forest, & human area. Try sampling at various intervals, measuring distance to the nearest plant, and identifying species very quickly. 2. Set up a quadrat in each habitat and try again to sample plant abundance and diversity. Count the total number of plants or insects you see and count the number of different species of each as well. 3. Set up a 50m point count area (circle that is 50m in diameter) in each habitat and count birds for 5 mins. Try to identify the bird species as well. 4. Use the field guides provided to generate a list of 3 of the most common grass/herb/forb species, trees, and birds and provide to the teaching assistant. NOTE – this week is basically a practice week to get a feel for how to sample in later labs. As such, use the datasheets right in this lab manual to practice data collection and recording. We do not need this data for lab reports but it is an opportunity to think quantitatively on how to structure observations in the field. Resources:
  • 12. Biol2050 13 1. Thompson, K., Austin, K. C., Smith, R. M., Warren, P. H., Angold, P. G. and Gaston, K. J. 2003. Urban domestic gardens (I): putting small-scale plant diversity in context. Journal of Vegetation Science 14: 71- 78. 2. Sperling, C.D., and C.J. Lortie. 2010. The importance of urban backgardens on plant and invertebrate recruitment: a field microcosm experiment. Urban Ecosystems 13: 223-235. 3. Marcheselli, M. 2002. Assessing the biotic distance between groups of biological populations by means of replicated counts. Environmetrics 13: 215-223. Summary of sampling approaches explored herein. Plants Measure individual plants. Height, number of leaves, branches, count fruits or flowers. Useful for life- history mysteries. Transects or quadrats to record abundance or diversity for population & community-level mysteries. Birds Observation for length of time or within a certain area. Insects If crawling, quadrats, rings or transects are appropriate. If flying, sweep nets or observation for certain time or for a certain area. For both, use a smartphone and record a certain field of field for a fixed period of time.
  • 13. Biol2050 14 Quick identification primer for plants on YorkU campus. BRING WITH YOU TO LABS. In the following pages, a short list of the common species that you will see on campus and a dichotomous tree guide is also included. These lists are based on the plants spotted lurking on campus in the past few years however there will be many, many more.
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  • 17. Biol2050 18 Tree leaf key. Coniferous trees (leaves needle-like) 1. (a) Leaves (needles) singly placed, no clusters – go to 2 (b) Leaves (needles) in clusters – go to 3 (c) Leaves not needles but flat, horizontal scales in 4 rows. Shoots flattened and complex, and yellowish green… eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) 2. (a) Leaves (needles) flat, blunt tipped, short stalked, 8-15mm in length, 2 white bands on undersurface of leaf; slender twigs; seed cones avoid 12-20mm in length…eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)(KM, VC). (b) Leaves (needles) flat; blunt tipped, stalkless, 15-25mm in length, 2 white bands on undersurface of leaf; strong balsam odour when crushed; stout twigs; seed cones erect, barrel shaped, 4-10cm in length… balsam fir (Abies balsamea) (VC) (c) Leaves (needles) not flat, four-sided, pointed tip. White spruce (Picea glauca)(KM). 3. (a) 5 leaves per cluster, leaves flexible (do not snap when bent); seed cones cylindrical, 8-20cm in length… eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)(KM,VC) (b) 2 leaves per cluster, leaves brittle (break when bent); seed cones ovoid, 4-7cm in length… red pine (Pinus resinosa)(VC) (c) 15-60 needles per cluster or tuft… Tamarack or larch (Larix laricina) Note: this may be European Larch Deciduous trees 1. (a) Leaves compound (i.e. the blade is divided into separate parts or leaflets. If you are not sure what a compound leaf looks like, check the diagrams; the leaflets will be attached to a green midrib, not a woody stem) – go to 2 (b) Leaves simple (i.e. the blade not divided into separate leaflets) – go to 6 2. (a) Leaves (not leaflets) are opposite – go to 3 (b) Leaves (not leaflets) are alternate – go to 5 3. (a) Leaflets oval to lanceolate, 7-12mm long, 2.5-7.5cm wide, 5-11 leaflets per leaf… ash – go to 4 (b) 3-9 leaflets, irregularly toothed or lobed, often asymmetrical, underside of leaf grey-green; twigs covered with waxy whitish bloom (powder) that can be rubbed off … Manitoba maple (Acer negundo)(VC) 4 (a) Leaflets hairless, except along the veins, leaflets have long stalks; twigs smooth and shiny; bark ridged, ridges forming a diamond-like surface pattern, particularly at the base of the trunk … white ash (Fraxinus americana)(KM, VC) (b) Underside of leaf and twigs densely hairy, leaflets had short stalks; bark ridged, ridges forming a diamond-like surface pattern, particularly at the base of the trunk… red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)(KM, VC)
  • 18. Biol2050 19 5 (a) Leaflets are narrow and pointed, sharply toothed. 11 to 31 leafltes per leaf, almost stalkless; twigs and underside of leaves very hairy; shurb or very small tree, fruit and fall leaves are crimson… staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)(KM) (b) Leaflets are narrow, long-pointed and get bigger towards the leaf tip. 7-11 leaflets. Twig bud is sulphur yellow… Bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) 6 (a) Leaves with lateral veins curving forward and following the margin to the leaf tip – go to 7 (b) Leaves with lateral veins extending directly towards the leaf margin or slightly curving forward, but to not follow the margin or reach the leaf tip – go to 8 7 (a) Leaves sub-opposite (opposite but not quite aligned), ovate, finely toothed, 3-5 veins per side, some dwarf shoots end in a thorn … European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)(VC) (b) Leaves alternate (only one leaf per node), ovate, smooth margin, slightly pubescent underneath, 8 or 9 pairs of veins … glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula)(VC) (c) Leaves alternate with slightly wavy margins. Leaves may appear opposite or whorled on short twigs. Terminal bud very small. Twigs shiny reddish… Alternate leaved dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) (If you are unsure of leaf arrangement, look at the leaves that are closest to the tip of the twig, if it is still unclear, check the bud arrangement.) 8. (a) Leaves opposite (leaves occurring in pairs at node) – go to 9 (b) Leaves alternate (only one leaf per node) – go to 11 (If you are unsure of leaf arrangement, look at the leaves that are closest to the tip of the twig, if it is still unclear, check the bud arrangement.) 9. Leaves with 3 to 5 lobes; twigs smooth (no thorns); leaves long stalked; fruits, winged seeds … maples – go to 10 10. (a) Leaves 3-lobed, teeth fine and regular; bark green with conspicuous vertical white stripes…striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum)(KM,VC) (b) Leaves with 3 or 5 lobes with Sharp irregular teeth, V-shaped notches between lobes; bark grey-brown separated into scaly ridges which may be loose at edges … red maple (Acer rubrum)(KM,VC) (c) 5 lobes, with long blunt-pointed tips and a few irregular wavy teeth, U-shaped notches between lobes; bark may be fissured into long, thick irregular strips that appear to break outward along one side … sugar maple (Acer saccharum)(KM,VC) (d) 5-7 lobes with coarse, sharp, irregular teeth. Leaves silvery-white beneath… silver maple (Acer saccharinum) 11. (a) Leaves lobed… oaks – go to 12 (b) Leaves with a smooth or toothed margin, not lobed – go to 13 12. (a) Lobes pointed at ends, separated by rounded notches… red oak (Quercus rubra)(KM,VC)
  • 19. Biol2050 20 (b) Lobes rounded at ends, separated by deeply cut rounded notches … white oak (Quercus alba)(KM) (c) Leaves broader at end with large terminal lobe, hairy underneath…. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) 13. (a) Base of leaf very asymmetrical – go to 14 (b) Base of leaf symmetrical – go to 16 14. (a) Leaf heart-shaped, sharp toothed, 12-15cm long and almost twice as wide, tufts of hair in the axils of the veins; twigs hairless … basswood (Tilia americana) (KM,VC) (b) Leaves not heart-shaped …elms – go to 15 15 (a) Lenticels prominent on twigs; leaves fragrant, several forked veins per leaf; twigs hairy… slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)(VC) (b) Lenticels inconspicuous, twigs hairless or slightly hairy; 15-20 veins per side, no more than 2 or 3 of which are forked… American elm (Ulmus americana)(KM,VC) 16. (a) Length of leaf stalk greater than half the length of the leaf blade – go to 17 (b) Length of leaf stalk less than half the length of the leaf blade – go to 18 17. (a) Leaves vary from egg-shaped with a short tip to oval, with blunt tip, large uneven teeth that curve inwards, stalk flattened, shorter than the length of the leaf blade; twigs are moderately stout, dull, may be hairy with orange lenticels (markings) … bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)(VC) (b) Leaves egg-shaped tapering to a long sharp tip; leaf stalk about half the length of the leaf and round in cross section (roll between thumb and forefinger to check this); warty glands may be present at leaf base; twigs stout and smooth… balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) (VC) (c) Leaves nearly heart-shaped with short sharp tip, short sharp irregular teeth rounded base; hairless flattened stalk usually longer that the leaf blade; twigs slender, shiny, round in cross-section; lenticels oval …trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)(VC) 18. (a) Lateral veins do not extend to leaf margin – go to 19 (b) Lateral veins do extend to leaf margin – go to 24 (If you are unsure whether or not the lateral veins extend to the leaf margin, then assume that they do not) 19. (a) Glands at base of leaf … cherries – go to 20 (b) No glands at base of leaf – go to 21 20. (a) Leaves lanceolate, gradually tapering to both ends, sharp-pointed, upper surface of leaf shiny, bright green, teeth sharp incurved, undersurface of leaf hairy on both sides of midvein… black cherry (Prunus serotina)(VC)
  • 20. Biol2050 21 (b) Broadly oval to widest above the middles of the leaf, tapers abruptly to both ends, upper surface a leaf dull green, sharp-toothed, 4-5 teeth per vein, lower surface hairless, except for occasional tufts of hair at the vein junctions… choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)(VC) 21. (a) No stipules at base of stalk – go to 22 (b) Bearing stipules at base of stalk…willows – go to 23 22. Leaves oval to round, finely and regularly toothed, usually less than 8cm long, veins straight and parallel; bark conspicuously marked by a network of twisted vertical lines; shrub or small tree; berries fleshy and purplish… serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.)(KM) 23. (a) Leaves narrow elliptical, tapering to both ends, smooth or wavy margin, upper surface of leaf dull green and wrinkled, undersurface covered with white hairs… bebb willow (Salix bebbiana)(VC) (b) Leaves oval, rounded base, short teeth, uppersurface dark green; odour of balsam from bruised leaves and twigs… balsam willow (Salix pyrifolia)(VC) 24. (a) One tooth per vein, straight-veined, 9-14 veins per side, leaves narrowly oval with a leathery texture, upper surface dark bluish-green. Beech(Fagus grandifolia)(KM,VC) (b) Several teeth between the veins – go to 25 25. (a) Bark paper-like, with conspicuous horizontal markings… birch -go to 26 (b) Bark not paper-like, may be smooth, shaggy, ridged or scaly – go to 27 26. (a) Leaves triangular or ovate; base of leaf tootheless for 1 cm on either side of stalk; double-toothed, 9 veins or fewer per side, each ending in a large tooth; smooth thin reddish- brown on young stems, becoming creamy white with maturity, conspicuous horizontal lenticels on young bark… white birch (Betula papyrifera)(KM, VC) (b) Leaves triangular or ovate; base of leaf toothless for 1cm on either side of stalk; double-toothed, 9 veins or fewer per side, each ending in a large tooth; smooth thin reddish- brown when you, becoming yellowish-grey or bronze with maturity … yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)(KM, VC) (If you are confused, look at the upper part of the tree; if it is white, or white with grey, call it white birch) 27. If tree has thorns go to 28, otherwise (a) Leaves oval, thick textured, veins deeply impressed above, with veinlets forming a ladder-like pattern; smooth reddish-brown bark with conspicuous orange horizontal markings; usually a coarse shrub with crooked trunks, but may be a small crooked tree … speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. Rugosa)(VC) (b) Leaves elongate with rounded base, smooth texture, soft and fragile; bark shaggy breaks up into narrow vertical strips that are loose at both ends and can be easily removed… ironwood (Ostrya virginiana) (KM, VC) (c) Twigs smooth, greenish, 4-sided. Leaves oval, 5-12 cm long, pointed, finely toothed… spindle tree (Euonymous SP.) 28. Small tree with long, sharp thorns… hawthorns (Crataegus spp.)
  • 21. Biol2050 22 Common plant species lists in meadows and old fields. Trees and shrubs Russian-Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) ( ornamental tree) Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Willow (Salix spp.) Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Herbaceous species Aster (Aster spp.) Goldenrod (Solidago spp.) Graminoids (grasses) Common Milkweed (Asclepias syrica) Queen Anne's Lace (Daucus carota) Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Thistle (Sonchus spp. or Cirsium spp.) Sweet White Clover ( Melilotus alba) Common Plantain (Plantago major) Vetch (Vicia spp.) Raspberry (Rubus spp.) Common St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Hawkweed (Hieracium spp.) Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) Common Mullein ( Verbascum thapsus) Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) Aven (Geum spp.) Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) Woodlots Trees and shrubs Alternate-leaf Dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) American Elm (Ulmus americana) Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Balsam Willow (Salix pyrifolia ) Basswood (Tilia americana) Bebb Willow (Salix bebbiana) Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) European Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) Glossy Buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) Ironwood (Ostrya virginiana) Larch (Larix laricina) Manitoba Maple (Acer negundo) Red Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.) Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Speckled Alder (Alnus incana ssp. Rugosa)
  • 22. Biol2050 23 Spindle-tree (Euonymus spp.) (not in key) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) White Birch (Betula papyrifera) White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis) White Oak (Quercus alba) White Pine (Pinus strobus) White Spruce (Picea glauca) Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis) Herbaceous species Bramble (Rubus spp.) Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) Clearweed (Pilea pumila) Enchanter's Nightshade(Circaea quadrisulcata) Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Graminoids (grasses) Grapevine (Vitis spp.) Herb Robert (Geranium robertianum) Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum) Nettle (Urtica spp.) New England Aster (Aster novae-angliae) Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Rough Avens (Geum virginianum) Sedge (Carex spp.) Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Violet (Viola spp.) Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum)
  • 23. Biol2050 24 PLANT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation TREES - TRANSECT METHOD Length of transect: 25m, Width on either side of the transect 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAME) # individuals TOTAL
  • 24. Biol2050 25 PLANT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time: Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific site name: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation HERBS/FORBS - QUADRAT SAMPLING Length of transect: 1m X 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAMES) # of individuals % Cover TOTAL
  • 25. Biol2050 26 PLANT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time: Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation HERBS/FORBS - TRANSECT METHOD Length of transect: 25m (touching transect) Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAMES) # individuals TOTAL
  • 26. Biol2050 27 For the bird sampling, you should record the following conditions. BRING WITH YOU TO LABS.
  • 27. Biol2050 28 Common bird species in Toronto List of common birds Cooper's Hawk Northern Mockingbird Baltimore Orioles American Goldfinch American Robins Sharp Shinned Hawks Swainson's Thrush Belted Kingfishers Warbling Red eyed Vireos Cedar Waxwings Black capped Chickadees Gray Catbird Ruby throated Hummingbirds Mourning Doves Blue Jays Northern Cardinals Downy Woodpecker Brown headed Cowbird Red breasted Nuthatch Blue Gray Gnatcatcher Purple Martin Tree Cliff & N. Rough Winged Swallows Chimney Swift Song Sparrow Black Crowned Night Heron Great Blue Heron House Sparrow Rock Pigeon Common Nighthawk Ring Billed Gull & Herring Gull Warbler species Yellow Common Yellowthroat Tennessee Chestnut sided Nashville Magnolia Blackburnian Bay breasted Blackpoll Black and white Connecticut Cape May Black throated Blue Yellow rumped Black throated Green American Redstart Ovenbird Fly Catchers Olive sided Yellow bellied Willow/Alder Least Great Crested Eastern Wood Pewee Eastern Kingbird See field guides for pictures and detailed keys.
  • 28. Biol2050 29 For the bird sampling, you should do a map of where you spot the birds within the 50m circle. Include important structures or objects that you are within the sampling area. Draw a point, trace where it goes, and label it with a species name. 50m Date & time: Last names of group members: Latitude: Longitude: Habitat (circle the one): forest, grassland, human open-space. Specific name of site: Weather conditions including wind: Total # of birds spotted: Total # of bird species spotted: List of species names: * This same sheet should be used for small mammals you might spot.
  • 29. Biol2050 30 ANIMAL DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time : Last names of group members : Habitat (circle one) : Forest, Grassland, Human disturbed open-space Specific name of site : Latitude : Longitude : Elevation : Lab Habitat Site Rep Taxa Species name Density Method Ex lamarque Disturbed Library Lane 1 Aves Branta canadensis 4 Transect
  • 30. Biol2050 31 Common invertebrate species in Toronto. BRING WITH YOU TO LABS. Major groups Dragonflies and damselflies - Order Odonata - These insects are good indicators of healthy freshwater habitats as they will disappear when water becomes polluted. Adults eat mosquitoes and other insects. Mayflies - order Ephemeroptera - These are small insects that spend most of their lives in the water. Adults emerge in great numbers but live only for a day. Mayflies are an important food source for many fish. Grasshoppers, mantises and crickets - order Orthoptera. Many insects of this order produce sounds by rubbing body parts together. Bugs - order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera - These are the true bugs; their lower lip is modified into a sucking tube that the insect inserts into plant or animal tissues in order to feed. Aphids and plant hoppers are bugs. Butterflies and moths - order Lepidoptera - These are the familiar beautiful insects that we readily welcome to our gardens. Besides being beautiful to look at, they are important pollinators. Beetles - order Coleoptera - This order includes the familiar June beetle, ladybird beetle and fireflies. Beetles are also pollinators but play an extremely important role in the recycling of animal dung and dead animals. Flies - order Diptera - True flies have a single pair of wings; their hind wings are reduced to stalked knobs called halteres that they use to keep their stability while flying. Flies are important pollinators and also feed on dead carcasses so that nutrients are recycled back into the environment. Ants, wasps and bees - order Hymenoptera - We are all familiar with these insects and often consider them to be a nuisance. However, they are important pollinators of many of our agricultural plants including apples, tomatoes, beans, peas, oilseed and fibre crops. Here are some fantastic digital insect keys. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/ejournal.html http://www.discoverlife.org/ http://bugguide.net/node/view/15740 All free and online. So, collect samples then look up on laptops/smartphones/tablets.
  • 31. Biol2050 32 Key to the local insect orders. Hein Bijlmakers. 2012. When you want to identify an insect the first step is to find out in which Order it is classified. For this you can use a dichotomous key. A dichotomous key is a tool that uses paired statements or questions to guide you to the solution. To use the key it will be necessary to have a good hand lens and you should be familiar with the terminology used for the different parts of an insect body. If you don't know a word or term, please have a look in the glossary. To use the key, start at the top and compare statements 1a and 1b. Select the statement that describes your insect specimen and continue with the number indicated on the right (click the number to jump to the next statement). Identification keys are a good starting point, but you should realize that there are hundred thousands of insect species in this world and among them there is a lot of variation. The keys cannot cover all this variation. When you have reached a solution, always double check the result by reading a detailed description of the insect Order. 1a Insect with wings 2 (but the forewings could be partly or entirely stiffened as 'wing-covers' or 'wing-cases' and are not used for flying) 1b Insect without wings 32 (but there could be remnants of wings resembling small scales or pads) 2a Insect with one pair of wings 3 2b Insect with two pairs of wings 9 3a The dorsal surface of the prothorax extends backwards over the abdomen; the hind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect looks grasshopper-like in general appearance Orthoptera 3b Insect different 4 4a The wings are horny or leathery (stiff or rigid) and are not used for flying 5 4b The wings are membranous (flexible) and are used for flying 6 5a The wings overlap at least a little in the centre-line and with obvious veins present Phasmida 5b The wings (elytra) meet in the centre-line (sometimes they are fused together) and without veins (note that the elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae but these should not be confused with veins) Coleoptera 6a The abdomen has one or more long terminal appendages 7 6b The abdomen is without terminal appendages 8 7a The wings have only one forked vein; antennae are relatively long; small insect usually less than 5 mm long Hemiptera 7b The wings have many veins; antennae are short; larger insect Ephemeroptera 8a The thorax has a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) situated just in front of the wings Strepsiptera
  • 32. Biol2050 33 8b The thorax has a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) lying just behind the wings (these halteres may be hidden by body hairs and other structures) Diptera 9a The forewings are partly or entirely horny or leathery and form stiffened covers for the membranous hindwings 10 9b Both pairs of wings are membranous (flexible) and used for flying (sometimes the wings are feather-like rather than membranous or their membranous nature may be obscured by a covering of hairs, scales or waxy powder) 16 10a The mouth-parts form a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) which is used for piercing and sucking (this rostrum is usually folded backwards under the body when not in use) Hemiptera 10b The mouth-parts have jaws (mandibles) and are designed for biting and chewing 11 11a The forewings overlap at least a little in the centre- line and usually with many veins present 12 11b The forewings (elytra) meet in the centre-line and have no veins (note that the elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae but these should not be confused with veins) 14 12a The hind-legs are enlarged and modified for jumping; insect looks like a grasshopper in general appearance Orthoptera 12b The hind-legs are not modified for jumping and are usually similar in thickness to the middle-legs; insect is not grasshopper-like 13 13a The prothorax is much larger than the head; cerci nearly always many-segmented and fairly prominent Dictyoptera 13b Prothorax and head are of similar size; cerci are not segmented and very short Phasmida 14a The forewings (elytra) are long and cover all or most of the abdomen Coleoptera 14b The forewings (elytra) are short and much of the abdomen remains exposed 15 15a The abdomen has a pair of terminal pincers or forceps Dermaptera 15b The abdomen has no terminal pincers Coleoptera 16a The wings are very narrow without veins and fringed with long hairs (feather-like); tarsi are 1- or 2- segmented; small slender insect often found in flowers Thysanoptera
  • 33. Biol2050 34 16b The wings broader with veins present; if wings are fringed with long hairs then tarsi are comprised of more than 2 segments (the wing veins of some insects may be much reduced and hardly visible or partly obscured by hairs, scales or waxy powder) 17 17a The hindwings are clearly smaller than the forewings 18 17b Both pairs of wings are similar in size or hindwings larger than forewings 26 18a Wings and much of the body covered with white waxy powder; tiny insect usually less than 2-3 mm long 19 18b Without powdery covering 20 19a When at rest the wings are held flat over the body; the mouth-parts form a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (this rostrum is usually folded backwards under the body when not in use) Hemiptera 19b When at rest the wings are held roof-wise over the body; the mouth-parts have jaws (mandibles) and are designed for biting Neuroptera 20a The wings are more or less covered with very small scales; the mouth-parts when present are forming a coiled proboscis or 'tongue' Lepidoptera 20b The wings are usually transparent (wings without scales but often hairy); the mouth-parts are not forming a coiled proboscis 21 21a The forewings have many cross-veins making a network pattern; the abdomen has 2 or 3 long thread-like terminal appendages Ephemeroptera 21b The forewings show relatively few cross-veins; the abdomen is usually without or with only very short terminal appendages (cerci) 22 22a The wings are noticeably covered with hairs; insect looks moth-like in general appearance Trichoptera 22b The wings are not noticeably hairy (but wings may be fringed with hairs or tiny surface hairs may be seen if wings are inspected under a microscope or strong hand-lens) 23 23a The mouth-parts form a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (usually the rostrum is folded backwards under the body when not in use; the abdomen sometimes has tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) Hemiptera 23b The mouth-parts has jaws (mandibles) and are designed for biting and chewing 24 24a The tarsi are 4- or 5-segmented; hard-bodied insects with the abdomen often constricted at its base into a petiole or narrow 'waist' Hymenoptera
  • 34. Biol2050 35 24b The tarsi are 2- or 3-segmented; small soft-bodied insect 25 25a Antennae with at least 12 segments Psocoptera 25b Antennae with only 9 segments Zoraptera 26a The tarsi are 5-segmented 27 26b The tarsi are 3- or 4-segmented 29 27a The wings are noticeably covered with hairs; insect is moth-like in general appearance Trichoptera 27b The wings are not noticeably hairy (but tiny hairs may be seen if the wings are observed under a microscope or with a strong hand-lens) 28 28a The front of the head is extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tip Mecoptera 28b Insect without such a beak-like extension of the head Neuroptera 29a The tarsi are 4-segmented Isoptera 29b The tarsi are 3-segmented 30 30a The wings are noticeably hairy; the front tarsi are with the first segment greatly swollen Embioptera 30b The wings are not noticeably hairy; the front tarsi are simple 31 31a The wings have many cross-veins, which makes a network pattern; wings are held away from the body at rest (either outstretched or folded vertically); the antennae are short and inconspicuous Odonata 31b The wings have relatively few cross-veins and are folded flat over the body when at rest; the antennae are long and slender (longer than the width of the head) Plecoptera 32a Small soft-bodied insect which lives on terrestrial plants with the body encased under a protective shield ('scale') or the body is partly covered with white waxy filaments or powder Hemiptera 32b Insect different 33 33a Thoracic legs are absent or enclosed in a membrane preventing any movement (Larvae and pupae of most Orders of Endopterygota) 33b Thoracic legs are present and fully functional 34 34a The abdomen has false-legs or prolegs (prolegs are fleshy leg-like structures that are different from and additional to the jointed legs of the thorax); the insect looks like a caterpillar in general appearance 35 34b The abdomen has no prolegs; the insect is not caterpillar-like in appearance 37
  • 35. Biol2050 36 35a Abdomen with not more than 5 pairs of prolegs Larvae of Lepidoptera 35b Abdomen has at least 6 pairs of prolegs 36 36a The head has a single small eye (ocellus) on each side Larvae of Hymenoptera 36b The head has several small eyes (ocelli) on each side Larvae of Mecoptera 37a The insect lives in a terrestrial habitat or on the surface of water (not underwater) 38 37b The insect is truly aquatic (living underwater) 70 38a The abdomen has cerci or other terminal appendages (but be careful not to confuse terminal hairs or bristles with cerci) 39 38b The abdomen does not have such terminal appendages (but it may have small appendages on proximal segments or a pair of tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) 56 39a The abdomen has 6 or fewer segments; usually the abdomen has a forked terminal appendage (springing organ) folded under the rear end when not in use Collembola 39b The abdomen has more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more are clearly visible); the terminal appendages are of a different form 40 40a The antennae are short and often inconspicuous (the same length as the head or shorter) 41 40b The antennae are long and conspicuous (usually they are much longer than the head) 42 41a The tarsi have at least 3 segments (usually they are 5-segmented) Phasmida 41b The tarsi have fewer than 3 segments (often they are reduced to single or paired claws on the end of each leg) Larvae of Coleoptera 42a The hind-legs are enlarged and modified for jumping; insect looks like a grasshopper in general appearance Orthoptera 42b The hind-legs are not modified for jumping; usually the hind-legs are similar in thickness to the middle- legs; insect does not look grasshopper-like 43 43a The terminal appendages of the abdomen form a pair of pincers or forceps 44 43b The terminal appendages of the abdomen are different 45 44a The tarsi are 3-segmented Dermaptera 44b The tarsi are 1-segmented Diplura
  • 36. Biol2050 37 45a The terminal appendages of the abdomen are long (much more than half the length of the abdomen) 46 45b The terminal appendages of the abdomen are short (less than half the length of the abdomen) 48 46a The abdomen has 3 terminal appendages (these are a paired cerci and a median filament) Thysanura 46b The abdomen has only 2 terminal appendages (cerci) 47 47a The tarsi are 3-segmented; the terminal appendages of the abdomen (cerci) are unsegmented Dermaptera 47b The tarsi are 1-segmented; the terminal appendages of the abdomen (cerci) are many-segmented Diplura 48a The tarsi are usually 5-segmented (but sometimes fewer on regenerated legs of Phasmida) 49 48b The tarsi have fewer than 5 segments on all legs 52 49a The front of the head is extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tip Mecoptera 49b Insect without such a beak-like extension of the head 50 50a The prothorax is much larger than the head Dictyoptera 50b The prothorax and head are of similar size (the prothorax is at most only a little bit larger than the head) 51 51a The cerci are 8-segmented and are moderately long Grylloblattodea 51b The cerci are unsegmented and are very short Phasmida 52a The tarsi are usually 4-segmented Isoptera 52b The tarsi have fewer than 4 segments 53 53a The tarsi are 1-segmented Diplura 53b The tarsi are 2- or 3-segmented 54 54a The tarsi are 2-segmented Zoraptera 54b The tarsi are 3-segmented 55 55a The front tarsi have a first segment which is greatly swollen; the cerci are 2-segmented Embioptera 55b The front tarsi are not swollen; the cerci are unsegmented Phasmida 56a The insect lives as a parasite on a warm-blooded animal or it is closely associated with such an animal (for example it lives on the body or in the nest or den of a bird or mammal) 57 56b The insect is not parasitic on a warm-blooded animal 61 57a The insect body is flattened from side to side; Siphonaptera
  • 37. Biol2050 38 jumping insect 57b The insect body is flattened from top to bottom 58 58a The head is partly withdrawn into the thorax 59 58b The head is not withdrawn into the thorax 60 59a The antennae are short and inconspicuous (they are much shorter than the head); legs with strong and distinctly hooked tarsal claws Diptera 59b The antennae are long and conspicuous (they are more than twice the length of the head); legs have small and only slightly curved tarsal claws Hemiptera 60a At least the prothorax is distinct from the other thoracic segments; the legs have small tarsal claws; the mouth-parts have jaws (mandibles) and are designed for biting Mallophaga 60b All the thoracic segments are fused into a single unit; the legs have large tarsal claws which can close tightly against the legs; the mouth-parts form a tube-like proboscis for piercing and sucking (this proboscis is retracted within the head when not in use) Siphunculata 61a Insect without antennae (very small soil-living insects usually less than 2 mm long) Protura 61b Antennae are present 62 62a The abdomen is strongly constricted at its base into a narrow petiole or 'waist'; the antennae are often bent into an elbowed shape Hymenoptera 62b The abdomen is not constricted into a 'waist'; the antennae are more or less straight 63 63a The body is covered with dense scales and flattened hairs Lepidoptera 63b The body is bare or with sparse bristle-like hairs 64 64a The mouth-parts form a tube-like proboscis or rostrum for piercing and/or sucking (this proboscis is usually folded backwards under the head when not in use) 65 64b The mouth-parts are with jaws (mandibles) and designed for biting and/or chewing 67 65a The tarsi are usually 5-segmented Diptera 65b The tarsi have fewer than 5 segments 66 66a The proboscis is small and cone shaped (it is much shorter in length than the head) (small slender insect often found in flowers) Thysanoptera 66b The proboscis or rostrum is long and jointed (it is nearly always longer than the head) (abdomen sometimes with tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) Hemiptera
  • 38. Biol2050 39 67a The antennae are short and often inconspicuous (length of the antennae is at most about the same length as the head) 68 67b The antennae are long and conspicuous (they are much longer than the head) 69 68a The abdomen has 6 or fewer segments Collembola 68b The abdomen has more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more segments are clearly visible) (Larvae of various Orders) 69a The head is narrower than the body; the mandibles are very long and protruding forward well in front of the head (the mandibles are clearly visible from above) Larvae of Neuroptera 69b The head is as wide or nearly as wide as the body; the mandibles are small and not protruding in front of the head (they are not visible from above) Psocoptera 70a The mouth-parts with a tube-like 'beak' or with long stylets and are designed for piercing and sucking 71 70b The mouth-parts have jaws (mandibles) and are designed for biting and/or chewing 72 71a The mouth-parts form a robust tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) folded backwards under the body when not in use Hemiptera 71b The mouth-parts form a pair of long and slender stylets extending more or less straight forward in front of the head between the antennae and about as long or longer than the antennae Larvae of Neuroptera 72a Head has a hinged grasping organ (or 'mask') that can stick out; this organ bears large terminal claws (normally it is folded beneath the head when not in use) Nymphs of Odonata 72b No hinged grasping organ or 'mask' beneath the head 73 73a The abdomen has pairs of feather-like or flat plate- like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and 3 long terminal appendages (paired cerci and a median filament) Nymphs of Ephemeroptera 73b Insects without this combination of features 74 74a The abdomen is without lateral appendages but with 2 long terminal appendages (cerci); the antennae are long and slender (they are much longer than the head) Nymphs of Plecoptera 74b Insects without this combination of features 75 75a The abdomen has pairs of multi-jointed feather-like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and sometimes a single terminal appendage Larvae of Neuroptera
  • 39. Biol2050 40 75b The abdomen is without lateral appendages (gill filaments) or if such appendages are present then they are always unjointed 76 76a The last abdominal segment has a pair of fleshy appendages each bearing a strong claw; the middle- and hind-legs are longer than the width of the thorax; the body is often enclosed in a tubular case made from small pebbles or other debris Larvae of Trichoptera 76b Insects without this combination of features Larvae of Coleoptera
  • 40. Biol2050 41 Detailed insect species list 1. Bees and Wasps European Paper Wasp (Polistes dominulus) German Yellowjacket (Vespula germanica) Paper Wasp (Polistes sp.) Bald-faced Hornet (Vespula maculata) Large Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa virginica) Green Metallic Bee (Agapostemon virescens) 2. Beetles Pennsylvania Leather-wing (Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus) Blister Beetle (Meloe sp.) Milkweed Beetle (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus) Locust Borer (Megacyllene robiniae) 3. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Cicadas Carolina Grasshopper (Dissosteira carolina) Tree Cricket (Oecanthus sp.) Field Cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus) Dogday cicada (Tibicen canicularis) 4. True Bugs Small Eastern Milkweed Bug (Lygaens kalmis) Scarlet-and-green Leafhopper (Graphocephala coccinea) Meadow Spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius) 5. Flies Green Bottle Fly (Phaenicia spp.) Drone fly (Eristalis tenax) 6. Butterflies Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa) Comma (Polygonia comma) Compton Tortoiseshell (Nymphalis vaualbum) Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) White Admiral (Limenitis arthemis) Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme ) Common Sulphur (Colias philodice ) Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) Monarch (Danaus plexippus) Eastern Tailed-Blue (Everes comyntas) Pearly Eye (Enodia anthedon ) Large Wood Nymph (Cercyonis pegala) Acadian Hairstreak (Satyrium acadica) Least Skipper (Ancloxopha numitor) 7. Dragonflies and Damselflies Variable dancer (Argia fumipennis) Ebony Jewelwing (Calopteryx maculata) Eastern Forktail (Ischnura verticalis) Ruby Meadowhawk (Sympetrum rubicundulum) Meadowhawk sp. (Sympetrum sp.) Band-winged Meadowfly (Sympetrum semicinctum) Blue Dasher (Pachydiplax longipennis) Common Baskettail (Tetragoneuria cynosura) Common Green Darner (Anax junius) Calico Pennant (Celithemis elisa) Common Whitetail (Libellula lydia) Twelve-spotted Skimmer (Libellula pulchella) Eastern Pondhawk (Erythemis simplicicollis) 8. Spiders Garden Spider (Araneus diadematus) Three-spotted Jumping Spider (Phidippus audax) Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus) Black-footed Spider (Cheiracanthium mildei)
  • 41. Biol2050 42 For the bug sampling, you should do a map of where you spot the critters within the 50cm circle. Include important structures or objects that you are within the sampling area. Draw a point, trace where it goes, and label it with a species name. 50cm Date & time: Last names of group members: Latitude: Longitude: Habitat (circle the one): forest, grassland, human open-space. Specific name of site: Weather conditions including wind: Total # of bugs spotted: Total # of bug species spotted: List of species names:
  • 42. Biol2050 43 INSECT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation INSECT WALKING OR SWEEP NET TRANSECT Length of transect: 25m, Width on either side of the transect 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAME) # individuals
  • 43. Biol2050 44 INSECT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation INSECT STATIONARY QUADRAT Quadrat 1m X 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAME) # individuals
  • 44. Biol2050 45 INSECT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation INSECT WALKING TRANSECT ***VACUUM*** Length of transect: 25m, Width on either side of the transect 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAME) # individuals
  • 45. Biol2050 46 INSECT DATA SHEET TA: Date & Time Last names of group members: Habitat (circle one): forest, grassland, human disturbed open-space Specific name of site: Latitude: Longitude: Elevation INSECT STATIONARY QUADRAT - ***VACUUM*** Quadrat 1m X 1m Rep (1, 2, or 3) Species (LATIN NAME) # individuals
  • 46. Biol2050 47 Smartphone sampling for animals (bugs & animals) Ipod nanos (4 th gen), iphones, and almost all smart phones, tablets, and laptops now have relatively high- resolution cameras. This is fantastic opportunity to document and record or capture animals in action. During the lab, do at last one 30 sec minimum video and post a link to it on the blog as a comment. It could be as simple as an insect crawling on a leaf or surface. Try to have the field of view be tight so that we can identify the organism at least to order. Resources: 1. Lortie, C.J., A.E. Budden, and A.M. Reid. 2012. The birds and the bees: applying video observation techniques from avian behavioural ecology to invertebrate pollinators. Journal of Pollination Ecology 6: 125-128.
  • 47. Biol2050 48 WK3. Life-history field survey. Location: Meet in the lab to get equipment. Then, head outside to the sites you have been assigned to collect data. Tasks: Collect data on individuals of various plant species to explore trade-offs. Products: A single excel file from the group for each representative life-history strategy. Mystery: Why do trait patterns vary within and between species? Ancillary mystery: Does this variation match the places that each of these species is found? This week, collect data on three plant species at each of the three major habitat types we identified on campus: grasslands, forest, and human-impacted open spaces. We are testing the hypothesis that each of these potential habitat types on campus matches up to the different life-history strategies we studied in lecture. This is testing the ancillary mystery listed above. The primary mystery is best answered by simply examining trade-offs within species. We will not be measuring seed mass in this lab but instead measure plant height for ten replicates of each of the species in each habit. Estimate reproductive output for each species either by counting number of seed heads, flowers, etc. depending the species you collect. For the tree species, simply select a representative branch and estimate reproductive output for that branch.
  • 48. Biol2050 49 Description Group work: Similar to last week, however this time it is for real! Your task is to collect data for three plant species (x 10 replicates per species) at each of three major habitat types (each for 45minutes). Select whatever species has evidence of reproductive output, look it up quickly for plant identification and/or collect a voucher specimen or take a picture, and complete the Excel template file provided online. In essence, you are measuring height, growth form, and reproductive output. Each group is ultimately responsible for generating an Excel file. To address the mystery above, answer the following questions in your lab report (i.e. discuss and test them). Is there evidence that more disturbed habitats have plant species present that are smaller, faster growing, with a different reproductive strategy? Is there evidence of trade-offs within and/or between species, i.e. within species A
  • 49. Biol2050 50 when it is larger does it produce more/less progeny? Do the differences within species, i.e. small ones versus big ones vary systematically? These are fascinating questions that are still debated in plant ecology. Select any one of them for your lab reports. Skills: 1. Understand the sampling techniques associated with individuals. 2. Identify several plant species. 3. Field data collection. 4. Become familiar with contrasts within and between species and how ecologists seek patterns in datasets (practiced most in the analyses and write-up of your lab report). Resources: 1. Readings from textbook (CH7). 2. Find one more paper in a peer-reviewed journal on this topic, i.e. find a paper on trade-offs in plants. Report: Select one of the two mysteries listed and answer appropriate questions by writing report using the lab report template.
  • 50. Biol2050 51 WK4. Population distribution and abundance. Location: Meet in the lab to get equipment. Then, head outside to the sites you have been assigned to collect data. Tasks: Collect diversity and abundance pattern data on plants and/or insects on YorkU campus. Products: A single Excel file as a group with all the data you collect entered. Mystery: Why are populations dynamic in space & time? Ancillary: Are the abiotic effects more important than the biotic effects in generating these dynamics? There are at least 3 salient elements to consider for this mystery. The abundance (number of individuals within a species), distribution (how are they arranged in space), and the diversity (number of different species within a sampling area) are the three most common measures. Abundance This is the simplest measure. It is usually scaled to density (the number of individuals for a species within a certain/fixed area). If the exact same sampling regime is used, i.e. a 1m quadrat for all your sampling events, then the number of individuals can be used as the response variable. However, more commonly the number of individuals is divided by the total area sampled to provide an estimate of density. Distribution The simplest distribution measure at the local scale is distance between individuals. This is done by recording the distance between a set of individuals within a quadrat or along a transect, taking the mean value, and comparing between locations.
  • 51. Biol2050 52
  • 52. Biol2050 53 Diversity Similar to the abundance estimates, a quadrat or transect is used to record the number of different plant or insect species spotted within the defined area (i.e. within the quadrat or along the length of transect walked whilst sweeping or observing insects). Description Group work: Your task is to collect data for one plant and one set of insect population at each of three major habitat types (each for 45minutes). Please complete the data sheets templates provided online. To solve this mystery, consider addressing one of the following questions in your lab report. Is the abundance of plant species different between the three habitats? If so, why? Why might the distribution of plants or insects vary within each or between each habitat? Does the number of other species influence the abundance,
  • 53. Biol2050 54 density, or mean distance between individuals of the plant or insect species you studied? For fun, is there any relationship between the population measures of the insects and the plants within each habitat? Skills: 1. Understand the difference between abundance, local distributions, and diversity. 2. Be able to contrast population-level patterns between habitats or species. 3. Be able to estimate population dynamics at local scales and link to the environment or biotic interactions. Resources: 1. Readings from textbook (CH8). 2. Find one more paper in a peer-reviewed journal on this topic. Specific sampling regimes: 1. Insects. Delineate a 2m x 2m area and do 3x10 minute observations for insects at each site (abundance). Rotate group members. Whilst several individuals do observation, other members should set up the long tape and do walk-through surveys for 10 minute intervals and record distance where an insect was observed or sweep netted (distribution). This involves walking in a straight line (or as best you can) on the transect and recording everything you can see within that time period). Use online template sheet for this approach (not the circle sheet). Do your best to select an insect species that is easy to identiy for these two measures (i.e. for simplicity use a functional group like bees, flies, butterflies, etc.). Remember this is a population level estimate (i.e. for single insect species). For the diversity factor, pick a group member to record the total number of different insects observed within the sampling area or on the transect. 2. To sample plants in grassland and human open area, use quadrats. Please quadrat in vegetation; select a plant species, record total number of individuals within quadrat. Before you move the quadrat, use small tape and measure distance between 3 individuals of your species and also record the total number of different plant species within the quadrat. Repeat quadrat sampling 3 times at each site. 3. To sample plants in the forest, use the trees. Lay out the long tape, walk 20-50m, and record the target plant species you have selected, i.e. Norway Maples. Abundance is the sum of all individuals of your single species on the transect. Also, please record distance you spot your target tree species (distribution), and the total number of different tree species on the transect (diversity). Note – You are welcome to substitute birds for insects in this lab and same exactly the same way.
  • 54. Biol2050 55 WK5. Competition field survey. Location: Meet in the lab to get equipment. Then, head outside to the sites you have been assigned to collect data. Tasks: Collect density and target performance plant data on YorkU campus. Products: A single Excel file for density dependence and target performance. Mystery: Why is there often no single winner in nature? Ancillary: Is intra-species competition more important than inter-specific competition. Competition in plants is the most facile estimate to execute to explore this mystery. There are the following two primary methods to do this: tests for density dependence and tests with and without neighbours. Density dependence The number of individuals per species per unit area is plotted on the x-axis and a response variable such as mean plant height on the y-axis. This tests for intra-specific density dependence, i.e. when there are more individuals of a species packed in, do they individually, per capita, do less well? To test for inter- specific density dependence, the density of one species is plotted against the other. Similar to the plot below but with species A on one axis and species B on the other. With and without neighbours Another simple test for competition is the contrast of the performance of an individual species with or without neighbours. This can be generated via manipulation, i.e. all neighbours removed by researcher, or naturally in the field, i.e. select an individual with fewer to none within immediate vicinity and measure its performance such as height, width, or biomass.
  • 55. Biol2050 56 Description Group work: Your task is to collect data on the density and performance of one plant species at each of the three major habitat types (each for 45minutes). Please use the online data sheets. In the grassland and open area, place a quadrat in the vegetation. Select a single plant species. Record the number of individuals of that species within the quadrat (intra-specific competition). Also, record the total density of all other plant species pooled within the quadrat (inter-specific competition). Ideally, we would prefer a patch of the species growing by itself and not with other species however you can test the effect of each density measure on its height. Measure the height of 3 representative individuals within each quadrat. At the forest site, lay out the transect tape, and record the number of trees of the species you select, total density of all trees on the tape (excluding your species), and measure the diameter at breast height (dbh) for 3 representative individuals of your species (instead of height). Hence, at least three contrasts are possible with these data. Density of all other species versus target species, density of target species against mean height/dbh within quadrat, and density of all other species against mean height/dbh. To collect the with and without neighbour contrasts, search within the area for 3 individuals of your target species growing on its own, i.e. without neighbours within a reasonable distance. Record height/dbh of those individuals. You can then reuse the mean height/dbh from your density sampling as the ‘with’ neighbours contrast. To explore this mystery, consider the following questions. Is there evidence for competition in each habitat? Is intra-specific competition more important than inter-specific. Do trees manifest competition in the same way as herb/forbs/grasses? For fun, is without neighbours an effective test for competition, i.e. is it a good control for absence of competition? Skills: 1. Understand the difference between intra-specific and inter-specific competition.
  • 56. Biol2050 57 2. Appreciate the strengths of density dependence sampling and without neighbours. 3. Be able to test for competition in plants via surveys in the field. Resources: 1. Readings from textbook (CH11). 2. Find one more paper in a peer-reviewed journal on this topic, i.e. find a paper on urban bird counts.
  • 57. Biol2050 58 WK7. Herbivory field survey. Location: Meet in the lab to get equipment. Then, head outside to the sites you have been assigned to collect data. Tasks: Record leaf damage on tree leaves. Products: A single Excel file for leaf damage on trees. Mystery: Why is the world green? Ancillary: Does herbivory control species more than the environment? Top-down versus bottom-up control is explored in detail in the simbio lab later in the term. However, in the field this is a fascinating mystery that relates to invasion biology, community dynamics, fitness, and most other major topics in ecology. Importantly, variation in damage between years has the capacity to generate long-term population dynamics that have lead to some of the most compelling exampling of cyclical patterns in species in nature. In our exploration of this mystery, a very tractable approach is used. Leaf collection of different tree species and measurement of tree size (dbh) and distance to nearest neighbouring tree species. Description Group work: Your task is to collect data on the leaf damage associated with three different species. Please use the online data sheets. Inspect 20 leaves on 10 different trees for 3 different species of trees. For each tree measured, also record dbh and distance to nearest tree. For each leaf, please estimate total leaf damage and also record the type of damage evident – i.e. does it look like chewing, mould, etc. Remember we want to assess whether herbivory relates to or has the capacity to control a species performance or abundance. I recommend you use the same tree species you sampled in the population distribution and abundance lab as you could link the extent of damage to the abundances you previously measured. If
  • 58. Biol2050 59 time permits, collect some of the damaged leaves and measure the extent of damage to leaves directly with a ruler. To explore this mystery, consider the following questions. Does extent of leaf damage relate to plant size? Does extent of damage vary significantly between tree species? Does extent of damage relate to the abundance of the species you recorded? Does the distance to the nearest tree change any of these relationships or does it relate to the damage? Skills: 1. Understand the difference between top-down and bottom-up control. 2. Be able to explain how herbivory can impact plant species. 3. Be able to link herbivory patterns to the ecology of a habitat. Resources: 1. Readings from textbook (CH12). 2. Find one more paper in a peer-reviewed journal on this topic, i.e. find a paper on leaf damage in trees.
  • 59. Biol2050 60 WK8. Library science research skills workshop. Location: In computer labs booked and managed through science library. Tasks: Complete exercise and this form worth 5%. Products: Complete this form. Exercise Record Article Citation: a. Examine the introduction and record keywords for the topics that are covered in the article. b. What is the point of the article, i.e. why was this study undertaken, what uncertainties, gaps in knowledge etc. warranted further research to be conducted in this area? (paraphrase in your own words) c. What are the researcher’s main questions? (Summarize each question in a separate sentence) d. Examine the Results and interpret the results in the light of your own background understanding, knowledge and logic. Record any questions that arise in your mind about the data. e. What are the controls for the experiment? Can you tell from the results? f. Do the results of the experiment seem to answer the questions posed by the author?
  • 60. Biol2050 61 g. Read the Materials and Methods to determine how the study was designed and does the design answer the questions posed by the author? Record your notes. h. What questions of the authors’ remain unanswered? i. Read the Conclusions and Discussion to find out how the author has interpreted his or her results. What assumptions did the author make, is each assumption reasonable and well supported? j. Are there differences between the author’s and your interpretations? Note the differences and consider the author’s viewpoint. k. What questions would you ask next, i.e. do any new questions arise from this study? l. What is the most significant limitation of this experiment or study? What other factors could be generating these findings? m. How does this paper relate to any of the concepts we have studied thus far in ecology? Support/reject/challenge/conne cts? Resources: 1. http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/Publ_Peer-Review-Booklet.pdf
  • 61. Biol2050 62 WK9-11. Simbio labs. Location: Work in the lab. Tasks: Do the virtual labs. Products: Answer all questions. At the end of all three labs, you must select one lab to write up as an experiment using the data/figures via screenshot from the exercise using the standard template for reports. Description Group work: As a group, please do the lab. You must attend the labs as the teaching assistant will be present. However, if after an hour and if you do not have a laptop, you are welcome to leave and do the lab on your own time on another computer. The purpose of meeting in the lab even briefly for these three weeks is to provide you with the help you might need. The teaching assistants will not be answering questions from these labs during office hours or via email. This is the purpose of meeting in the lab during the regular time slot. Importantly, attendance in the lab will facilitate the lab report write-up. The teaching assistant will work with the class to generate appropriate questions and mysteries for the lab report topics. Skills: 1. Understand the core ecological principles directly using larger datasets and simulations. 2. Critical thinking on concepts associated with each topic. 3. Be able to appreciate the value of simulations and big data. 4. Be able to work with the datasets/visualizations of others to write a report. Resources: 1. Simbio labs are online. WK9.
  • 62. WK12. Library research skills follow-up lab. Location: To be administered by science library. Tasks: Conduct follow-up exercises. Products: Expertise in online search tools and primary science research publications critical for upper- year courses. Resources: 1. http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/Publ_Peer-Review-Booklet.pdf