What Happens When Knowledge is Free?<br />Open Educational Resources in a Changing  World<br />Implications of OER<br /> i...
What is OER?<br />(Open Educational Resources)<br />Also Referred to as: <br />Open source educational content<br />Open c...
What is OER?<br /> 1)   Digital Objects/Resources<br />2)   A Philosophy/Movement<br />
 1)   Digital Objects/Resources<br />What is OER?<br />Digitized information and educational resources that are made avail...
What is OER?<br />2)   A Philosophy/Movement<br />A “new educational perspective”.  (The New Horizons Report, 2010)<br />“...
Who is currently using OER?<br />   Life-long learners.<br /> Students<br />Educators & Educational Institutions.<br />
Who is currently using OER?<br /> NGO’s Teachers Without Boarders<br />Government’s and Economic Institutions &  Organizat...
Who is currently using OER?<br />Opencourseware Consortium: http://www.ocwconsortium.org/<br />(Open Source Resources, Rep...
Academic Earth: http://www.academicearth.org/<br />Who is currently using OER?<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositories &...
Who is currently using OERs<br />Open Education Resources: http://www.oercommons.org/<br />(Open Source Resources, Reposit...
Who is currently using OER?<br />The Open University: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositori...
Who is currently using OERs?<br /><ul><li>MIT OpenCourseWare: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm</li></ul>(Open Source Resources...
Who is currently using OER?<br />The Innovators: The next level of OER, schools and programs, organizing around OER as a p...
Who is currently using OERs?<br />The Innovators: The next level of OER, schools and programs, organizing around OER as a ...
Who is currently using OERs?<br />Selected Statistics (Open Source Resources)<br /><ul><li>3,000 open courseware courses a...
OER Commons: 70 institutional partner collections 20,000 resources  (2009)</li></ul>Connexions: 16,471 reusable modules in...
<ul><li>MIT Open Courseware Users: 9% educators,  42% students enrolled at other institutions, 43% percent are independent...
The Open University: 16 million downloads, 89% of those downloads outside the U.K.</li></ul>Who is currently using it?<br ...
  Benefits of OER<br /><ul><li>Collaboration and innovation in learning materials and teaching methods
Increased engagement by teachers
More learners control and flexibility
More teacher control and flexibility in teaching
Decreases costs of educational materials
Access to up to date and cutting-edge information in learning materials
Accessible and affordable education to more students</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br /><u...
Economic
Social/Cultural
Legal
Quality Control/Organization</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Technical<br /><ul><li>Int...
Broadband Access (international) </li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Economic<br /><ul><li...
Sustainability of repositories of resources
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Open Educational Resources: What Happens When Knowledge is Free?

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  • “Open Source Educational Content” or OER (Open Educational Resources) is commonly defined as digitized information and educational resources that are made available at no cost for use and revision by students, educators, self-learners and others for teaching, learning and research. It is also described as more than objects, but as a philosophy or a movement. A definition provided in the New Horizons Report (2010), describes OER as a “new educational perspective”. OER is increasingly taking on a larger transformational meaning related to “collective knowledge” both its production and use. Acknowledging and institutionalizing the idea that knowledge is not owned or produced by one group of people but is created and shared between all users who are in turn creators is a revolutionary development in education and society in general.
  • The Open High School of Utah is the first public secondary school in the world to commit itself to the exclusive use of open educational resources throughout its curriculum. You and your student will see a significant difference in the quality and flexibility of the Open Curriculum.
  • The Open High School of Utah is the first public secondary school in the world to commit itself to the exclusive use of open educational resources throughout its curriculum. You and your student will see a significant difference in the quality and flexibility of the Open Curriculum.
  • The Open High School of Utah is the first public secondary school in the world to commit itself to the exclusive use of open educational resources throughout its curriculum. You and your student will see a significant difference in the quality and flexibility of the Open Curriculum.
  • The Open High School of Utah is the first public secondary school in the world to commit itself to the exclusive use of open educational resources throughout its curriculum. You and your student will see a significant difference in the quality and flexibility of the Open Curriculum.
  • The Open High School of Utah is the first public secondary school in the world to commit itself to the exclusive use of open educational resources throughout its curriculum. You and your student will see a significant difference in the quality and flexibility of the Open Curriculum.
  • P2PU or The Peer 2 Peer University is a grassroots open education project that organizes learning outside of institutional walls and gives learners recognition for their achievements. P2PU creates a model for lifelong learning alongside traditional formal higher education. Leveraging the internet and educational materials openly available online, P2PU enables high-quality low-cost education opportunities. P2PU - learning for everyone, by everyone about almost anything
  • University of the People (UoPeople) is the world’s first tuition free online academic institution dedicated to the global advancement and democratization of higher education. The high-quality low-cost global educational model embraces the worldwide presence of the Internet and dropping technology costs to bring university level studies within reach of millions of people across the world. With the support of respected academics, humanitarians and other visionaries, the UoPeople student body represents a new wave in global education. In the initial stages, University of the People will offer a new learning experience in two fields: Computer Science and Business Administration. These programs may in the future, lead towards four undergraduate degrees: AS and a BS degree in Business Administration and an AS and a BS in Computer Science.Free now, plans on charging exam administration fee. Collaboration with Yale University.
  • OECD Organization for economic cooperation and development.
  • The concern that institutions in developing countries might become dependent on externally generated content, rather than have the content serve as a catalyst for the production of new, local OER” (Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources, page 105, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/7/38654317.pdf)Institutional induced barriers related to providing “free” content and new roles for traditional educators and educational institutions
  • Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going?The Horizon’s report suggests that the open content is basically here. It is here. What is in on the immediate horizon is its adoption, integration into institutions of learning. Like many technologies and digital resources student/individuals are already there, and our institutions are slower to adapt to the new reality of “open source”. There are even projects that are working on ways of testing content knowledge and competencies that are learned through “open sources” and giving college credit. I believe that open content (and technology, social networking) has the potential or to fundamentally change the structures, definitions and process of learning and teaching and in a bigger sense change the way knowledge is produced (maybe it already has). As is often the case, large institutions are sometimes behind the curve, I think learners are already creating content and knowledge and using it new ways that are not connected to how institutions are “teaching”. They just aren’t getting “credit” for it. In 2-5 years Public funded universities will be only one of many avenues for accepted credentialing. Already, for-profit online universities are challenging the dominance of public and private large universities for students and dollars. In the next few year’s open education resources consortium and projects may offer an alternate educational structure, which will force traditional universities to adapt or go the way of the dinosaurs.
  • Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going?The Horizon’s report suggests that the open content is basically here. It is here. What is in on the immediate horizon is its adoption, integration into institutions of learning. Like many technologies and digital resources student/individuals are already there, and our institutions are slower to adapt to the new reality of “open source”. There are even projects that are working on ways of testing content knowledge and competencies that are learned through “open sources” and giving college credit. I believe that open content (and technology, social networking) has the potential or to fundamentally change the structures, definitions and process of learning and teaching and in a bigger sense change the way knowledge is produced (maybe it already has). As is often the case, large institutions are sometimes behind the curve, I think learners are already creating content and knowledge and using it new ways that are not connected to how institutions are “teaching”. They just aren’t getting “credit” for it. In 2-5 years Public funded universities will be only one of many avenues for accepted credentialing. Already, for-profit online universities are challenging the dominance of public and private large universities for students and dollars. In the next few year’s open education resources consortium and projects may offer an alternate educational structure, which will force traditional universities to adapt or go the way of the dinosaurs.
  • The bulk of introductory course materials are online, as videos or interactive environments; students engage with the material when convenient and show up only for smaller seminars.
  • Unbundling” the four elements of educating: design of a course, delivery of that course, delivery of credit and delivery of a degree. Learning institutions will not be responsible for all of these elements but perhaps only one or two of these elements (delivering or awarding the actual credential/degree, or testing for example)
  • Development of alternate signals of competence in an area—alternates to besides degrees. P2PU (http://p2pu.org/) is working to come up with alternative signals that indicate to potential employers that an individual is a good thinker and has the skills he or she claims to have — maybe a written report or an online portfolio.
  • Where does the report say it is going and where do you think it is going?The Horizon’s report suggests that the open content is basically here. It is here. What is in on the immediate horizon is its adoption, integration into institutions of learning. Like many technologies and digital resources student/individuals are already there, and our institutions are slower to adapt to the new reality of “open source”. There are even projects that are working on ways of testing content knowledge and competencies that are learned through “open sources” and giving college credit. I believe that open content (and technology, social networking) has the potential or to fundamentally change the structures, definitions and process of learning and teaching and in a bigger sense change the way knowledge is produced (maybe it already has). As is often the case, large institutions are sometimes behind the curve, I think learners are already creating content and knowledge and using it new ways that are not connected to how institutions are “teaching”. They just aren’t getting “credit” for it. In 2-5 years Public funded universities will be only one of many avenues for accepted credentialing. Already, for-profit online universities are challenging the dominance of public and private large universities for students and dollars. In the next few year’s open education resources consortium and projects may offer an alternate educational structure, which will force traditional universities to adapt or go the way of the dinosaurs.
  • Poverty, Development and Education educated families:• Are more empowered and confident• Have fewer children• have fewer of their children die in infancy• have healthier and better educated children• are better equipped to enter the paid labour force, which isparticularly important to the survival of female-headedhouseholds• Enjoy higher levels of economic productivity• Experience a longer and healthier life
  • Open Educational Resources: What Happens When Knowledge is Free?

    1. 1. What Happens When Knowledge is Free?<br />Open Educational Resources in a Changing World<br />Implications of OER<br /> in Post-Secondary Education<br />Corey J. KnoxUniversity of Arizonacknox@email.arizona.edu<br />By PresenterMedia.com<br />
    2. 2. What is OER?<br />(Open Educational Resources)<br />Also Referred to as: <br />Open source educational content<br />Open content <br />Open educational content<br />Open courseware <br />Open teaching<br />
    3. 3. What is OER?<br /> 1) Digital Objects/Resources<br />2) A Philosophy/Movement<br />
    4. 4. 1) Digital Objects/Resources<br />What is OER?<br />Digitized information and educational resources that are made available at no cost for use and revision by students, educators, self-learners and others for teaching, learning and research. <br />
    5. 5. What is OER?<br />2) A Philosophy/Movement<br />A “new educational perspective”. (The New Horizons Report, 2010)<br />“Knowledge as a collective social product” (Prasad & Ambedkar)<br />
    6. 6. Who is currently using OER?<br /> Life-long learners.<br /> Students<br />Educators & Educational Institutions.<br />
    7. 7. Who is currently using OER?<br /> NGO’s Teachers Without Boarders<br />Government’s and Economic Institutions & Organizations (UNESCO, World Bank)<br />For Profit Businesses<br />
    8. 8. Who is currently using OER?<br />Opencourseware Consortium: http://www.ocwconsortium.org/<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositories & Consortia)<br />
    9. 9. Academic Earth: http://www.academicearth.org/<br />Who is currently using OER?<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositories & Consortia)<br />
    10. 10. Who is currently using OERs<br />Open Education Resources: http://www.oercommons.org/<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositories & Consortia)<br />
    11. 11. Who is currently using OER?<br />The Open University: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/<br />(Open Source Resources, Repositories & Consortia)<br />
    12. 12. Who is currently using OERs?<br /><ul><li>MIT OpenCourseWare: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm</li></ul>(Open Source Resources, Repositories & Consortia)<br />
    13. 13. Who is currently using OER?<br />The Innovators: The next level of OER, schools and programs, organizing around OER as a philosophy<br />
    14. 14. Who is currently using OERs?<br />The Innovators: The next level of OER, schools and programs, organizing around OER as a philosophy<br />
    15. 15. Who is currently using OERs?<br />Selected Statistics (Open Source Resources)<br /><ul><li>3,000 open courseware courses available from over 300 universities worldwide. (2007, OECD)
    16. 16. OER Commons: 70 institutional partner collections 20,000 resources (2009)</li></ul>Connexions: 16,471 reusable modules in 1005 collections. <br />
    17. 17. <ul><li>MIT Open Courseware Users: 9% educators, 42% students enrolled at other institutions, 43% percent are independent learners
    18. 18. The Open University: 16 million downloads, 89% of those downloads outside the U.K.</li></ul>Who is currently using it?<br />Selected Statistics (Continued)<br />
    19. 19. Benefits of OER<br /><ul><li>Collaboration and innovation in learning materials and teaching methods
    20. 20. Increased engagement by teachers
    21. 21. More learners control and flexibility
    22. 22. More teacher control and flexibility in teaching
    23. 23. Decreases costs of educational materials
    24. 24. Access to up to date and cutting-edge information in learning materials
    25. 25. Accessible and affordable education to more students</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br /><ul><li>Technical
    26. 26. Economic
    27. 27. Social/Cultural
    28. 28. Legal
    29. 29. Quality Control/Organization</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Technical<br /><ul><li>Interoperability between formats, software, platforms
    30. 30. Broadband Access (international) </li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Economic<br /><ul><li>Resources to support development of material. (Yale has spent $30,000 to $40,000 for each online course)
    31. 31. Sustainability of repositories of resources
    32. 32. Costs for broadband, software, hardware.
    33. 33. Competition between education institutions (public and private)
    34. 34. Licensing Issues/Copyright
    35. 35. Loss of business, revenue to some sectors of publishing industry</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Social/Cultural<br /><ul><li>Resistance to technology in learning contexts
    36. 36. Unwillingness to share or use resources produced by someone else (Individual)
    37. 37. Institutional induced barriers related to providing “free” content.
    38. 38. “Knowledge Colonization”</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Legal<br />Prohibited use of copyrighted materials without consent/alternate forms of legal permission types<br />
    39. 39. Challenges to Widespread OER Implementation<br />Quality Control/Organization<br /><ul><li>Need for centralized/sustainable repositories
    40. 40. Effective search and discovery tools
    41. 41. Quality Management of resources
    42. 42. Ways to award “credit” for engaging with and completing open courseware
    43. 43. Accreditation for open courseware and free educational programs
    44. 44. Methods for connecting
    45. 45. Human support availability in open courseware</li></li></ul><li>The Future of OER <br />Forces Propelling OER<br />1) Cost of Secondary Education<br />
    46. 46. The Future of OER <br />Forces Propelling OER<br />Worldwide Poverty/Lack of Education<br />Increasing demand for technological and scientific expertise<br />Globalization/Interconnectedness<br />Availability of Technology that allows for collaboration and communication<br />Financial strains of educational institutions <br />
    47. 47. The Future of OER<br />Changes in Institutional (Colleges and Universities) Roles and Structures<br /> <br />Coursework structure<br />“Unbundling” of traditional University roles<br />Development of alternate signals of competence<br />
    48. 48. The Future of OER<br />Changes in Institutional (Colleges and Universities) Roles and Structures<br /> <br />Coursework structure<br />
    49. 49. The Future of OER<br />Changes in Institutional (Colleges and Universities) Roles and Structures <br /> <br />2) “Unbundling” of traditional University roles<br />
    50. 50. The Future of OER<br />Changes in Institutional (Colleges and Universities) Roles and Structures<br /> <br />3) Development of alternate signals of competence<br />
    51. 51. The Future of OER<br />Widespread Free & Lower Cost Education<br />Widespread free education to developing world: <br />From the Capetown Declaration () <br />“We are on the cusp of a global<br />
    52. 52. Cape Town Declaration, 2004<br />“We are on the cusp of a global revolution in teaching and learning. Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use. These educators are creating a world where each and every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge. They are also planting the seeds of a new pedagogy where educators and learners create, shape and evolve knowledge together, deepening their skills and understanding as they go.”<br />
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