Scientific method
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Scientific method

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Scientific method Scientific method Presentation Transcript

  • Just What Is Science Anyway???a journey through the scientific method...
  • Science is a process of inquiry - asking questions and getting answers you do science there are many sciences life science poli-science social science etc
  • Observationbefore you can ask a question - you need tomake an observation…2 kinds Direct observation- done w/ the 5 senses sight, touch, smell, aural, taste Indirect observation - done w/ equipment thermometer, anemometer, balance...
  • The Scientific Method a very good way to do science easy to follow repeatable thorough is the way it’s really done in the field! (BUT NOT THE ONLY WAY!)
  • What’s the Purpose?? you need to state the goal of your investigation - called the Purpose (or Problem) Statement it needs to be clear to you (and the reader) exactly what you are investigating
  • The “magic” purpose statement The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of ______(iv)_______ on the _______(dv)_______.
  • Procedureyou need to list the steps that you are goingto (or did) take to carry out your experimentit must be so detailed so that anyone whomay dispute your work can reproduceexactly what you did
  • The Rope Problem!!!
  • Variables to vary - to change Independent (manipulated) Variable (IV) - the part of the experiment that you change Dependent (responding) Variable (DV) - the part of the experiment that changes as a result of changing the independent variable (the outcome)
  • more... Controlled Variables - the parts of your experiment that do not change WHY have these? Control Group - the part of the experiment that is your basis for comparison (you don’t do anything to this group)
  • An Hypothesis….. ..is an educated prediction - “educated” implies that the predictions are based on research and your prior experiences. Should be stated in “If... Then… statements Ex:“If a car’s mass is increased then it will go faster down a ramp.”
  • Paper Towel Lab Come up with an agreed general procedure Procedure/variables might get altered Keep all other variables constant!!! No out of control experimentation!) EVERYONE takes notes in lab group! Make sure you use measuring tools properly. (accuracy counts in grade)
  • Data Presentation data tables a simple way to organize your data graphs to help your data make visual sense trends
  • Data tableMass of Ramp Ramp Time Ave.cart (g) angle length (s) time (s) (deg) (cm)40.00 45.0 35.0 11.3040.00 45.0 35.0 12.10 11.7025.00 45.0 35.0 10.9025.00 45.0 35.0 11.90 11.40 Table 1: Cart speed based on cart mass
  • Units of measureMass of Ramp Ramp Time Ave.cart (g) angle length (s) time (s) (deg) (cm)40.00 45.0 35.0 11.3040.00 45.0 35.0 12.10 11.7025.00 45.0 35.0 10.9025.00 45.0 35.0 11.90 11.40 Table 1: Cart speed based on cart mass
  • Significant digitsMass of Ramp Ramp Time Ave.cart (g) angle length (s) time (s) (deg) (cm)40.0 45.0 35.0 11.3040.0 45.0 35.0 12.10 11.7025.0 45.0 35.0 10.9025.0 45.0 35.0 11.90 11.40 Table 1: Cart speed based on cart mass
  • Significant digits...…are a way to show how accurate themeasurements are(depends instrument is being used)Example: Triple beam balancemeasures to the nearest tenth of agram, therefore all mass measurementsshould only go out one decimal point
  • Highlight important stuffMass of Ramp Ramp Time Ave.cart (g) angle length (s) time (s) (deg) (cm)40.0 45.0 35.0 11.3040.0 45.0 35.0 12.10 11.7025.0 45.0 35.0 10.9025.0 45.0 35.0 11.90 11.40 Table 1: Cart speed based on cart mass
  • Give it a clear titleMass of Ramp Ramp Time Ave.cart (g) angle length (s) time (s) (deg) (cm)40.0 45.0 35.0 11.3040.0 45.0 35.0 12.10 11.7025.0 45.0 35.0 10.9025.0 45.0 35.0 11.90 11.40 Table 1: Cart speed based on cart mass
  • Conclusions INTERPRET THE DATA: what do all of these numbers mean? do they answer the problem statement? why or why not?
  • Analyze for errors … what factors skewed your data? how far off were the results? Look to see if any trials were “outliers” What should be done next time to reduce any errors?
  • Reflect…. What link to our studies did this lab have? Did you learn anything new, any surprises? Any comments or questions? Anything you might add? What happened with your hypothesis and why was it right or wrong?
  • Precision vs. Accuracy if your data is accurate it is close toits true value if your data is precise it isconsistent from trial to trial
  • Precision vs. Accuracy this is precise but not accurate
  • Precision vs. Accuracy this is precise and accurate
  • Accuracy comes from________?Precision comes from________? Answers: equipment people
  • All Done...