A deep dive into questions by @cjforms at UxLx
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A deep dive into questions by @cjforms at UxLx

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How to ask better questions and how to assess UX using surveys. ...

How to ask better questions and how to assess UX using surveys.

This workshop at UXLX 2014 in Lisbon was a deep dive into two important topics in survey design for user research.

We used the four-step model of how people answer questions to work on better questions, then we focused on two special uses of questionnaires in user research: the post-test assessment of satisfaction, and then how to gather information from users for redesign.

Thanks to all the attendees for making this workshop a lot of fun.

Caroline Jarrett @cjforms

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  • In this exercise, participants reviewed an email from a journeal that said it was a survey, but seemed to us more like a form.
  • (c) Effortmark Limited 2004

A deep dive into questions by @cjforms at UxLx A deep dive into questions by @cjforms at UxLx Presentation Transcript

  • A deep dive into questions Workshop at UxLx 2014 led by Caroline Jarrett How to ask better questions, and how to assess user experience using surveys
  • Introductions (I’m Caroline Jarrett - @cjforms) Work with your neighbour • Your name and role • A random thing about yourself 2
  • Agenda Introductions How to ask better questions Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 3
  • A survey I saw recently 4 • How do we know it’s a survey?
  • 5
  • And it continued…. 6
  • • I’ll hand out an invitation I received recently by email • Work in pairs • Decide whether it is a survey or something else 7
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 8
  • There are four steps to answer a question Step 1. Read and understand 2. Find an answer 3. Judge the answer 4. Place the answer Adapted from Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J. and Rasinski, K. A. (2000) “The psychology of survey response”
  • There are four steps to answer a question Step A good question … 1. Read and understand is legible and makes sense 2. Find an answer asks for answers that we know 3. Judge the answer asks for answers we’re happy to reveal 4. Place the answer offers appropriate spaces for the answers Adapted from Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J. and Rasinski, K. A. (2000) “The psychology of survey response”
  • Are you …? 11
  • Let’s review a question • There is a question coming up on the next slide • I will ask you to think about ONE of these four steps 1. Read and understand 2. Find the answer 3. Judge the answer 4. Place the answer • Please think about any problems in that particular step 12
  • 13
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 14
  • Legibility is also important 15 Hermann grid illusion
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 16
  • 17 In your last five days at work, what percentage of your work time do you estimate that you spend using publicly- available online services (not including email, instant messaging and search) to do your work using a work computer or other device?
  • The approximate curve of forgetting
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 19
  • I saw this question on an employee survey 20
  • • Let’s create a list 21
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 22
  • Test with users to make sure you offer the right answer options 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • Offer the right widget to collect the answer Knowledge of what users want to tell you How many answers? Offer We know all the answers that users are likely to give us They only have one answer Radio buttons They may have more than one Check boxes We’re not sure Text boxes 26 Allen Miller, S. J. and Jarrett, C. (2001) “Should I use a drop-down?” http://www.formsthatwork.com/files/Articles/dropdown.pdf
  • 27
  • Grids are often full of problems at all four steps 28
  • Grids are a major cause of survey drop-out 29 35% 20% 20% 15% 5% 5% Total incompletes across the 'main' section of the questionnaire (after the introduction stage) Subject Matter Media Downloads Survey Length Large Grids Open Questions Other Source: Database of 3 million+ web surveys conducted by Lightspeed Research/Kantar Quoted in Coombe, R., Jarrett, C. and Johnson, A. (2010) “Usability testing of market research surveys” ESRA Lausanne
  • But it’s the topic that matters most 30 35% 20% 20% 15% 5% 5% Total incompletes across the 'main' section of the questionnaire (after the introduction stage) Subject Matter Media Downloads Survey Length Large Grids Open Questions Other Source: Database of 3 million+ web surveys conducted by Lightspeed Research/Kantar Quoted in Coombe, R., Jarrett, C. and Johnson, A. (2010) “Usability testing of market research surveys” ESRA Lausanne
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions The steps to answer a question Improve step 1: read and understand Improve step 2: find the answer Improve step 3: judge the answer Improve step 4: place the answer Understand why people answer Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 31
  • Response relies on effort, reward, and trust 32 Trust Perceived effort Perceived reward Diagram from Jarrett, C, and Gaffney, G (2008) “Forms that work: Designing web forms for usability” inspired by Dillman, D.A. (2000) “Internet, Mail and Mixed Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method”
  • An interesting subject helps in all the areas 33 Shared interests inspire trust Interesting topics take less effort Interesting subject = intrinsically rewarding
  • What about response here? 34
  • 35 Your answers to this survey are important for our work But what’s in it for me? And I’m really ready for a coffee.
  • Agenda Introductions What is a survey? How to ask better questions Break How to assess user experience using surveys Wrap up 36
  • Let’s start with a standard option: SUS • The System Usability Scale (SUS) was created in 1986 • It has been shown to be valid and reliable • You get a score between 0 and 100 • You can compare your SUS score with other systems 37 Brooke, J. (1996). SUS: A "quick and dirty" usability scale. In Usability Evaluation in Industry. P. W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B. A. Weerdmeester and A. L. McClelland. London:, Taylor and Francis.
  • Jeff Sauro (@measuringux) has done a lot of work with SUS 38 http://www.measuringusability.com/sus.php. • Jeff provides tools for scoring SUS • He has adapted it to websites • “SUS scores are not percentages”
  • There are other commercial products with wider concepts of UX 39 • SUPR-Q – includes credibility and loyalty – licenced product – http://www.suprq.com • WAMMI – online service – includes access to standard databases (extra for SUPR-Q) – http://www.wammi.com
  • • Your task: find an explanation of the difference between the European Commission and the European Union • Use this site: http://ec.europa.eu • Decide whether you had a good or bad experience 40
  • • I will ask you to fill in SUS (original) or SUS (Sauro) 41
  • My journey into user experience started a long time ago, with usability The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use (ISO 9241:11 1998) 42
  • Working mostly in government, we were interested in effectiveness and efficiency 43 The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use (ISO 9241:11 1998)
  • But what about user experience? What about satisfaction? 44 The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use (ISO 9241:11 1998) Picture credit: Flickr jek in the box
  • 45
  • Satisfaction is a complex matter Compared experience to what? Resulting thoughts (nothing) Indifference Expectations Better / worse / different Needs Met / not met / mixture Excellence (the ideal product) Good / poor quality (or ‘good enough’) Fairness Treated equitably / inequitably Events that might have been Vindication / regret 46 Adapted from Oliver, R. L. (1996) and (2009) “Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer”
  • Example: bronze medal winners tend to be happier than silver medal winners 47 Nathan Twaddle, Olympic Bronze Medal Winner in Beijing Photo credit: peter.cipollone, Flickr Matsumoto D, & Willingham B (2006). The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat: spontaneous expressions of medal winners of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.
  • • The first question was about rating satisfaction • What were they asking us to rate? – Just a guess from what you recall 48
  • 49
  • The challenge of UX and surveys: which bit to measure? The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use (ISO 9241:11 1998) ???
  • Some ideas about what we could measure In the definition GoDaddy customer support GoDaddy as a provider of domain names Product This contact with help desk Overall experience of moving a domain to GoDaddy Users What proportion of customers contact support Demographics (example: type of job) Goals Reason for contacting help Reason for looking at GoDaddy Effectiveness Whether support fixed the problem Whether GoDaddy offers the right products Efficiency Whether it took a reasonable time Whether the product is priced correctly Satisfaction Helpfulness of support person Likely to purchase again / recommend Context of use Home/office; alone/helped Business / personal 51
  • 52 In the definition Information to help the European Commission design a better website Product Users Goals Effectiveness Efficiency Satisfaction Context of use
  • • Write questions for each topic • Then get another team to try your questionnaire 53
  • Find out about users’ goals Tip 54
  • Ask about recent vivid experienceTip 55 Image credit: Fraser Smith
  • Interview first Tip 56
  • Test everything Tip 57
  • Caroline Jarrett Twitter @cjforms http://www.slideshare.net/cjforms carolinej@effortmark.co.uk 58
  • More resources on http://www.slideshare.net/cjforms 59