the “threshold of expectation is going up. There is and will be a huge growth in the need for local knowledge workers who have three critical skills: the knowledge of their domain of expertise , their ability to solve problems , and their ability to communicate in English .
The International Research Foundation for English Language Education
“ English learners are getting younger. Across the world, from Chile to Mongolia, from China to Portugal, English is being introduced in primary schools, with greater compulsion, and at steadily lowering ages” (p.88).
Clear communication in a second language involves gaining progressive control over the systems of options in the new language…
The smaller the number of meaning distinctions a learner controls, the more dependent on context his or her language is likely to be, both in terms of understanding and in terms of being understood. (Lock, 2005)
Marianne Celce-Murcia identified four particular "discourse framing" patterns for discussion: one which sets up further elaboration ; one which builds to a climax ; one which sets up discussion ; and one which relates episodes to one another. These patterns of grammar "set up discourse".
Many such patterns exist, and can be included in a communicative English language curriculum.
2007~08 Graduate for Secondary Education & Higher Education Source: Department of Household Registration, Ministry of Education 594,705 88% of High school graduates went on to college & University 31% of University graduates went on to graduate school 272,448 52,826 Birth rate is on the decline Offered Degree Type Secondary Education Associate Bachelor Master Ph.D. Total Count Graduated 269,431 43,803 228,645 49,976 2,850 594,705
The problem is that most young Taiwanese students who go on to college and then into the world of work, are not able to communicate with others in spoken English , despite all the years of English language instruction which they have received.
If students are to develop stronger grammatical control over their expressive language, and incorporate new vocabulary, they have to first exercise their interlanguage.
It is pointless to wait for students to acquire “proper” structures first before offering them opportunities to converse.
Pedagogical Principle One for Communicative Language Learning: Create a Communicative Context
1. Communicative language skills can only be learned in an environment where active communication is taking place all the time.
Teachers should strive to create lesson plans where students spend at least 50% of their class time in active communication
2. Improvements in communicative language skills come AFTER people attempt to communicate with each other.
Pedagogical Principle Two for Communicative Language Learning: Teach Through Tasks
1. The most interesting things to communicate are things that relate to real tasks in the real world.
2. The focus of instruction should be on content not on language instruction itself.
Widdowson (1998) “there is a fundamental difference between ‘task’ and ‘exercise’ (depending) on whether whether linguistic skills are viewed as developing through communicative activity or as a prerequisite for engaging in it.”
Example Aichi Shukutokyo University, Nagoya, Japan, now offers 442 English communication classes to its 7,800 undergraduates. Average progress on TOEIC scores has increased from 72.9 to 125+ since its new TOEIC program was introduced in 2004
Assessment for Communicative Language Learning: Use the TOEIC
Application of These Principles at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology