Semantics

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Discusses concepts with understanding of semantics and its role in the English language.

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Semantics

  1. 1. Semantics Unit 2
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Study of linguistic meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Words and sentences are rule governed </li></ul><ul><li>Our understanding of sentences is based on lexical decomposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Man vs. boy </li></ul><ul><li>Woman vs. girl </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sub Categories <ul><li>1. Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical Constructions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>3. Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sense <ul><li>Speaker sense </li></ul><ul><li>“You’re a real genius.” (How do you take this based on the utterance?) </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic sense. (Does it mean the same thing without the tone of utterance?) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sense (Lexical Construction) <ul><li>Fly? A bug, a zipper, a fishing bait? </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms: words that mean the same </li></ul><ul><li>Mild-------Temperate </li></ul><ul><li>Cool------Chilly </li></ul><ul><li>Hyponyms: words that contain the entire meaning of another word </li></ul><ul><li>Oak------Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Fear-----Emotion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lexical Construction <ul><li>Overlap: words that have the same value, but not all of the same features. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-sister-aunt-niece </li></ul><ul><li>Antonym: two words differ in the value of a feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Dead—alive </li></ul><ul><li>Above--below </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reference <ul><li>Speaker: Referencing to what the speaker is referring to. </li></ul><ul><li>Here comes the Queen of England. (really referencing a bag lady.) </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic: actual denotation of what you are referring. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Semantic Understanding <ul><li>That bird looks sick. </li></ul><ul><li>The bird is the referent which refers to all of the things that could possibly take its position. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about all of the things you can visualize that the bird can be, you now have your prototype . How will this be different in other parts of the world? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Syllogism <ul><li>We believe certain things to be true or untrue based on our understanding of them. </li></ul><ul><li>A bachelor is an unmarried man. (Truth) </li></ul><ul><li>A bachelor is a married man. (Contradiction to reality.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Riddle <ul><li>A father and a son are riding in a car. The car hits a truck. The father dies and is rushed to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. The doctor comes in and says, “I can’t operate on this boy. He’s my son.” What is the relationship between the doctor and the boy? </li></ul>

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