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  • 1. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding:Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future Henry Curtis (June 2012) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 1
  • 2. Wayfinding ConclusionThe State of Hawai`i could and should generate 90% of its electricity fromdistributed renewable energy resources by 2030.DedicationThis Report is dedicated to the nearly 20,000 Americans who die each year fromfossil fuel air emissions and to the hundreds of millions of people worldwide thatclimate change will displaced.AcknowledgmentsI wish to thank Doc Berry, Peggy Lucas Bond, Kat Brady, Leighton Chong, ClintCowen, Cory Harden, Kim Coco Iwamoto, Bob King, Kal Kobayashi, Jim Lazar, DickMeyer, and Steve Morgan for their suggestions, and Sally Kaye for her thoughtfulinsight and superb editing of each draft of this Report.The AuthorHenry Curtis has been Executive Director of Life of the Land (LOL) since 1995. Hehas a B.A. in Economics from Queens College, City University of New York. He is ablogger1, community organizer, videographer, director, producer, peer reviewer,moot court judge, community facilitator, and provides expert testimony on oceanpower, biofuels, energy and externalities. He has represented LOL in over thirtyregulatory proceedings before the Public Utilities Commission (PUC). He serves onthe PUC Reliability Standards Working Group (RSWG) and the RSWG Minimum Load& Curtailment Subgroup. He is committed to Hawai`i’s energy self-­reliance andwell-­being and is motivated by the values of aloha `aina, malama `aina and hislove for Hawai`i nei.1 http://ililani-­ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 2
  • 3. PrefaceEnergy is the glue, the connector, the life blood of all that we do. Energy powersthe economy. Energy is required for agriculture, industry and transportation. TheFirst Industrial Revolution (c. 1750-­1850) was powered by energy fromhydroelectric sources, coal and steam. These sources also provided local power.The Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1870-­1914) benefitted from the discovery ofelectricity, the modern re-­discovery of petroleum, and the invention of the internalcombustion engine. Suddenly energy could be easily moved from place to place.Over the past hundred years fossil fuel byproducts have become part of our life:pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints, polymers (such as plastics), paraffin, petroleumjelly, detergents, ammonia, pesticides and fertilizers. The energy industry hasgrown into a $3 trillion/year mega-­industry.Costs / ImpactsExternalities refer to costs and impacts not reflected in the price of products. Thatis, they are costs shifted from producers to society at large. The biggest externalityof all is climate change. Another key externality is environmental justice, wherebyextraction and production facilities are often located in economically challengedcommunities, minority communities, and/or rural areas and then transported tolarge urban (and often more wealthy) communities to consume.Energy Disasters Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant melt-­down (March 10, 2011) BP Deepwater Horizon Explosion (April 20, 2010) Iraq Oil War (2003-­11) Borneo wildfires and peat soil fires set to clear land for biofuel plantations (1997-­98) Kuwaiti Oil Fires (January and February 1991) Persian Gulf Oil War (1990-­91) Exxon Valdez (March 24, 1989) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 3
  • 4. Cleaning Up after the Exxon Valdez: The ecological death toll included 500,000birds, 4,500 sea otters and fourteen whales.2 Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (April 26, 1986) Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident (March 28, 1979) Santa Barbara oil spill (January and February 1969) which led to the first Earth Day Texaco’s deliberate dumping of eighteen billion gallons of toxic oil waste products from the Lago Agrio oil field into the Ecuadorian Amazon Rainforest (1964-­90) Tea Pot Dome Oil Leasing Scandal (1922-­23) West Virginia Monongh Mine disaster (December 6, 1907)2 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 4
  • 5. Egregious as they were, the total emissions from “big name” disasters pale whencompared with the continuous disposal of fossil fuel waste products in the air, thewater, and on the land.For example, the planet has 90,000 oil tankers, container ships and cruise shipsthat are mostly powered by bunker fuel, which has the consistency of mud andcontains sulfur levels 3,000 times that of gasoline.New ThreatsNew environmental disasters are occurring with the rapid rise in the use ofrenewable energy and telecommunication systems. These often involve extracting,separating and marketing trace (rare earth) minerals.The third greatest 20th century war (ranked by deaths) occurred in the DemocraticRepublic of Congo (DRC), a large African country, one quarter of the size of theUnited States. The Second Congo War (1998-­2003), also known as Africa’s “WorldWar,” involved armies of eight nations and over twenty armed groups fighting overrare minerals, especially coltan (colombo-­tantalite), a key element essential tomany electronic devices such as cell phones, play stations and wireless devices.Today, China is the world’s leading producer of photovoltaic panels and windturbines. Wind turbines require strong magnets. The most powerful commercialmagnets are made using a Neodymium-­Iron-­Boron alloy (Nd2Fe14B). WhileNeodymium has been used for some time in hard drives, lasers and hi-­fi speakers,its use has exploded due to increasing production of wind turbines and hybridvehicles. Mining Neodymium is often an extremely polluting activity. Acid is pouredover large quantities of extracted materials and the waste product is dumped onland and in waterways.Think Globally, Act LocallyEnergy policy is too important to be left to those with vested interests in short-­termprofit margins. We must all be engaged in energy policy at the local level where wecan shape policy to suit local needs. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 5
  • 6. Table of Contents page1. Introduction 72. Energy Terminology 143. Conservation/Energy Efficiency 184. Continuous Energy Resources 275. Variable Energy Resources 426. Batteries/Storage 547. Moloka`i 608. Lana`i 699. Hawai`i 7510. Maui 8611. O`ahu 9812. Kaua`i 11313. Ni`ihau 11614. The Military 11815. The Future 121Acronyms 131Glossary 134References 150 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 6
  • 7. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONMost people past a certain age can recall the significant change the InternetRevolution (1990) made in our lives. Email, websites, and blogs are nowcenterpieces for our daily connectivity.We are now in the middle of a wireless technology revolution, featuring SmartPhones (iPhone, Android, Windows) and Slates (iPad, Kindle Fire, Nook Tablet).On the near horizon is the capacity to replace yesterday’s electric grid withtomorrow’s Smart Buildings, where conservation and energy efficiency will reducedemand, on-­site renewable energy facilities will provide energy for buildings andelectricity for vehicles, and small microgrids will be used within small communities.3This Report explores Distributed Generation (DG), which focuses on a decentralized,community-­based model of energy self-­sufficiency, utilizing local solutions.The language and nomenclature4 in this new cutting edge field evolved from olderterms like “on-­site generation,” “dispersed generation,” “embedded generation”,“decentralized generation,” and “decentralized energy.” Today, fully distributedgeneration, which some call the “greatest innovation,”5 defines itself practically asone which results in “zero-­energy buildings,”6 "energy-­plus buildings,”7 "freeingenergy from the grid,”8 “obsolete electric grids,”9 “No Grid,” 10 “Gridless 11” the“Wireless Smart Grid”12 and the “Un-­Grid.”13Is there a particular place that this revolution can or should start?3­grid-­solar-­frequently-­asked-­questions.html4 A list of names or terms;; the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming.5 Michele Amoretti, Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).­amorettiEurocon09.pdf6 Also known as Zero Net Energy (ZNE) Building, Net-­Zero Energy Building (NZEB), or Net ZeroBuilding.7­energy_building8 Justin Hall-­Tipping,CEO at NanoHoldings “To Grid or Not to Grid, That is the Question”, by Dana Blankenhorn, January 20, 2011;;­grid-­or-­not-­to-­grid-­that-­is-­the-­question10­economics11 Pincas Jawetz (­future-­is-­gridless-­building-­a-­new-­grid-­for-­renewable-­energy-­is-­nothing-­less-­then-­having-­learned-­nothing-­from-­the-­concept-­of-­growth-­that-­grounded-­the-­fossil-­fuels-­based-­inefficient-­economy/12 “Tech Development for Sustainable Communities: A Conversation with iSchool Research FellowJanet Marsden (2011)”­development-­for-­sustainable-­communities-­a-­conversation-­with-­ischool-­research-­fellow-­janet-­marsden/13 Simon Bransfield-­Garth,­and-­the-­un-­grid.html Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 7
  • 8. Some think that since Pacific atolls will be the first to disappear under the business-­as-­usual, greenhouse-­gas-­emitting, fossil-­fuel model, the transformation shouldstart on a Pacific Island most at risk.Common sense dictates that the most efficient place to start in any “energyrevolution” is the place with the most abundant and varied renewable energyportfolio, coupled with the most expensive cost of electricity – that is, Hawai`i.Within Hawai`i, Moloka`i is a perfect choice -­ many think that Moloka`i can leadthe world in grid-­less telecommunications and electricity independence.The VortexIn the summer of 2010, Kris Mayes, Chair of the Arizona Corporation Commission14(2009-­10) spoke about “cascading natural deregulation” at an Institute of Electricaland Electronics Engineers (IEEE) solar convention held at the Hawaii ConventionCenter.She explained that “cascading natural deregulation” means that as the cost ofrenewable systems trend downward and electric rates go up, those who can leavethe grid, will leave the grid, by building or installing on-­site generation. The fixedcosts associated with energy production, transmission and distribution will thenhave to be absorbed by the remaining (smaller) rate base. Thus, those who remainwill see their rates go up even more, causing more people to opt out of acentralized grid, driving the rates for those who remain even higher. Under thisscenario, companies such as HECO would be sucked down into a bottomless vortexand ultimately fail as a viable investor-­owned corporation.As the Rocky Mountain Institute noted:“The electric industry once again finds itself at a crossroads, confronting it withthree basic choices: the supply-­side path, the distributed path, or the status quo.[]Distributed generation poses four primary threats to the existing distribution utilitybusiness model. First, distributed generation results in the loss of revenue undertraditional tariff structures;; the customer simply is purchasing fewer kilowatt-­hoursor fewer distribution services. Second, more substantial market capture bydistributed generation can create a new class of stranded asset within thedistribution system-­grid capacity no longer needed. Third, the ability of distributedgeneration to enter more rapidly than centralized generation or transmissionupgrades can partially strand new capacity additions. Fourth, the combination ofthe first three threats can create a "death cycle" in which the higher prices toremaining customers induce more of them to leave this system, creating a self-­reinforcing cycle of ever-­increasing unit prices.[]14 The equivalent of the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 8
  • 9. There would be many winners from the distributed resource path. Society at largewould prosper because electric service could be provided at lower cost with higherreliability. [] The environment will benefit from lower air pollution more than itwould with centralized generation. [] Generation companies [] would suffer majorlosses, since the penetration of distributed resources acting as virtual peakers willsignificantly reduce peak power prices. [] It is the fear of these losses that createsresistance from the incumbent players to widespread adoption of distributedpower.”The Public Utilities Commission is located in the Kekuanaoa Building on the MakaiEwa corner of Punchbowl and King Street. (Photo by author)The Hawai`i VortexHawai`i not only has the highest utility rates in the nation, and has held that recordfor decades, but also has some of the nation’s better alternative renewable sourcesin solar, wind, wave and geothermal resources. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 9
  • 10. HECO15 has already started to experience this decline and has to be acutely awarethat it could escalate. In the past few years the rate of solar installations withinHawai`i has doubled each year. The number of renewable energy developers whohave made proposals to the utility for large-­scale grid-­connected renewable energyprojects has gone up ten-­fold. The increasing use of various energy efficiencysystems is also driving down the demand for electricity. HECO, and its subsidiariesMaui Electric (MECO) and Hawaii Electric Light (HELCO), experienced peak energyuse in 2004. Since then the demand for electricity has been dropping.In anticipation of this dim future, the utility wrote the Hawai`i Clean EnergyInitiative (HCEI) in 2008. The document calls for the Legislature and the HawaiiPublic Utilities Commission (PUC) to adopt policies to shield HECO from thisimpending doomsday scenario. One such policy or concept is called “Decoupling.”This mechanism states that the utility is entitled to a certain level of revenue, andas sales drop they can automatically increase rates to keep their revenue on target.The PUC has already approved this mechanism.An additional centerpiece of the HCEI is the development of industrial scalerenewable power plants that would require extensive cabling to send large amountsof power to the primary load center, O`ahu.In February 2012 the parent company of HECO, MECO and HELCO, the HawaiianElectric Industries Inc. (HEI) included this in its annual 10-­K report with the U.S.Securities and Exchange Commission:“Increasing competition and technological advances could cause HEI’s businesses tolose customers or render their operations obsolete. ...HECO and its subsidiariesface competition from IPPs [Independent Power Producers] and customerelectricity will occur. New technological developments, such as the commercialdevelopment of energy storage, may render the operations of HEI’s electric utilitysubsidiaries less competitive or outdated.”16Climate Change – one more reason to leave the gridMoving away from fossil fuel use is not simply a matter of economics, but is vital toslowing the rate of climate change.As LOL’s Vice President for Social Justice, Kat Brady, testified to the PUC in 2009 inthe matter of HECO’s proposed power plant at Campbell Industrial Park: “Theplanet is in crisis. Global warming can no longer be ignored. The science is in and15 Hawaii Electric Industries (HEI) owns Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and American SavingsBank (ASB). HECO owns MECO and HELCO.1617, 2012 for the year ending December 31, 2011, at 28. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 10
  • 11. the data is conclusive that global warming and climate change is primarily due tothe burning of fossil fuels. We no longer have a choice. We must change or perish.The earth is in crisis and this proposed project does nothing to address the fact thatglobal warming is real -­ the planet is heating up faster than predicted and thefuture is uncertain.”17It is now a settled matter that ocean levels are rising because glaciers and othersnow and ice formations are melting. While melting ice bergs do not change thedepth of the water, the oceans expand unevenly with rising temperatures. Theoceans are also becoming more acidic. Low lying coastal areas are facing coastalerosion and salt water intrusions into drinking water aquifers. Pacific Atolls and low-­lying islands are particularly vulnerable.“The government of Tuvalu is in a quandary as salt water intrusion threatens theiraquifers and as they witness the loss of their shorelines and their food-­producinggardens to a rising sea. Tuvaluan officials have made arrangements with Aotearoa(New Zealand) to relocate their people. Tuvalu and its neighbor Kiribati arerumored to have bought land in Fiji in order to relocate their populations.But not all of the people want to leave. Some fear the loss of their culture andwould rather sink with the island than face the cultural genocide of assimilation.The issue for Tuvalu is how to slow the heating of the planet so that their culturewill thrive in its homeland. Tuvaluans have not caused the problem, but aresuffering the very real impacts. Global warming raises moral issues and healthissues as well as scientific and environmental issues.”18Health ImpactsContinued use of fossil fuel also contributes to health problems. A NationalAcademy of Science Study was conducted at the request of U.S. Congress. Thestudy analyzed costs not incorporated in the price of gasoline and electricity(“Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,”192010). The report found that 20,000 people die prematurely each year from fossilfuel air pollution, and that health impacts in the U.S. ($120 billion/year) from theuse of coal and oil were nearly equal. The report also determined that renewablemotor fuel (corn-­based ethanol) was slightly worse than gasoline in itsenvironmental impact.17 Testimony of Kat Brady, Vice President for Social Justice, Life of the Land, Hawai`i Public UtilitiesCommission, Docket No. 2005-­0145, O`ahu Power Plant (“Brady LOL T-­1”).18 Brady LOL T-­1.19 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 11
  • 12. The report did NOT analyze the health impacts associated with global warming;;burning oil for trains, ships and planes;; coal mining;; and coal byproducts dumpedinto streams and rivers.20Epidemiologists are studying links between pollen and the 61% increase in thediagnosis of asthma in the last generation,21 as pollen is an important trigger andpossible cause of asthma. Since higher temperatures and elevated atmosphericcarbon dioxide concentrations can promote the growth and earlier flowering ofpollen-­producing plant species, the length and intensity of the pollen seasonexpands along with its geographical range,22 and may increase/intensify allergicreactions.EcosystemsSea level rise in Hawai`i is anticipated to be one foot by 2050 and three feet by2100.23According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: “Conserving native species andecosystems is a challenging task that is destined to become progressively moredifficult as global climate change accelerates in the coming years. Temperature,rainfall patterns, sea level and ocean chemistry, to name but a few, will movebeyond the range of our experience [] Climate change presents Pacific Islands withunique challenges including rising temperatures, sea-­level rise, contamination offreshwater resources with saltwater, coastal erosion, an increase in extremeweather events, coral reef bleaching, and ocean acidification. [] In Hawai‘i, theseasonal and geographic distribution of rainfall and temperature has combined withsteep, mountainous terrain to produce a wide array of island-­scale climate regimes.These varying regimes in turn have supported the diversification and migrationupward of Hawai‘is native plants and animals. Increasing amounts of human-­caused greenhouse gases will likely alter the archipelago’s terrestrial and marineenvironments.”24The role that fossil fuel use by humans plays in contributing to climate change isabundantly clear.Proposed Solution20 New England journal of Medicine.;;­warming-­impacts-­public.pdf23 Sea-­Level Rise and Coastal Land Use in Hawai‘i: A Policy Tool Kit for State and Local Governmentsby the Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy (ICAP), University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant CollegeProgram­sealevelrisetoolkit_web-­1_2.pdf24;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 12
  • 13. Some communities may focus on rapidly increasing the renewable energypenetration level on their grids. This can be done in conjunction with Smart Gridtechnology.Other communities may opt for increased renewable energy in combination with theimportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) a cheaper and cleaner fossil fuel.Still other communities could decide that, rather than waiting for the inevitableescalating rate hikes and for climate change to reach crisis levels, they should findways of leaving the grid now.In the transformation process, all of these communities can save money, increasethe amount of revenue that stays and circulates within their local communities,while creating local jobs, and decreasing the environmental, social and culturalimpacts associated with energy production, transmission and use.Since each island has different resources and different values it only makes soundsocial and economic sense to design each island system differently. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 13
  • 14. CHAPTER 2. ENERGY TERMINOLOGYEnergy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can change forms. All energyoptions in the world are derived from three sources: the sun, the earth, and themoon. Sun energy includes solar, wind, biomass, biofuels, ocean thermal, coal,hydroelectric, oil, ocean waves, and natural gas. Earth sources includes geothermaland nuclear (uranium). The moon causes tides.Substation (Photo by author)Electricity is simply a useful form of energy, from whatever source derived, that canbe transmitted to customers via a transmission and distribution grid.Renewable energy can be either intermittent (solar, wind, ocean wave energy,biomass, hydro) or firm (ocean thermal, geothermal, garbage or waste to energy,biomass, hydro).Intermittent or variable sources are those that are available only part of the time,so when electricity is needed the fuel source may or may not be available toproduce it. For example, solar panels will produce a lot of electricity when the sun isoverhead, some electricity at dawn and dusk, and no electricity at night. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 14
  • 15. Firm electric power, also called “baseload” power, is power that is always availablebecause the fuel source is always available to be converted to electricity. Firm fuelsources include coal, oil, gas, nuclear, geothermal, and ocean thermal energyconversion (OTEC).Note that both biomass and hydro can be intermittent or firm.Maintaining reliable grids requires mostly baseload energy. The exact percentagethat can be renewable depends on the characteristics of the grid, the intermittencyof the energy sources, and their interplay.25It is better to not need energy in the first place (conservation) but if it is used, touse less of it (energy efficiency). Sometimes “energy efficiency” is used to meanboth conservation and efficiency. Energy efficiency can also mean the production ofelectricity for local use, for example, solar electric panels used for householdconsumption.A solar (photovoltaic) panel converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency ratingof a solar panel refers to the maximum percentage of sunlight converted intoelectricity. The capacity factor of the solar panel refers to the average percentageof sunlight converted into electricity. The capacity factor averages sunlightconversion at noon, dusk and night.25 Further analysis requires knowledge of advanced mathematics, physics and electronics. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 15
  • 16. LoadTwo terms which are sometimes confused are watt and watt-­hours. Watt (a unitthat measures the rate of energy conversion) refers to the size of the system, thatis, what is the maximum amount of electricity that a system can produce. Watt-­hours refer to the actual amount of electricity produced. If a one-­watt system isalways turned on, it will produce 24 watt-­hours of electricity per day.A kilowatt equals 1,000 watts, and a megawatt equals one million watts.Rooftop solar energy systems are usually in the kilowatt (kW) and kilowatt-­hour(kWh) range, while utility scale renewable energy systems are usually in themegawatt (MW) and megawatt-­hour (MWh) range.Load is the average amount of electricity that is used over a period of time.Peak load is the maximum amount of electricity that is used, and minimum load isthe least amount of electricity that is used.The O`ahu grid currently has a minimum load of approximately 600 MW, amaximum load of approximately 1,300 MW, and an average load of approximately900 MW.When a utility company provides information about load, it almost always refers topeak load since that is what drives the need for additional generation andtransmission.Waikiki’s peak load in 1998 was 8%;; that is, Waikiki’s maximum load divided byO`ahu’s maximum load (which may not be on the same day but is in the sameyear) was 8% for 1998.Generation that is produced and used in the same general area is called DistributedGeneration (DG). Generation that is produced in one area, and is then sent ontransmission lines to another area, is called Central Generation (CG). CentralGeneration requires transmission lines to be built between where the electricity isproduced and where it is consumed. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 16
  • 17. The charts below delineate system peak load by Company26 (MW), excludingKaua`i’s utility cooperative. The peaks on different islands occur at different times,so the total does not refer to the amount actually being generated at one specifictime.Utility 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004HECO 1186 1216 1266 1230 1281HELCO 198 203 201 197 195MECO 206 216 218 214 218Total 1590 1635 1685 1641 1694HECO Peak and Minimum Loads27Year Peak Demand (Net Minimum Load (Net MW) MW)2005 1230 5312004 1281 5382003 1242 5132002 1204 5022001 1191 5202000 1164 4961999 1120 5021998 1131 4871997 1176 4831996 1157 47526 HEI 2008 statistical supplement and utility forecast, p.19.http://phx.corporate-­ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 17
  • 18. CHAPTER 3. CONSERVATION & ENERGY EFFICIENCYBefore turning to island-­specific potentials for distributed renewable energy, a fewfacts about energy efficiency, the most cost-­effective means to lower costs for allislands, and a short discussion of firm and intermittent sources of energy, arenecessary.Energy efficiency simply means doing the same work with less energy.Hunter Lovins (co-­founder of Rocky Mountain Institute, TIME Magazines 2000Millennium Hero of the Planet & the European financial communitys 2008Sustainability Pioneer) discussed energy efficiency at the Sustainable HawaiiConference (1997), co-­sponsored by Maui Tomorrow and Mauis Grand WaileaResort.Full of energy and positive outlook, Lovins is driven by a need to reduce wastefulenergy consumption -­-­ "The key notion that makes getting off oil possible iscounter-­intuitive: the best and cheapest ‘source’ of energy is not in fact supply, butefficiency. Any effort in these directions will save money, increase America’snational security, and help protect the environment. ... In nearly every case,energy efficiency costs far less than the fuel or electricity it saves."28There is a financial cost to purchasing, installing and operating energy efficiencysystems.Averaged over the lifetime of the equipment, the cost to reduce consumption by1 kWh is 3-­4 cents. 29Compact Fluorescent Light Bulb Light Emitting Diode (LED) Traffic(CFL)30 Light3128 “Making it Last” by Hunter Lovins, August 10, 2004­we-­live-­without-­oil/1018.29 Conversation with Jim Lazar. Mr. Lazar is a Senior Advisory to the Regulatory Assistance Project(RAP), a global, non-­profit team of experts focused on the long-­term economic and environmentalsustainability of the power and natural gas sectors, providing assistance to government officials on abroad range of energy and environmental issues. For 3 decades he has maintained a consultingpractice in electric and natural gas utility ratemaking and resource planning. His clients have includedmunicipal and cooperative electric utilities, natural gas utilities, regulatory commissions, stateconsumer advocates and public interest organizations in Hawai`i, the United States, Canada, Ireland,New Zealand, and Australia.30­lights-­led.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 18
  • 19. CFL’s should replace incandescent light bulbs. Toy ovens, powered by anincandescent light bulb cook the food because practically all of the energy emergingfrom the bulb is heat, not light. Buildings using incandescent lighting have toremove this heat from rooms by using air conditioning. But by switching to CFLs, noheat is created and the room does not need as much cooling.A light-­emitting diode (LED) is based on diode electronics. Currently they are moreexpensive and require specific heat management and current specifications. Theadvantages, however, include longer life, lower energy consumption and smallersize.Meters: Small devices can be installed between a plug and a wall outlet thatmeasure the flow to each device when the device is on. Phantom power loads refersto the electricity used by a device when it is “off.” Often devices use almost asmuch electricity in the off position, which is a "consumer" convenience allowingquick starts. The Energy Detective33 The Energy Detective (TED) costs between $200-­300 (depending on the features desired) plus the cost for an electrician to install it. TED sends real-­time data every 10The Plug-­in Energy Meter minutes to either a& Electricity Cost customers iGoogle gadgetCalculator32 or Google account.32­in-­Energy-­Meter-­and-­Electricity-­Cost-­Calculator/p.aspx33­content/uploads/2009/02/energy-­detective.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 19
  • 20. Solar Water HeatersSolar Screen34 Solar Water Heater35 Solar Water Heater components36Solar water heating, or a solar hot water system, uses water heated by the sun’senergy. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors,along with a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage.The system may use electricity for pumping the fluid, and have a reservoir or tankfor heat storage and subsequent use. Since twenty to thirty percent of a home’stypical energy use is to heat water, a solar hot water system saves a proportionateamount both in displacing fossil fuel use and lowering monthly bills.DaylightingSkylights are horizontal domes or Allowing the sun to provide ambient lightrooftop windows37 for rooms can be done with skylights.3834­content/uploads/2009/10/solar-­water-­heater-­rooftop.jpg36 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 20
  • 21. Rather than blocking off a building from its environment and then creating an off-­setting artificial interior lighting environment, daylighting allows an interactionbetween the two.Although most beneficial in large hotels and buildings found on more populousislands such as O`ahu and Maui, daylighting is a simple mechanism that can beappropriate for large as well as small structures.Solar Shelf Solar Tube Solar Light BulbLight shelves39 placed below Solar Tubes capture dispersed Solar tubeswindows can be used to reflect sunlight and through reflective generatesunlight upward to illuminate the material within the tube, diffuse light.41ceiling, creating general transfers that light intoillumination. rooms.40Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)SWAC Diagram42 SWAC System4339­img/light_shelves.jpg40­tube/41 http://www.zulenet.com43­investors-­fund-­us-­10-­75-­m-­for-­honolulu-­seawater-­air-­conditioning.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 21
  • 22. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) is a great energy-­efficient system. It involvestwo pipes, a U-­shaped ocean-­water pipe and a circular fresh-­water pipe, whichmeet at a heat exchanger. The water in each pipe does not cross into the otherpipe, rather the heat moves from the fresh-­water pipe to the ocean-­water pipe. Theocean water pipe pulls cold water from the lower depths and discharges warmerwater into a warmer layer of the ocean.The fresh-­water pipe brings cool water into buildings, where heat exchangers pullheat out of internal pipes within individual buildings. This alleviates the need forexpensive chillers to be located within each building, where forty percent of thecommercial load is for cooling.“Air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent 35% to 45% ofenergy use in typical office and hotel buildings in Hawaii. ...SWAC is suitable forcoastal developments with large air conditioning demand and reasonable access todeep, cold seawater. Notable areas are southern Kauai, several areas of Oahu, andthe southern 60% or more of the Big Island. A number of studies have beenconducted to evaluate the potential of SWAC in Hawaii, and there is an operatingsystem at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) at KeaholePoint, Hawaii. These studies all show that there is significant potential for SWAC inHawaii. More recent studies show that combining SWAC with thermal energystorage and auxiliary chillers increases the cost effectiveness and applicability ofsuch systems. ...SWAC systems eliminate the need for cooling towers and, as aresult, reduce potable water use, toxic chemical use, and the production ofsewage.”44Cornell University studied this approach in a multi-­year environmental review,which was examined in depth by environmentalists and university researchers. TheUniversity found that the total yearly heat added, via pipe, to a lake located sixmiles from campus was equivalent to one hour of summer sunshine upon the lake’ssurface. That is, over the course of the year, the sun accounted for 99.9% of theheat entering the lake, less than one tenth of one percent would have been addedas a result of the SWAC system. The SWAC system at Cornell, as well as one inToronto, were installed by a Hawai`i company, Makai Ocean Engineering.Deep-­water air-­conditioning is appropriate for major cities located near the oceanor near deep lakes, as it has the advantages of low cost, and great savings on bothenergy and air conditioning chemicals. Utilizing the systems described above, deep-­water air-­conditioning is suitable for large, midsize and small communities, as wellas universities, hospitals or hotel resorts.Does pursuing Energy Efficiency create a Conflict of Interest for the utility?44 Testimony of Dr. David Rezachek in Hawai`i PUC Docket 2005-­145 re: Sea Water Air Conditioning.­2009-­plant/Rezachek.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 22
  • 23. There is an inherent conflict of competing interests for a utility, designed tomaximize its profits by selling more electricity, if it is at the same time being paidwith ratepayer money to help customers reduce their energy bills through theinstallation of energy efficiency devices.Because of this conflict, the Hawai`i PUC removed energy efficiency programs fromHECO, MECO and HELCO control and assigned oversight of the programs to anindependent company.To further confuse a confused playing field, the utility nonetheless collects moneyfrom ratepayers through each monthly bill, and then transfers the money toanother entity that monitors the energy efficiency program. Currently ScienceApplications International Corporation administers “Hawaii Energy”, the ratepayer-­funded conservation and efficiency program, under a contract with the PUC.45The mission of Hawaii Energy is “to educate, encourage and incentivize theratepayers of Hawaii to invest in conservation behaviors and efficiency measures toreduce Hawaiis dependence on imported fuels.”46Residential incentives offered by Hawaii Energy include “solar water heating, highefficiency water heaters, heat pumps, compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), central airconditioning (AC) maintenance, ENERGY STAR® appliances, bounty program, wholehouse and solar attic fans.”47Hawaii Energy also provides commercial incentives for lighting, pumps, motors, airconditioners, window films, energy studies and sub-­metering (allowing a landlord,condominium or homeowner’s association with one meter to bill tenants and lesseesfor individually measured utility usage).48Sustainable SaundersSecond to only the military, the University of Hawai`i, Manoa campus, is the largestconsumer of electricity in the state.49 In the late 1990s the entire university systemwas connected to the HECO grid with only one meter, making it impossible for theUniversity to know which buildings on campus were wasting energy.In 2006 a group of students, led by dynamic coordinator Shanah Trevenna, formeda group called Help Us Bridge (HUB).50 In 2007 HUB surveyed the majority of theoccupants of Saunders Hall regarding their energy use and found that “90% of thebuilding’s energy was used for lighting and air conditioning, while the top two45­us;; Email:;;;; Facebook:;; Twitter: @MyHawaiiEnergy46­us47­us48 Id.49 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 23
  • 24. complaints by residents were that the lights were too bright and the temperaturetoo cold.”51In an effort to make energy savings exciting, Trevenna wanted to have each floorcompete against one another, with part of the savings going to the winning floor,part to the building as a whole, and part to the university. At first the UniversityAdministration balked at creating financial arrangements, but then the energy pricespike of 2008 hit and the University’s HECO bill rose from $15M to $21M in a year.After Trevenna was able to get a local vendor to donate a micro wind system and asolar panel for installation on the roof of Saunders Hall, the University quicklyadopted an energy strategy,52 statistics were gathered on buildings that wastedenergy,53 and over 500 megawatt-­hours of savings was documented for particularprograms: AC Shutdown Project (411 MWh saved), Incandescent Bulb Elimination(42 MWh saved), and Delamping Project (107 MWh saved).In 2010 the Saunders Hall floor competition started: “For the first time, areducing energy consumption.”54 Saunders Hall’s annual energy bill has beenreduced by $150,000.55 Part of the savings was given to the department as areward.Maximum Achievable Potential Efficiency Savings56Building Type Potential SavingsResidential New Construction 36%Residential Retrofit 34%Commercial New Construction 30%Commercial Retrofit 19%51­Tipping%20Point%20Summary%20of%20sustainable%20saunders.pdf52­cap.pdf53­money-­to-­stay-­uncomfortable/;; See also: NREL/SR-­ 7A40-­52442, p. 8: “Maximum Achievable Potential Efficiency Case” as described inAssessment of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Potential, a 2004 report prepared by GlobalEnergy Partners for HECO. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 24
  • 25. Hawai`i Energy Efficiency PenetrationHawaii Electricity Consumption: Total and Per Capita57HECO collected ratepayer money to finance energy efficiency programs from 1996-­2009. Thereafter HECO continued to collect, but the funds are spent by HawaiiEnergy, the independent energy efficiency utility noted earlier that is under contractwith the Hawai`i PUC.According to Hawaii Energy’s Annual Plan (2011),58 the penetration, or level ofachieved energy efficiency, has underperformed for two key reasons. First,consumer confidence has dropped significantly since the 2008 economic recession,which is reflected in a lack of willingness by consumers to participate in energyefficiency programs, such a purchasing new appliances. Second, in the early years57 DBEDT: Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of the EnvironmentalResponse, Energy and Food Security Tax Report (January 3, 2012), Pursuant to Act 73, Session Lawsof Hawaii 2010.­reports/2012-­clean-­energy-­initiative.pdf58­07-­05v4FINAL.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 25
  • 26. (1996-­2005) the consumers who were considered the easiest to reach wereenrolled in the program. Now the target is hard-­to-­reach (HTR) customers,including renters and small businesses. Thus, the program is seeing diminishedenergy savings returns for each incentive dollar invested.Efforts to reduce residential demand focus on two key areas: Solar Water Heaters(SWH) on residential roofs and Compact Florescent Lights (CFL). CFL’s account forapproximately 50% of total savings.Hawaii Energy’s 2011 Plan also notes that the energy efficiency implementationprogram is experiencing uneven penetration among the islands. Energy efficiency penetration (2009)59 Island Percent Oahu 9.3 Maui 9.3 Kauai 7.1 Big Island 6.2 Average 8.8A June 2012 report by the American Council for an Energy-­Efficient Economy(ACEEE) looks at large-­scale energy efficiencies.The report “A Defining Framework for Intelligent Efficiency”60 notes that about 22%of the U.S. energy consumption could be avoided by using "intelligent efficiency."This requires continuing the installation of individual energy efficiency devices, butalso going the next step, by looking at the efficiency of large complex systems suchas “entire cities, transportation systems, and other networks.” The energy savingsand productivity gains would add hundreds of billions of dollars to the economy.59 DBEDT Renewable Energy in Hawaii (June 2011).­studies/2011-­renewable-­energy.pdf60 Written y Neal Elliott, Maggie Molina and Dan Trombley, American Council for an Energy-­EfficientEconomy (ACEEE). Report Number E125 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 26
  • 27. CHAPTER 4. CONTINUOUS ENERGY RESOURCESContinuous (baseload) or “firm” energy resources are available all of the time -­ theycan operate a system “24/7.” This is critical in Hawai`i since the peak loadoccurs after sunset.61 Baseload energy can also be used to firm up intermittentloads.Fossil FuelsThere are three types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum oil and natural gas.Coal Delivery & Storage System at the AES 180 MW Coal Plant, Kalaeloa, O`ahu(Photo by author)Crude natural gas, often just called “gas,” exists in large underground deposits.Natural gas can be refined into various products including natural gas/methane(CH4), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and various other hydrocarbons.61 Conversation with Jim Lazar, a Senior Advisory to the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 27
  • 28. The cleanest of these “dirty” fuels is natural gas (CH4). It is the cleanest in termsof both its extraction and its use. Hawai`i relies on the “dirtier” types of fossilfuels, namely coal and oil.Natural gas and petroleum fuels provides an effective way to maintain steadyelectricity load (supply). That is, the output of gas turbines can change rapidly tooffset fluctuations in the electricity produced by intermittent renewable energy(solar and wind) generators.In 2004 the Hawaii Energy Policy Forum released a report on liquefied natural gas(LNG) that identified some of the complexities and issues surrounding its use inHawai`i:“LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to -­256 °F, at which point it liquefies andoccupies 1/600th the volume that it does in its gaseous state. LNG is notpressurized or flammable in its liquefied state. ...In recent years, [] the LNG market has undergone a dramatic transformation.Production costs have declined and the large number of new supply projects hastransformed the LNG market into a buyer’s market, where buyers have much moreflexibility in contract terms and prices are significantly lower. Of course, a change ofthis magnitude is likely to be disruptive to the existing energy infrastructure, butLNG clearly deserves a close look as Hawaii considers its future energy strategy. ...Looking forward to 2020, using LNG instead of maintaining current fuel planswould reduce the global warming potential of Oahu power generation byapproximately 25 percent[]. It should be noted, however, that LNG production andtransport consumes more energy than oil production and transport, so the truereduction is closer to 15 percent when the entire production chain is taken intoaccount.If Hawaii was developing its energy infrastructure from scratch, LNG wouldlikely be the ideal fuel, especially given the available options. It would allow theState to limit its dependence on oil, it is clean burning, and it could serve as auseful ‘bridge’ fuel ...Liquefied natural gas (LNG) consists almost entirely of methane, and it is thecleanest burning of all fossil fuels. The main byproducts of combustion of naturalgas are carbon dioxide and water vapor. At the other end of the spectrum, coal andfuel oil both emit relatively high quantities of pollutants, including nitrogen oxides(NOx) and sulfur dioxides (SO2). Combustion of these fuels may also releaseparticulate matter into the environment.” 6262 “On Evaluating Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Options for the State of Hawaii” (Final Report, January2004) Prepared by Dr. Fereidun Fesharaki (Principal Investigator);; Dr. Jeff Brown (ProjectCoordinator);; Mr. Shahriar Fesharaki;; Ms. Tomoko Hosoe;; Mr. Jon Shimabukuro, for the HawaiiEnergy Policy Project University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 28
  • 29. Emission Levels from Combustion of Various Fossil Fuels (pounds per billion BTU of energy input) Pollutant Natural Gas Oil Coal Carbon Dioxide 117,000 164,000 208,000 Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208 Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457 Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591 Particulates 7 84 2,744 Mercury 0 0.007 0.016In 2007, the Energy Policy Forum released a second report:63“There is a large amount of “stranded” gas in the Asia-­Pacific region which couldsupply Hawaii, including domestic gas from Alaska. If Hawaii chooses to sign along-­term contract, it is essentially claiming proven gas reserves for its own use for20-­30 years, which is the typical time frame for a long-­term contract.”Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) offers another option for importing and usingNatural Gas within Hawai`i. However, for a given unit of energy, CNG takes upmore storage space than gasoline. Therefore it is not often used in long-­rangetransportation.Fuel Cells powered by Natural GasFuel cells powered by natural gas can be used to stabilize fluctuations in powergeneration by intermittent energy sources, and to provide additional baseloadpower.Fuel cells are now available to the public. Cutting edge technology is being rolledout by companies such as Clear Edge Power, United Technologies, and BloomEnergy, as new natural gas reserves are being discovered.64“Bloom Energy, a Silicon Valley based start-­up has created quite a stir in the energyindustry. It is about to launch its Bloom Box -­ a fuel cell-­based energy technologywhich will generate relatively affordable and clean energy. Top companies likeGoogle, eBay, Lockheed Martin, WalMart, and Bank of America are already testingthe device.”6563 Evaluating Natural Gas Import Options for the State of Hawaii (April 2007) Prepared for The HawaiiEnergy Policy Forum, The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute & The Office of Hawaiian Affairs by FACTSInc. Honolulu, Hawaii https://www.eere-­­Evaluating_Natural_Gas_Import_Options_for_Hawaii-­Revised.pdf64­cells65­box-­disruptive-­energy-­device-­by.html Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 29
  • 30. Bloom Energy Servers are about as tall as an adult and can use virtually anyhydrocarbon fuel. Bloom Energy will revolutionize the power generation industry bycutting out the middle-­man (the grid).66The Gas Company has a gas grid in urban Honolulu, smaller grids in other urbanareas around the state, and a fleet of gas trucks to bring gas to individualcustomers. A similar infrastructure might be needed for Natural Gas.Natural Gas ImpactsThe use of Natural Gas, like all other energy options -­ both renewable and non-­renewable -­ has positive and negative economic, environmental, social, cultural andclimate impacts.For example, “fracking” or hydraulic fracturing, is increasingly used to extractNatural Gas. This involves sending pressurized water and chemicals into a bore holeto break up rocks, a technique that can contaminate a water table and causeearthquakes. Some natural gas extraction sites recover gas without fracking.Spending money on creating a Natural Gas infrastructure means not spending thatmoney on something else (avoided cost). The danger is that once Natural Gas isdesignated as a “bridging technology” and society learns to rely on its use as partof the energy solution, then it may become more difficult to consider otheralternatives.The Jones Act (Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 that regulatesmaritime commerce) might prevent Hawai`i from being able to import natural gasat a reasonable price. The Jones Act requires that all goods transported by waterbetween American ports be shipped in American built, owned, operated andmanned vessels.On March 13, 2012 Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz67 spoke at UH Manoa on man-­made barriers that restrict lower energy prices in Hawai`i: “There are three thatobviously seem to glare at an outsider as he looks around. One of them is the lackof competition on inter-­island transport [] The second is high electricity prices. []The third distortion that affects Hawaii a great deal is the Jones Act. [] This is thelaw that requires American ships to carry cargo between American ports. [] You66 Joseph Eugene Stiglitz is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University. He is arecipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001) and the John Bates Clark Medal(1979). He served in the Clinton Administration as the chair of the Presidents Council of EconomicAdvisors (1995 – 1997). At the World Bank, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Economist(1997 – 2000), in the time when unprecedented protest against international economic organizationsstarted, most prominently with the Seattle WTO meeting of 1999. He was fired by the World Bank forexpressing dissent with its policies. He was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 30
  • 31. can’t use trans-­shipment. You can’t go from Asia, drop off something in Hawai`i,pick up something in Hawaii and transmit it to the United States. And so it reallyincreases the cost of shipping. So while your advantage is your location, it’s alsoyour disadvantage. It imposes a disproportionate burden on Hawai`i. [] it is anoutrageous restriction on trade in a country that says it believes in free markets.”68Michael Hansen, President Hawaii Shippers Council, noted that, “The kind ofoceangoing ship required to carry natural gas is a highly-­specialized tanker knownas an LNG carrier, which carries the liquefied natural gas (LNG) at very coldtemperatures and at very high pressures. Large scale use of natural gas in Hawaii,such as to fire power plants, would require the use of large oceangoing LNG carriersto bring in the fuel. There are no Jones Act ships available to transport the LNGfrom the contiguous United States or Alaska to Hawaii. No deep draft LNG carrierhas been built in a U.S. shipyard for at least 30 years. [] In the mid-­2000’s, amajor California-­based natural gas distributer, Sempra LNG, investigated buildingJones Act LNG carriers in the U.S. to carry natural gas from Alaska to the U.S. WestCoast. They concluded that the major shipbuilding yards in the U.S. could not buildLNG carriers soon enough to meet their long term resource development schedule,and, if the ships were ever built in a U.S. yard, their capital cost would be so greatas to make the project unworkable. [] Alternatively, there are extensive newnatural gas fields being developed in offshore Western Australia and in Indonesia.[] There is a significant costing issue associated with this supply.”69GeothermalGeothermal70 (earth heat) has been known and used by people around the world forat least 10,000 years in many places, including areas currently known as Russia,Iceland, Hungary, New Zealand, the United States, and Italy. In many placesaround the globe reservoirs of steam and hot water are trapped near the surface inareas of past volcanic activity and are brought to the surface by geysers, steamvents and hot springs. National Parks such as Yellowstone have evolved aroundgeysers that draw millions of visitors annually. Hot Springs, Arkansas is named forspring-­fed geothermal baths.The first use of geothermal power for electricity occurred in Italy in the very earlyyears of the 20th century. Today Iceland receives most of its power fromgeothermal heat and electricity plants.68 (Time: 53:00-­1:04:04).69 “No Natural Gas for Hawaii with the Jones Act,” Hawaii Free Press, April 16, 2012.­Natural-­Gas-­for-­Hawaii-­with-­Jones-­Act-­Ships.aspx70 For additional information, See: Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie,­1.htm;;;;;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 31
  • 32. The siting of geothermal facilities can have major environmental impacts, as drillingwells can disturb underground geological formations. Open-­cycle geothermalfacilities emit waste gases into the air, while closed-­cycle geothermal facilities re-­inject the waste back into the earth via injection wells, making the extent of anydamage difficult to identify and/or analyze.The operation of closed-­cycle geothermal facilities usually has comparatively lowenvironmental and greenhouse gas impacts.Geothermal heat pump (GHP)technology exploits the nearlyconstant temperature of soil andgroundwater near the Earth’ssurface to provide highly efficientspace heating, space cooling, andwater heating services. Geothermal Heat Pumps71The Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted an extensive study, releasedin 2006, that explored the future impacts of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)on the United States in the 21st Century.72 The study concluded that by almost anymeasure, “the accessible U.S. EGS resource base is enormous – greater than 13million quads or 130,000 times the current annual consumption of primary energyin the United States.”73 The study focused only on what exists within the top 10kilometers, while recognizing that drill bits today can dig down 30 kilometers.Geothermal ImpactsHistorically, the major impact from using open cycle geothermal is the emission ofwaste stream into the air. A potential, and major, impact today is the effort bygeothermal proponents to secure exemptions from the environmental reviewprocess and public notification requirements;; this is currently stirring up the “pot”of community resentment.71 http://home-­heating-­­heating-­system-­accessories-­1.jpg72 Id., pages 1-­15. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 32
  • 33. Ocean Thermal Energy ConversionOTEC can be thought of as a reverse refrigerator. While refrigerators use electricityto create temperature differentials, OTEC systems use temperature differentials tocreate electricity. Both can use the same working fluid located within a closed semi-­circular piping system. Ocean Thermal Resources74Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems create usable energy throughthe differential in temperature between two ocean layers. Large temperaturedifferentials between layers of the ocean occur in the tropics in areas withoutcontinental shelves. There are only a few hundred sites around the world wherethere are sharp differences in temperature layers close to the coastline and nearelectric transmission grids. Most of these are islands, including Hawai`i.Professor Gerard Nihous, Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, HawaiiNational Marine Renewable Energy Center, has estimated that 50,000 MW of OTECcan be installed worldwide without disturbing the ocean’s dynamic energy system. 7574 A Preliminary Assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources.­projects/otec-­thermal-­resource/See also­content/uploads/2010/01/Updated-­Extractable-­Ocean-­Thermal-­Resources-­2007.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 33
  • 34. Closed Cycle OTEC7676 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 34
  • 35. Concentrated Solar PowerAlthough usually considered an intermittent source of power, Concentrated SolarPower (CSP) systems can store heat and produce electricity hours after the sun hasset, making it a source of “firm” power. CSP systems are built using aluminum andglass, but not silicon, which is sometimes scarce and costly. Unlike the moretraditional flat photovoltaic panels, CSP systems use a parabolic mirror to capturethe rays of the sun and focus it on a pipe, heating its liquid contents into a gas tofire a gas turbine. One negative impact of using thermal storage is the amount ofwater needed for cooling purposes.The first commercial CSP plants were built in California in the mid to late 1980s.CSP dropped out of the picture as fossil fuel prices fell, but in the 21 st centuryrenewed interest has developed in Europe and the U.S.“CSP is being widely commercialized and the CSP market has seen about 740 MWof generating capacity added between 2007 and the end of 2010. [] A further 1.5GW of parabolic-­trough and power-­tower plants were under construction in the US,and contracts signed for at least another 6.2 GW. [] The global market has beendominated by parabolic-­trough plants, which account for 90 percent of CSPplants.”77Torresol Energy’s Gemasolar, located in Fuentes de Andalucia, Seville, Spain, is theworld’s first solar power plant that runs an uninterrupted 24 hours. It has amaximum output of 19.9 MW, and has 15 hours of thermal energy storage.Continued research, development, and commercialization of CSP systems may leadto a point at which CSP units can prove to be a cost-­effective replacement forNatural Gas.78Luz CSP Facility, California79 Gemasolar CSP Facility, Spain8077 International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar Power (2010) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 35
  • 36. Micro-­CSPSOPOGY (SOlar POwer enerGY), a Honolulu-­based company founded in 2002,focuses on building small-­scale concentrated solar power systems. Sopogy offersrooftop CSP, with a trough that flips over to protect itself from adverse weatherconditions. The SopoHelios measures twelve by seven feet and weighs 168pounds.81 The system can be ground or roof-­mounted.The amount of electricity and thermal energy storage that can be produced on eachroof is highly dependent upon the available flat roof space and the strength of theroof. SopoHelios8279 This line-­concentrator power plant, with troughs built by Luz, is one of nine plants that have acombined output of 354 megawatts -­ the largest being 80 megawatts -­ operated by Kramer JunctionPower. It is located in the Mojave Desert in Kramer Junction, California, and was built in the 1980s.During operation, oil in the receiver tubes collects the concentrated solar energy as heat and ispumped to a power block located at the power plant for generating electricity.80­cw4e8863a4e96cd/gemasolar-­2011-­12.JPG81­sh-­111012.pdf82 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 36
  • 37. CSP technology families83 Line Focus Collectors track the Point Focus Collectors track sun along a single axis. the sun along two axes and focus the solar energy at a single point receiver.Stationary Linear Fresnel Reflectors84 Towers85devicesare simpler toinstall andmaintainMobile Parabolic Troughs86 Parabolic Dishes87receivers andfocusingdevices moveto follow thesun.According to "Sustainable and Sensible Energy" by FRMethods (2011),“Hawaii’s abundant sunshine and the storage capabilities of Concentrated SolarPower (CSP) allow for a power source that behaves very close to a baseload (firm,not intermittent) power. [] The flexibility in design of a CSP system allows for afraction of the land use when compared with wind, and its application doesn’tirreparably damage the integrity of the land.Clean: Concentrated Solar Power is 100% renewable and emission free. Proven:Commercially used for over 25 years. Reliable: Abundant sunshine and storage83 International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar Power (2010)­solartwo_barstow_2000_low.jpg86­content/uploads/skytrough1.jpg87­content/uploads/2D-­parabolic-­dish-­solar-­thermal-­plant1.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 37
  • 38. allows technology to behave like baseload power. Footprint: Land use is 1/8th ofwhat is required for wind.”HydropowerThe most common forms of hydropower are Pumped Storage Hydro (PSH) and run-­of-­the-­stream / in-­line hydro (in which part of the stream is diverted into a pipewith a turbine at the downward end just before the water re-­enters the stream). In-­line hydro can be used anywhere there is water flowing through a pipe, includingstorm water pipes, sewage pipes, and drinking water pipes.In the early decades of the 20th century hydropower provided almost half of theelectricity produced in the U.S. Since then hydropower production has increased,while at the same time there has been an explosion in the use of oil, coal, naturalgas and nuclear power. Today hydropower accounts for 10% of the nation’s energyproduction.Commercial hydroelectric plants are based on two major technologies: reactionturbines (submerged wheels) and impulse turbines (surface buckets or blades).88The major advantage of hydroelectric power is its ability to quickly respond tochanges in load and to electric grid disturbances. Puueo Hydroelectric Plant, Hilo89The amount of electricity that can be generated by a hydroelectric plant is relatedto the height of the impounded water and the flow (volume) of water. (Photo byauthor)88 Photo by author. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 38
  • 39. Water System Power PlantsStrange as it might sound, water in existing pipe systems can be converted intobaseload renewable electricity. As noted above, existing drinking water, wastewater and irrigation water systems can generate electricity without significantlyaffecting their operational characteristics,90 although there may be some minorimpacts for storm water and sewage water systems, and water accumulation andcontaminants must be analyzed.91In-­stream “Pressure Reduction” Turbine Power Plants convert excess pressure intoelectricity. They are common in Europe,92 and some exist within the U.S.93In-­stream “Water Flow” Turbine Power Plants can also convert water flows intoelectricity. Discarded water from toilets, sinks and showers, can hit turbine bladesas it falls down the pipes, powering a generator.94 Water flows as low as two gallonsper minute or drops as low as two feet can produce net electricity.All hydropower facilities in the U.S. are under the jurisdiction of the Federal EnergyRegulatory Commission (FERC). However, small (< 15 MW) hydropower systemsutilizing existing water pipes are exempt from federal oversight.The Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) is the municipal water utility on O`ahu.The BWS system consists of ninety-­four active potable water sources, 170reservoirs, and over 2,000 miles of pipeline. The BWS system delivers 150 milliongallons of potable water a day to customers. It also operates a smaller, 7.5 milliongallons per day, recycled water system for irrigation and industrial purposes inEwa.95The Hawai‘i Island Department of Water Supply (DWS) operates twenty-­four watersystems from sixty-­seven sources. Except in South Hilo and Kona, the individualwater systems are not interconnected.9690 Drinking water hydropower systems require the use of stainless steel equipment and mineral oil asthe lubricant.91 Micropower Pros and Cons: http://www.alternative-­energy-­­hydro-­power-­pros-­and-­cons/;; Energy recovery in existing infrastructures with small hydropower plants: Multipurposeschemes – Overview and examples. European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA).;; Energy Systems and Design Ltd.:­content/uploads/2011/08/LH1000-­Manual2010.pdf92;; Utah:­prepares-­to-­tap-­water-­line-­hydro-­power.html;; Portland:­pipe-­hydropower-­deal-­for-­portland/94­Integration_of_small_hydro_turbines_into_existing_water_infrastructures.pdf;; HyDro Power: TurningToilet Wastewater Into Electricity by Maria Popova (2010). BWS Annual Report (2010 – 2011) pp. 1, 4.­%202011%20BWS%20Annual%20Report_PHOTOS.pdf96 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 39
  • 40. The Maui Department of Water Supply (DWS) provides potable water in five areas:Central Maui, Upcountry Maui, West Maui, East Maui, and Moloka`i.97There are several potable drinking water systems on Moloka`i: the Maui CountyDepartment of Water Supply (DWS) in eastern Moloka`i;; the State Department ofHawaiian Home Lands (DHHL), and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (DOA).98Molokai Ranch/Moloka`i Properties Limited (MPL) operates three PUC-­licensedwater companies in western Moloka`i: Waiola O Moloka`i, Moloka`i Public UtilitiesInc. (MPU), and Mosco.99The Lana`i Department of Water Supply (DWS) is a privately-­owned water utility,regulated by the PUC.100This is a potential and largely untapped hydro-­power-­generating resource withinHawai`i.BiofuelsWhile there are numerous types of renewable energy than can create electricity,there are only a few options for transportation.Ground transportation can be powered by gasoline, biofuel, hydrogen or electricity.Air transportation can be powered by jet fuel (fossil fuel) or biofuel. Marinetransportation can be powered by coal, oil, nuclear and biofuel. In the short termbiofuels should be used for all transportation needs. In the longer term electricitycan replace biofuels for ground and marine transportation, reserving biofuels foraviation.Using waste oil, such as used french-­fry grease, to generate biodiesel, is aneffective way of reusing a waste product. Having small fields of sustainably growncrops to produce biodiesel for limited local use is also an alternative to traditionalfossil fuel use. Both methods can produce small amounts of biodiesel that can beused in heavy machinery and heavy industrial transportation vehicles. Ideally, thecrops grown should be able to survive without irrigation (a major source of energyuse) and not grown with fossil fuel-­based fertilizers and pesticides;; nitrogenfertilizers are a very potent greenhouse gas.The leading biofuel producer in Hawai`i is Pacific Biodiesel. In 1996 PacificBiodiesel started operating the first modern commercial biodiesel plant in theUnited States. Pacific Biodiesel started by re-­using waste material at the centralMaui landfill. The company then began creating sustainable biodiesel facilities thatworked hand-­in-­hand with local farmers and local investors.97;; State agency bars plan to shut down Molokai utilities By Edwin Tanji, The Maui News. (June 7,2008): Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 40
  • 41. Pacific Biodiesel’s newest facility is located in Keaau, on Hawai`i Island, has acapacity of 8,000 gallons per day and will utilize zero-­waste, super-­efficientprocessing technology. Pacific Biodiesel has recently been reorganized, and is nowcalled Pacific Biodiesel Technologies. The company currently manages biodieselplants in Hawaii, Oregon and Texas.Pacific Biodiesel believes that “a small environmental footprint is an essential aspectof a sustainable biodiesel facility.101 Pacific Biodiesel facilities “are designed to bethe most flexible in the industry, accepting multiple feedstocks, and providingmaximum scalability ... [and use] advanced waterless technologies.”102In 2006 Pacific Biodiesel’s co-­founder Kelly King, along with activist Annie Nelsonand actress/film maker Daryl Hannah, founded the Sustainable Biodiesel Alliance(SBA).103The Gas Company104 is developing a biofuel pilot plant in West O`ahu to produceone million gallons a year of renewable fuel from fish oil.105Crop Conversions106Crop Gallons/AcreAlgae 1500-­3000Palm Oil 500Coconut 230Soy 60-­100Sunflower 80Hemp 26101­content/uploads/2011/12/Renewable-­fuel-­project-­uses-­fish-­oil-­to-­make-­natural-­gas-­Hawaii-­News-­Honolulu-­Star-­Advertiser.pdf106 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 41
  • 42. CHAPTER 5. VARIABLE ENERGY RESOURCESUnlike firm baseload power, variable (intermittent) resources are available some ofthe time but not all of the time. When they are available, over the course of a dayor year, the resource fluctuates in output from zero to its maximum.Ocean Wave EnergyWave Energy Systems should not be confused with waves crashing down alongreefs and the coastline. Rather, they get their energy from the wave action ofwater rising and falling in the open ocean. Waves are generally far more predictableand consistent than wind, or even sun, which can be blocked by clouds. Thus waveenergy systems are one of the most baseload or firm of the variable (intermittent)energy systems. A full scale wave energy system was built and tested off the coastof Australia in 2010 (although a powerful storm subsequently destroyed the unit).The system best-­suited for Hawaii is the Oceanlinx Oscillating Water Column, whichcan generate net energy from a six-­inch ocean swell, has only one moving part,located above the water line, and uses no oils or toxic fluids. The InternationalAcademy of Science chose the Oceanlinx system as one of the Top 10 MostOutstanding Technologies of 2006. In general, the Oceanlinx system has the lowestcost per energy output of any wave energy system. There are plans to deploy asmall Oceanlinx system off the coast of Maui.The Oceanlinx Blow-­Hole (Oscillating Water Column)Wave Energy System107 consists of a compartmentwith water at the bottom and air on top. When awave arrives, the water level rises and air orair/water is forced out of the blowhole. When thewave recedes, air is sucked back into the blowhole.A two-­way turbine spins in the same direction asthe air goes in and out, generating electricity.Oceanlinx and MECO have been in negotiation for years. The utility “talks the talk”on finding alternatives to fossil fuels, but has dragged out the negotiations. In 2009the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which oversees all hydroelectricfacilities, issued a preliminary permit to Oceanlinx.108Wave Analysis (2012)According to the U.S. Department of Energy (January 27, 2012)109 in Tapping intoWave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030, “The wave and tidalresource assessments, combined with preliminary results from ongoing DOE107 Star Advertiser, Feb 12, 2012.109 Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wace Energy Resource , EPRI TechnicalReport 2011 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 42
  • 43. assessments of ocean current, ocean thermal, and hydropower opportunities,indicate that water power can potentially provide 15% of our nation’s electricity by2030. The West Coast, including Alaska and Hawaii, has especially high potential forwave energy development.”110Waves are different in Hawai`i than along the U.S. mainland coastlines, since theHawai`i region experiences a greater variety of orientations and prevailing wavedirections.The total available wave energy resources along the U.S. outer continental shelf (atan offshore depth of 200 meters) is estimated to be 2,640 billion kWh/yr.;; close to130 billion kWh/yr. is located in and around Hawai`i. However, only part of theavailable wave energy is considered to be a recoverable resource (that is, it can becaptured for electricity use). The recoverable resources for the U.S. is about 1,170billion kWh/yr., of which 80 billion kWh/yr. are in Hawaii. This is eight times thestatewide energy demand of 10 billion kWh/yr.Wave Analysis (2004)According to EPRI’s Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues(2004),111 “Like any electrical generating facility, a wave power plant will affect theenvironment in which it is installed and operates. [] We conclude that, given propercare in site planning and early dialogue with local stakeholders, offshore wavepower promises to be one of the most environmentally benign electrical generationtechnologies. We recommend that early demonstration and commercial offshorewave power plants include rigorous monitoring of the environmental effects ofplants and similarly rigorous monitoring of a nearby undeveloped site in its naturalstate (before and after controlled impact studies).112In the summer of 2007 HECO hosted several meetings on ocean energy. HECOwrote a Draft Report that rejected ocean energy. The Final Report was re-­written bythe group and included a preface written by LOLs Assistant Executive Director KatBrady. The Ocean Energy Development Guidelines113 (July 2007) were approved byall present except those who represented agencies and weren’t able to adopt aposition within the group.114110 Section 4: Results for Available Wave Energy Resource Table 4-­4 Hawaii Available Wave EnergyResource by Major Island, p. 4-­3­wave-­and-­tidal-­ocean-­power-­15-­water-­power-­2030111 Principal Investigator: George Hagerman. Contributors: Roger Bedard (EPRI) December 21, The EPRI 2004 Estimate for Hawaii of 300 TWh/yr and the current Estimate for the Outer Shelf of130 TWh/yr are not comparable. EPRIs 2004 estimate for Hawaii was along the northern boundary ofthe U.S. as far west as the Midway Islands. The present estimate extends only as far west as Kauai,and encompassed the entire circumference of the islands (not just their northern exposure).113­energy-­development-­guidelines-­final-­word.pdf114 The members of the group are list in Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 43
  • 44. Ocean Energy Development Guidelines Preface: E Komo Mai (Welcome), Mahalo for considering Hawai`i as a site for your ocean energy project.As island people we are acutely aware of climate change and its impacts, as well as our responsibility to be good global citizens by reducing our carbon emissions andfootprint. Our people realize that to do this we must aggressively increase our use of local resources, such as our surrounding ocean, to produce energy. Our legislature just passed, and the Governor signed Act 234 – Hawai`i’s first bill regulating greenhouse gases.There are several things about Hawai`i that differentiate us from any other place on the planet. culture -­ Native Hawaiian rights are protected under the Hawai`i State Constitution -­ Our natural resources are protected under the Hawai`i State Constitution -­ All beaches in Hawai`i are public – meaning everyone has equal access -­ All submerged lands are held in trust for the people of Hawai`i -­ Native Hawaiians are the indigenous people of these islands -­ Our two official languages are Hawaiian and English -­ We are the most isolated archipelago on the planet -­ We are the most oil dependent state in the nation A broad cross-­section of our O`ahu community was convened to create a tool to help you better understand our communities, our relationship with the ocean, and the kinds of issues that are of interest to our people relating to ocean energy.We hope that you find our efforts helpful!WindThe sun heats different parts of the earth (water, land, forests, glaciers, cementpavements) at different times (day, night, summer, winter) and at different rates.When warm air rises, colder air moves in. A wind energy system transforms thekinetic energy of the wind’s movement into mechanical power (raising water,grinding grain, pushing a sail) or into electrical power. There are two basic designsof wind electric turbines: vertical-­axis (egg-­beater) style, and the horizontal-­axis(propeller-­style) machines. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 44
  • 45. Wind power technology has been used for at least thirty-­five centuries. “At the endof the 19th century there were more than 30,000 windmills in Europe, usedprimarily for the milling of grain and water pumping.”115Horizontal and Vertical Wind Shanah Trevenna and the Saunders HallTurbines 116 (University of Hawaii, Manoa) Vertical Axis Wind System donated by Energy Management GroupIn 1991 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of the Department of Energy (DOE)estimated that of the wind power resource available in the United States, 9% of thelower forty-­eight states had "good" (class 4) or "excellent" (greater than class 4)wind resources, and the total amount of U.S. land with "excellent" windcharacteristics, with moderate exclusions, is just over one percent of total landarea. This would support approximately 3,500 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity,with nearly eight megawatts (MW) of rated capacity per square kilometer. Therated (peak) wind capacity of 3,500 GW is about five times the 713 GW of 1999installed conventional utility and non-­utility generating capacity in the UnitedStates.117Installed conventional utility and non-­utility generating capacity in the UnitedStates has nearly doubled since 1991, to about 1200 GW.118The potential wind power resource of the U.S., or what could be developed withoutincurring undue nuisance noise, and adverse impacts to birds, visibility or health, isestimated to be between twice to ten times the entire electricity consumption of theU.S.119115 PNL, August, 1991. Report PNL-­7789;; Id. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 45
  • 46. The use of only wind energy in conjunction with batteries (storage) could achieveenergy self-­sufficiency for all of our energy needs: i.e., heat, light, electricity andtransportation.Ironically, fossil fuel-­based utilities favor large central station wind systems becausethey require the utility to keep large amounts of spinning reserve or some otherform of energy storage, thereby perpetuating their existence and insuring arevenue stream.That is because utilities using fossil fuel must be ready to “ramp up” to match theload (demand) when there is a sudden drop in available wind supply. HECO isspending $2,400,000,000 ($2.4B) over a period of six years to upgrade itsgenerators, in part to handle wind fluctuations. The percentage of upgrades beingmade specifically to handle intermittent energy resources, out of the total cost, hasnot been publicly identified.Furthermore, these costs are not reflected in the price of purchasing wind fromindependent producers, but rather are hidden in rate cases. Thus ratepayers pay forboth wind and the fossil fuel used when the wind dies down. Utilities can appear tobe “talking the talk” (sounding green) while walking the same old walk: maintainingand enhancing fossil fuel use.HECO’s current plans to modernize its aging 19th century technology structurefocuses primarily, but not exclusively, on generation, transmission and distribution,so that its large scale central station distribution system can be maintained whileintegrating intermittent renewable energy systems into the utility’s grids.This costly upgrade excludes the so-­called “Big Wind” proposal to take 200MW eachof intermittent wind power from the islands of Moloka`i and Lana`i and send it viaa billion-­dollar undersea cable to the load center in O`ahu.Capital Expenditures Budget ($M) (2012-­15)120 HECO HELCO MECOTransmission & Distribution 536 133 145Generation 841 25 52OtherTotal 1,800 300 300Since as noted above, building large industrial wind facilities requires fossil fuelplants to be reconfigured to be able to match wind’s variability, some form of firmrenewable energy or storage will always be required (that is, there will always be120 HECO, MECO and HELCO Application, dated March 31, 2011, for Approval of Issuance of UnsecuredObligations and Guarantee. Docket 2011-­0068. Capital Expenditures Program, (2010-­2015). HECO:pdf page 53, MECO: pdf page 73, HELCO: pdf page 93. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 46
  • 47. windy days and still days), these larger facilities will also require greater manpowerand oversight.121Installing smaller wind facilities in different wind regimes may decrease the impactscaused by wind fluctuations. For Hawai`i this implies that small rooftop and stand-­alone wind systems might be more effective than industrial scale facilities: just aswind gains speed as it rises over mountains, so to it gains speed as it rises overbuildings. Small wind systems could be installed on 1,000s of rooftops.Small wind turbines A “Windsave” micro turbine Rooftop wind turbines on aon the roof of an installed on a rooftop in building in Bosnia1 (Veneko/office in London. 122 Scotland.123 Bergey Windpower)124Of course, rooftops could be used for multiple renewable energy systems: solarwater heaters, photovoltaic panels or concentrated solar power, and micro-­wind,thereby maximizing each building’s on-­site generation.The major determinants in the amount of wind energy that can be harnessed arethe average speed of the wind, the consistency of the wind, and the volume sweptby the turbine blades.125121 Whats Keeping Me Up at Night -­ The Political Economy of Wind, Chairman Travis Kavulla, MontanaPublic Service Commission (February 16, 2012). Monthly Essays. National Regulatory ResearchInstitute (NRRI).NRRI was founded by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in 1976.­essays-­detail;;jsessionid=64140F78E5A0DF35FE04CBDF8B32083D?p_p_id=33&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_col_id=column-­1&p_p_col_pos=1&p_p_col_count=2&_33_struts_action=%2Fblogs%2Fview_entry&_33_redirect=351516&_33_linkFullViewPage=351516&_33_linkListViewPage=351442&p_r_p_564233524_displayDateFrom=&p_r_p_564233524_displayDateTo=&_33_cur=&_33_entryId=357113122 Renewable Energy World. January / February 2007. http://www.thailand-­ Ibid.124 Ibid.125;; “Thekilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), A is the swept rotor area in square meters (m2), V is the windspeed in meters per second (m/s) -­-­ gives us the power in the wind, the actual power that we canextract from the wind is significantly less than this figure suggests. The actual power will depend on Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 47
  • 48. Wind Energy ImpactsAll energy projects have positive and negative economic, environmental, social,cultural and climate impacts, and industrial-­scale wind plants are no exception.Often wind sites are selected and sited in rural communities, where demand issmall, while the power generated must be transmitted at great expense over longdistances to urban centers with higher demand. The aesthetic impacts in rural areasare often dismissed by urban residents as being NIMBY-­ism126 in the face of aperceived “greater good” for everyone.Turbine manufacturing also relies on magnets made from trace minerals that aremined in non-­environmentally friendly ways. China is now the world leader in windturbine production: Inner Mongolia has “more than ninety per cent of the world’s []reserves of rare earth metals, specifically neodymium, the element needed to makethe magnets [for] wind turbines.” The extraction and processing of neodymium inInner Mongolia has proven to be an environmental nightmare.127Solar (Photovoltaic)Earth:128 “Each day more solar energy falls to Solar Ledge: PV awnings at thethe Earth than the total amount of energy the University of Texas.130planet’s 6.1 billion inhabitants would consumein 27 years.”129several factors, such as the type of machine and rotor used, the sophistication of blade design, frictionlosses, and the losses in the pump or other equipment connected to the wind machine. There are alsophysical limits to the amount of power that can be extracted realistically from the wind. It has beenshown theoretically that any windmill can only possibly extract a maximum of 59.3% of the powerfrom the wind (this is known as the Betz limit). In reality, this figure is usually around 45%(maximum) for a large electricity producing turbine and around 30% to 40% for a wind pump.”126 Generally meaning “not in my back yard” although opponents of industrial scale wind playfullysuggest it means “next idiot might be you.”127­1350811/In-­China-­true-­cost-­Britains-­clean-­green-­wind-­power-­experiment-­Pollution-­disastrous-­scale.html128­20earth2.jpg129 National Renewable Energy Laboratories. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 48
  • 49. The Potential of SolarIn fourteen and a half seconds, the sun provides as much energy to Earth ashumanity uses in a single day.In eighty-­eight minutes, the sun provides as much energy as humanity consumes ina year.In 112 hours – less than five days – the sun provides as much energy as iscontained in all proven reserves of oil, coal, and natural gas on the planet.If humanity could capture one tenth of one percent of the solar energy striking theearth – one part in one thousand – we would have access to six times as muchenergy as we consume in all forms today, with almost no greenhouse gasemissions. At the current projected increase in energy consumption – about onepercent per year – we will not be using that much energy for another 180 years.There is at most 30 gigawatts of solar generating capacity deployed today, or about0.2 percent of all energy production.131Solar Radiation MapsThe Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT)publishes solar radiation maps that use isobars measured in calories132 per squarecentimeter per day (cal./sq. cm./day). These values can be converted intopracticable numbers133 of: 100 cal./sq. cm./day = 39.5 kWh/sq. ft./year.Thus, a residence which uses 600kWhr/month (7200 kWhr/year) and is located inan area which receives 400 cal./sq. cm./day of solar radiation would require forty-­five square feet of solar panels.If the residence were net metered to the grid, the ratepayer could send excessivesolar electricity to the grid during the day, and take out electricity during the night,paying only on the difference, which in this case would be near zero (although theutility charges a minimum monthly fee for maintaining the interconnection to thegrid).130 Completed in the fall of 2000, this 7-­kilowatt photovoltaic awning is situated above the 8th floorwindows of the 26-­story University Center Tower on the Texas Medical Center campus in Houston,Texas. The awning serves a dual purpose: the SunShine® AC modules supply about 10,000 kilowattsof electricity annually, and the shading they provide offsets an air-­conditioning load of an additional2,600 kilowatts. By installing this system, the Houston Health Science Center is helping Texas to meetits aggressive mandate for 2,000 megawatts of new renewable power by 2009, which is part of thestates electric utility restructuring plan. The University of Texas Health Science Center partnered withApplied Power Corp. and Conservation Services Group on this project.131 Smaller, Cheaper, Faster, by Ramez Naam (Scientific American, 2011).132 Calories is an old energy term first used in 1824 and still used to measure solar radiation133;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 49
  • 50. Clouds, vog, and shadows all decrease available incoming solar energy. The bestsites in Hawai`i are leeward island areas. Mauka and windward areas have solarradiation levels in the 300 to 350 cal./sq. cm/day. Leeward areas have levels in therange of 400 to 500 cal./sq. cm/day. Each day Hawai`i gets an average of 5.5hours of full sunshine. It is during this period that solar electric systems are mosteffective.134The Cost of SolarThe National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy(NREL), which has been watching solar photovoltaic price trends since 1980, statesthat the price per watt of solar modules (not counting installation) dropped from$22 dollars in 1980 down to under $3 today.Berkeley Lab’s ‘Tracking the Sun’ report described trends in the installed cost of PVin the United States, and examined more than 115,000 residential, commercial andutility-­sector PV systems installed between 1998 and 2010 across forty-­two states,representing roughly seventy-­eight percent of all grid-­connected PV capacityinstalled in the United States.Berkeley Lab’s findings: The average cost of PV systems installed in 2010 that wereless than ten kilowatts (kW) in size, ranged from $6.30/W to $8.40/W depending onthe state. The report also found that residential PV systems installed on new homeshad significantly lower average installed costs than those installed as retrofits toexisting homes.Among systems installed in 2010, those that were less than two kilowatts averaged$9.80/W, while large commercial systems >1,000 kW averaged $5.20/W. Largeutility-­sector systems installed in 2010 registered even lower costs, with a numberof systems in the $3.00/W to $4.00/W range.The trend line for the price of solar panel is markedly downward. A slight bump inprices (2005-­08) was caused by a temporary shortage of raw materials. Theexpectation is that prices will continue to fall over the next two decades.135134 Energy Conservation Improvements Feasibility Study of Rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) Systems forVarious Corporate Yards (2009) Submitted to the Mayors Energy & Sustainability Task ForceBy Ronald N.S. Ho & Associates, Inc.­blog/2011/03/16/smaller-­cheaper-­faster-­does-­moores-­law-­apply-­to-­solar-­cells/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 50
  • 51. Solar InstallationsThere are many examples of successful large-­scale photovoltaic projects around theglobe. Sempra Generation’s 48 MW Copper Mountain Solar 1 (currently the largestphotovoltaic plant in the U.S.) is located on 380-­acres about twenty miles southeastof Las Vegas,136 and Sempra is building “Mesquite Solar 1,” a 150 MW solar facility,on 900 acres (1.5 square miles) some forty miles west of Phoenix.137In addition to large-­scale projects, significant amounts of small-­scale solar can beplaced on roof tops. For example, KPMG, the auditor for HEI, found that existingrooftops in the Netherlands could provide twenty-­nine percent of the nation’selectrical needs.138Indeed, worldwide use of PV is skyrocketing. The worldwide installed capacity forsolar PV was 40 gigawatts in 2010, up from 9.5 in 2007, 1.4 in 2000, and a mere0.7 in 1996. Europe added more PV than wind capacity during 2010, led byGermany and Italy. Solar installations are now concentrated in a few countries, andthe U.S. (6%) ranks fifth behind Germany (44%), Spain (10%), Japan (9%), andItaly (9%).139136­releases/sempra-­generation-­energizes-­42-­mw-­of-­solar-­panels-­at-­mesquite-­solar-­1-­136269253.html138 Solar Energy: from perennial promise to competitive alternative -­ final report -­ Project number:2562. Written on the commission of: Greenpeace Nederland By KPMG Bureau voor EconomischeArgumentatie, Steins Bisschop Meijburg & Co Advocaten139 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 51
  • 52. According to "Sustainable and Sensible Energy": “By using existing rooftops ofresidential, commercial and industrial structures, the customer can utilize powergenerated at the source, so no power losses are realized in distribution as is thecase for centralized power, where energy use and demand is often far away fromthe power source. Also, the existing roof spaces provide a site that is alreadydeveloped, so no agricultural or culturally sensitive land is used for powergeneration.”Below are solar industry expenditures as a percentage of all constructionexpenditures in Hawai`i beginning in 2004:140 Year Percent 2004 0.6 2005 0.6 2006 2.1 2007 2.4 2008 3.5 2009 6.8 2010 14.9Solar electric generators now represent over 90% of all electric power generators inthe State, and solar installations account for virtually all of the Net Energy Metering(NEM) and Distributed Renewable Energy Systems installed in Hawai`i over thepast decade. HECO Net Energy Metering Systems141 Year No. of NEM Capacity Agreements (kW) 2001 1 3.6 2002 1 2.1 2003 8 11.7 2004 3 7.9 2005 0 0 2006 10 74.3 2007 73 387.3 2008 221 2,362 2009 511 2,430 2010 1,326 7,286 2011 1364 6,956 Total HECO 3518 19,521140 DBEDT: Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of the EnvironmentalResponse, Energy and Food Security Tax (January 3, 2012) Report Pursuant to Act 73, Session Lawsof Hawaii 2010141 Net Energy Metering. Kevin Kuo. HECO Energy Solutions Engineering Division.;;,NEM&FIT.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 52
  • 53. New Distributed Renewable Energy Systems Installed in Hawai`i Annually 2001 2010:142 Year Number of Distributed Total Capacity of Renewable Energy Systems Systems Installed 2001 7 29 2002 18 52 2003 21 65 2004 23 77 2005 30 166 2006 109 646 2007 207 1,907 2008 567 5,864 2009 1,166 7,525 2010 2,188 12,324Solar Energy ImpactsChina currently produces more than half of the world’s solar panels, many of themhigh efficiency solar cells made from Gallium arsenide (GaAs). In China, arsenic isextracted, processed, and used with little consideration of its environmental andhealth impacts. As a result, water consumed by the Chinese people contains“dangerous” levels of arsenic. 143 In addition, “About one third of the industrialwaste water and more than ninety percent of household sewage in China isreleased into rivers and lakes without being treated. Nearly eighty percent ofChinas cities (278 of them) have no sewage treatment facilities and few have plansto build any;; underground water supplies in ninety percent of the sites arecontaminated.”144142 Securing the Renewable Future:­the-­renewable-­future;; See also Net Energy Metering (0-­5 MW) and Schedule Q: Purchases From Qualifying Facilities(less than 0.1 MW). DBEDT: Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of theEnvironmental Response, Energy and Food Security Tax (January 3, 2012) Report Pursuant to Act 73,Session Laws of Hawaii 2010143;; See also: Officials claimignorance of arsenic pollution in Yangzonghai Lake­09/22/content_16516593.htm144 Id. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 53
  • 54. CHAPTER 6. STORAGE / BATTERIESThere are several ways of storing energy. For example, air can be compressed intoa balloon structure and then released as needed. This is known as Compressed AirEnergy Storage (CAES). Hydropower is also an effective way to store energy: watercan be pumped uphill, between reservoirs, and released when it is needed. Whileboth methods provide short-­term “firming” power solutions to handle smallvariations in demand, if the energy source is intermittent and of large size, the sizeof the storage systems would have to be very huge to handle fluctuations on daysof hot, cloudy, or windless weather.With respect to transportation, lithium ion batteries are already used to powerelectric vehicles, laptops, cell phones and power tools. Rechargeable lithium ionbatteries can reliably deliver driving distances of over 100 miles on a single charge.The batteries can be recharged in the same amount of time that they were used fordriving.According to an article by GreenTechMedia: “When it comes to energy storage [] Ifyoure talking big hours and big megawatts, if youre going to be moving a lot oflow cost night time energy to daytime, if youre talking hundreds of megawatts []Then you really only have two choices, Pumped Hydro or Compressed Air EnergyStorage (CAES) according to EPRI, the Electric Power Research Institute. Lithium-­ion might be good for cells phones and perhaps EVs. Flywheels for short bursts ofstorage. New technologies like flow batteries are emerging but theyre still a waysfrom utility-­scale prime time cost requirements. Pumped hydro is very site-­specificand very little new pumped hydro sources have come on line in the lastdecade. That leaves you with CAES.”145Wind-­Pumped Storage Hydro (WPSH)Windmills, which have been used to pump water since before the last millennium,have been favorably paired with PSH facilities. During periods when excess energyis produced but not needed on a grid, (such as wind energy which is typicallystronger at night when the demand is least), water can be pumped from a lowerwater source (aquifer, pond or ocean) to be stored in an upper water source. Then,when added power is needed, the water is released downward through a turbine.“Windmills were used to pump water since at least the 9th century in what is nowAfghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. [] On U.S. farms, particularly in the Midwest, windpumps were used to pump water from farm wells for cattle. [] The self-­regulatingfarm wind pump was invented by Daniel Halladay in 1854. [] Eventually steelblades and steel towers replaced wooden construction, and at their peak in 1930,145 EPRI on Renewable Energy: Compressed Air Energy Storage­on-­renewable-­energy-­compressed-­air-­energy-­storage/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 54
  • 55. an estimated 600,000 units were in use, with capacity equivalent to 150megawatts.”146 Pumped Storage Hydroelectric147HECO’s website acknowledges storage as one of its most significant challenges:“One of the greatest technical and commercial obstacles for renewable energy isenergy storage. Whether a renewable energy source is available or strongest onlyat certain times of day – like solar and wind – or available 24 hours a day – likewave energy or run-­of-­the-­river hydro – making that electricity accessible when itis needed most is a challenge that must be overcome.”148HECO has analyzed thirteen energy storage systems and noted that only one is acommercially proven technology: pumped storage hydro. “Pumped StorageHydroelectric (PSH) is a proven form of energy storage for electric utilities. Thereare over 150 plants with 22,000 MW of capacity in the United States.”149According to HECO, “Studies have explored the possibilities of PSH at Koko Craterand Kaau Crater;; on Hawaii Island at Puu Waawaa and Puu Anahulu in North Kona,146 “Electric storage systems on a large or utility scale are at different stagesof technical and commercial development.” (A) Commercial: Pumped Hydro;; (B) Pre-­commercialPrototype: (1) Compressed Air;; (2) Lead-­Acid Battery;; (3) Ni-­Cad Battery;; (4) Sodium-­Sulfur Battery;;(5) Flywheel;; (C) Demonstration Stage: (1) Zinc-­Bromine Battery;; (2) Flywheel;; (3) Vanadium RedoxBattery;; (4) Electrochemical capacitor;; (D) Developmental Stage: (1) NiMH Battery;; (2) Lithium-­IonBattery;; (3) Electrochemical capacitor Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 55
  • 56. Puu Enuhe in Kau and at Kaupulehu/Kukio. On Maui, sites for PSH have beenconsidered at Maalaea, Honokowai in the Ka`anapali area, Kohama near Lahainaand upcountry at Ulupalakua.”150Some sources estimate that the world has 104,000 MW of PSH capacity.151The California Energy Commission states that PSH “is the most economical meansof energy storage because it provides balancing, reserves and grid stability [for gridoperators] [] It is a proven, reliable technology with a fifty to one hundred yeardesign life. The benefit of a Closed Loop Pumped Storage System is that it is a self-­contained ‘off-­stream’ water system that uses existing infrastructure and minimizesenvironmental impacts, resulting in shorter permitting time.”152The U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory also acknowledgedthat PSH is the only conventional, mature commercial grid-­scale electricity storageoption available today, and estimated that “Total installed U.S. PSH capacityexceeds 21,000 MW, constituting about 2.5% of total generating capacity. Othercountries and regions have surpassed the U.S. About 5% of the European Union’stotal capacity is pumped storage hydro, and its percentage is growing;; Japan –currently the world’s leader in pumped storage, has 10% of its capacity as pumpedstorage. Worldwide, many pumped storage plants are under construction. At theend of 2009, total installed pumped storage capacity exceeded 127,000 MW;; thisworldwide total is expected to exceed 203,000 MW by 2014 – an annual growthrate of 10%.”153“PSH provides services that support efficient transmission of electric power and gridreliability and stability. The electrical services used in this role are typically referredto as “ancillary services” and defined as various types of “reserves,” “black startcapabilities,” voltage and frequency regulation and other contingency reserves.Owing to rapid response and large energy storage capabilities, PSH can readilyprovide these services. For example, pumped storage can quickly accommodatedisturbances that occur on transmission grids – loss of generators, failure oftransmission lines”154In Japan, for more than two decades it has been common practice to incorporatevariable speed pump-­turbine generators in pumped storage plants. Such units arenow in use in other countries, especially in Europe. In addition, unidirectional150 The Use of Large Scale Pumped Hydro -­Energy Storage for Grid Reliability, Renewable Integrationand Renewable Load Shifting. IEPR Staff WorkshopTechnologies to Support Renewable Integration (Energy Storage and Automated Demand Response)November 16, 2010­11-­16_workshop/presentations/05_Divine_The_Use_of_Large_Scale_Pumped_Hydro.pdf153 Ibid. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 56
  • 57. ‘three-­element’ (ternary) machines have been installed wherein there is no changein the rotational direction, allowing the units to move rapidly from full pumping tofull generation unlike a reversible machine where the machines are required to stopbefore restarting in the opposite direction (and vice versa).Maximizing wind and/or solar penetration levels through the use of pumped storagehydro is a relatively new, exciting and dramatic development. There have beenseveral recent advances on islands with small populations.El Hierro (Canary Islands): The island has a population of 10,000 with two existingwind turbines (100 kW and 180 kW).155 El Hierro is in the final stages of building ahybrid closed-­loop 11.5 MW wind facility combined with a 11.3 MW pumped storagehydroelectric facility. The island will generate 20% of its load using solar thermaland solar electric systems.156Ikaria, Greece: The island has a population of 7,500 and a peak load of 9 MW.Currently the island produces about 25% of its energy load utilizing renewableenergy. The island has 16 MW of conventional diesel generators, 1.8 MW of windand 1.0 MW of solar. A closed-­circuit Ramea Wind-­Hydro-­Pumped Storage Stationis being built to increase renewable energy penetration.157Eigg, Scottish Inner Hebrides: The island has a population just under 100, and haswon an award for designing and installing a combined wind, solar and hydro-­powered electricity supply, replacing its coal, kerosene, and diesel-­poweredgenerators.158With increasing interest in developing intermittent, fluctuating power resources,large amounts of additional bulk electricity storage will be needed within the U.S.electricity supply system.159155 Ea O Ka Aina­energy-­solution.html;; Temporal Cross-­Over Points for Renewable Energy (2012)­537-­2012.pdf;; http://www.island-­;; The worlds first renewable energy island by ABB:;; A Wind-­Hydro-­Pumped Storage Station Leading to High RES Penetration in the Autonomous Island System of Ikariaby Stefanos V. Papaefthymiou, Eleni G. Karamanou, Stavros A. Papathanassiou, Senior Member, IEEE,and Michael P. Papadopoulos, Member, IEEE. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 1, no. 3,October 2010.­wins-­green-­energy-­prize;; Eigg IslandPower Systems by Carlos Gustavo, Galvan Perez. Econnect Ireland (2007) Summary Report of the 2010 Technology Summit Meeting on Pumped Storage Hydropower.Convened by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Hydropower Association, and theHydropower Research Foundation, Washington, DC, (September 20-­21, 2010) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 57
  • 58. Hydrogen from windMost of the hydrogen produced in the United States (95%) is made from fossil fuel,although another way of making hydrogen is through electrolysis, wherebyhydrogen atoms are separated from water. The hydrogen can be stored and usedlater to fortify fuel for power generation, or used in fuel cells. Additional research isbeing conducted by NREL and Xcel Energy on wind-­to-­hydrogen (Wind2H2)demonstration projects.160For example, wind energy is generated and sold to the utility during the day andevening (6 a.m. – 10 p.m.). But many wind turbines are turned off at night sincethe utility does not need the energy produced when demand drops off, and a utilitywill typically not permit the wind company to sell the energy to a third party. This isunfortunate, since the wasted energy could be used to generate hydrogen.The production of hydrogen need not be at the site of a wind facility, becausecomputers could, in real time, exactly match the wind-­based electricity supplied tothe grid at one site and electricity removed from the grid at another site. This is anexample of "smart grid" technology whereby operators use telecommunications andcomputers to utilize excess electricity.Electric VehiclesIt is an unfortunate truth that electric generators using fossil fuels are not veryefficient. Most of the oil burned by utilities to make electricity is lost in the form ofheat: up the smokestack or out the outfall into the ocean. Even so, electricgenerators are much more efficient than car and truck engines. In addition, it iseasier to replace fossil fuel with renewable energy to make electricity than it is tofind a liquid fuel replacement for gasoline. Therefore replacing the century-­oldgasoline-­burning automobile with electric vehicles makes a great deal of sense.Since the average vehicle is driven less than 100 miles per day, lithium ionbatteries could be recharged easily during the night. The car batteries can beautomatically plugged into a recharging station about the size of a parking meter,the voltage of which is similar to a wall socket in a house.As an experiment, a fleet of electric vehicles could be purchased en masse toreplace existing fossil fuel vehicles. Excess locally produced renewable power, in theform of solar or wind, could then be used to “charge” the electric vehicles, acting asa de facto energy storage facility at night, when the demand is the least. The idealtest location would be an island not connected by roads to other land masses, sothat travel is typically limited in scale. But until such a broad-­scale test isconducted, electric vehicles will likely be limited to mainly providing high-­value grid160 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 58
  • 59. ancillary and demand response services and emergency energy services, for thenext several decades.Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster,Japan has expressed interest in exploringVehicle-­To-­Grid (V2G) Technology, wherebyBattery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-­InHybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can storeexcess night-­time wind energy and powerhomes during the day.Conversely, community energy productionfacilities can power vehicles, which can thendischarge excess power into buildings usingVehicle-­To-­Grid (V2G) Technology. Home Powered by Cars161Growth of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles162161 DBEDT: Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of the EnvironmentalResponse, Energy and Food Security Tax Report, (January 3, 2012) Pursuant to Act 73, Session Lawsof Hawaii 2010. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 59
  • 60. CHAPTER 7. MOLOKA`I 163 It is thirty-­eight by ten miles in size with a land area of 260 square miles. In 2010 Moloka`ihad a total population of 7,345. There were 4,642 Native Hawaiian and OtherPacific Islanders (63% of the island’s population). The major population centers areKaunakakai (3,425) and Kualapu u (2,027).164Today Moloka`i has all of the resources it needs to become energy self-­sufficientand to stop exporting cash for transportation fuel and electricity.Although there are many sites on Moloka`i that could support renewable energysystems, coastal areas, sensitive habitat, cultural sites and areas of significant viewplanes should be excluded from consideration.163­­Molokai-­Hawaii.html#ixzz1ii7vn4mF;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 60
  • 61. Moloka`i: Future of a Hawaiian Island (2008)165A 2008 Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate report suggested that Moloka`i should“create programs that help to finance stand-­alone power systems for homes andOn transportation, the report added: “The scale of Molokai’s roadways and thelimited number of destination points make conversion to renewable transportationfeasible. Although there are several alternatives on the horizon, affordabletechnology for rechargeable electric automobiles generated through renewableenergy sources such as wind and solar is a technology that is available now.Charging the batteries to power these cars could take place at home or at collectivecharging stations in each community.”166 The report concluded that Moloka`ishould:• Develop infrastructure to support rechargeable electric automobiles.• Build community charging stations at Maunaloa, Kaunakakai, Kualapu`u, andMana`e.• Support businesses providing parts, sales, conversions, maintenance, and repairfor renewable energy vehicles.• Create programs to help finance automobile conversions and purchases.• Promote public transportation powered by renewable energy.• Seek grants to help facilitate research and design.• Explore other viable energy sources for transportation.Regarding water, the report stated: “Convert/build wells and pumps for watertransmission powered by renewable energy, including wind, solar, and in-­line hydrowater turbine generators.”167A STEP FURTHER: SEVERING THE MOLOKA`I – MECO RELATIONSHIPOption 1: Moloka`i Energy CooperativeCommunities can create a network based on a non-­profit public-­interest cooperativeconcept. Cooperatives are able to secure grants and donations from governmentalagencies and foundations to fund the transition from exporting cash for fuel toisland self-­sufficiency. A cooperative can pool money, secure long-­term financingfor renewable energy projects, and employ local residents to assist in the transition.165 Id.167 Id. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 61
  • 62. An on-­bill financing program allows a cooperative to finance the purchase ofrenewable energy systems and energy efficient devices through energy savingsprovided by such systems or devices. That is to say, photovoltaic systems cost a lotof money up front, but if the cooperative rather than the resident buys the system,the ratepayer can make payments that are less than their current bill and after thesystem is paid off, they would own it.Similarly, a cooperative can purchase electric vehicles in bulk and lease them to itsmembers. The cost to operate the electric vehicle is less than the cost to operategasoline-­powered cars.A Moloka`i Cooperative could work with the Aha Kiole Advisory Committee (createdby Act 212-­2007), the Aha Moku Council System, and community organizations toadvise it on Native Hawaiian resource management practices;; derive acomprehensive set of native Hawaiian best practices for natural resourcemanagement;; foster understanding and practical utilization of this knowledge;;ensure the future sustainable use of marine, land, cultural, agricultural and naturalresources;; enhance community education and cultural awareness;; and participatein the protection and preservation of Moloka`i’s natural resources.The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Utility Service (RUS) and the NationalRural Utilities Cooperative Finance Corporation (CFC) lent Kauai Island UtilityCooperative over $100 million to purchase their electric utility from a U.S. mainlandcompany.Cooperative Principles Voluntary and Open Membership Democratic Member Members’ Economic Participation Autonomy and Independence Education, Training, and Information Cooperation Among Cooperatives—Cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the cooperative movement by working together through the ahupua`a and the moku Concern for CommunityIsn’t Moloka`i to small to have it’s own Cooperative?This question is often raised by people who then assert that Moloka`i must remainconnected to MECO.Electric cooperatives serve forty-­two million people in forty-­seven states. Theygenerate 5% of the electricity produced in the nation, 10% of the electricity sold in Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 62
  • 63. the nation, own 40% percent of the nation’s electric distribution lines, and servethree quarters of the nation’s landmass.168A dozen members of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA)have fewer than 1,000 customers.Two examples of small communities who have opted to take control of their ownenergy future are:In 1996 Arizona’s Ak-­Chin Indian Community Reservation established the Ak-­ChinEnergy Services (ACES) to serve the Tohono O’odham and Pima peoples. Thecooperative was established to give the residents self-­governance, economicdevelopment, and service reliability. The electric cooperative serves 396 customers,including a 109 acre industrial park, and has a peak load of 7.2 MW.169In 1977 Alaskan’s Iliamna-­Newhalen-­Nondalton Electric Cooperative, Inc. (INNEC)was founded. It serves 310 customers who live in three Alaskan communities with acombined population of 600 residents.170 The isolated grid is powered byhydroelectric, with diesel as a backup.Option 2: Hawaii EnergyExisting Moloka`i community non-­profits could establish a partnership with theenergy efficiency utility known as Hawaii Energy.Hawaii Energy could conduct energy audits of all buildings on the island, identifyways of cutting demand at each building, and provide low cost loans and grants forthe installation of energy efficiency systems.Option 3: Municipally Owned UtilityMoloka`i could become its own county and establish a Municipally Owned Utility(MOU). Several decades ago the County of Kauai considered buying the localelectric utility and running it as a Municipally Owned Utility (MOU).While MOUs are less common than Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) they have afascinating history. It was the ability of MOUs to offer rates far below IOUs that ledIOUs to create PUCs across the nation (1907-­21). The PUCs were designed toregulate and shield IOU monopolies from MOU competition. 171Several large MOUs exist within the U.S.168­opFacts/Pages/default.aspx169­us/;; Publicly owned utilities include: (1) CPS Energy of San Antonio which has over 70,000 electricityratepayers and over 300,000 natural gas ratepayers in an 1566 sq. mi. service area;; (2) the Los Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 63
  • 64. Solar (Photovoltaic)Molokai General Hospital. Island of Molokai Middle School.173Lana`i in background.172Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which provides utilities to four million residents;;and (3) Californias East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD;;"East Bay Mud") which provides waterand sewage treatment for customers in portions of Alameda County and Contra Costa County.172 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 64
  • 65. The general rule is that five acres of flat sunny land or roof area is needed togenerate 1 MW of solar energy.WindWind is the second strongest resource for Moloka`i. Not large industrial scale wind,but rather small micro turbines. The best site for strong wind resources is east ofKaunakakai.174Micro wind is in its infancy, and would probably supply a very small percentage ofthe renewable energy mix in the near term.173 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 65
  • 66. HydropowerAs noted earlier, solar and wind resources can both be firmed up (or fluctuationssmoothed out) with hydropower. Moloka`i could install in-­line hydro facilities on itsenergy delivery systems (fresh water, irrigation water) as well as use its largelakes/reservoirs for pumped storage hydro.The town of Kualapu`u, situated next to the Kualapu`u cinder cone, has a 1.4billion gallon fresh water reservoir. Other large water bodies are Meyer Lake andMaunaloa Reservoir. The lakes could be used for pumped storage hydro. Severalwater distribution systems exist: Maui County Department of Water Services, theDHHL Molokai Water System (Palaau-­Ho’olehua Homestead), and the 25-­mileMoloka`i Irrigation System (MIS). Adding an 85-­kW mini-­hydropower plant to awater delivery pipeline on Hawaii’s Molokai Island is both technically andeconomically feasible.It is probably reasonable to assume that wind and solar generated energy stored asPumped Storage Hydro, used in combination with in-­stream hydro, could supply asignificant portion of Moloka`i’s energy load.Biomass/BiofuelsSolar and wind resources can also be firmed up with biomass/biofuels. Agriculturaland biomass opportunities exist in the Palaau region. An acre of land could producetwenty to eighty gallons of biodiesel. The exact amount would depend on whatfarmers decided was appropriate.Moloka`i consumes about 3,000 gallons of fuel each day (1 million gallons of fueleach year) for transportation. Pacific Biodiesel Technologies builds plants that canproduce some or all of that fuel.In 2010 Pacific Biodiesel Technologies designed and built a 1,000 gallons per daybiodiesel plant in Anchorage for Alaska Green Waste Solutions. In 2012 PacificBiodiesel built an 8,000 gallons per day biodiesel plant on the Big Island for Keaau-­based Hawaii Pure Plant Oil. The plant will utilize a zero-­waste, super-­efficientprocessing technology.Pacific Biodiesel relies on multiple feedstock technology, whereby locally growncommunity-­based production provides the feedstock for the plant. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 66
  • 67. Appendix: Moloka`i Technical Profile175GenerationMoloka`i has a single power plant (Palaau) with nine diesel units and one SolarInternational Combustion Turbine. Palaau Units 1 and 2 (two 1,250 kW Caterpillarunits), and Palaau Units 3, 4, 5 and 6 (four 970 kW Cummins units) are peakingunits. Moloka`is 2010 system peak of 5.7 MW (gross) occurred on December 27,2010. Moloka`i had a 2010 reserve margin of approximately 111%.Fossil FuelIn 2011 MECO estimated that for 2012 Molokai generators would consume 59,761barrels of diesel at an average price of $125.54/barrel for a total fuel cost of $7.5million.176 MECO’s Moloka`i Division maintains a fuel inventory of 5,240 barrels.177Diesel for MECO’s Moloka`i generators is transported by a Chevrons fuel barge("Hilo Bay") from Kalaeloa Harbor, Oahu to Island Petroleum, Inc.s. terminal atKaunakakai Harbor, Moloka`i. Chevron “ships gasoline, jet fuel, diesel and otherpetroleum products to its wholesale jobber, Island Petroleum, Inc. (the onlypetroleum product distributing entity on the island of Molokai).”178 There isapproximately 9,200 barrels of diesel fuel storage available to MECO in the IslandPetroleum, Inc.s storage tanks. MECO also maintains two fuel storage tanks at thePalaau Generating Station with a total capacity of 5,366 barrels.179Electricity SoldIn 2011 MECO estimated that the average number of ratepayers in 2012 would be3,150.180 The Moloka`i ratepayers would purchase 31,313 megawatt-­hours (MWh)of electricity181 for a total cost of $12.7 million.Sales per sector were estimated to be: (1) Schedule R (residential): 11,991 MWh;;(2) Schedule G/J (general service): 11,143 MWh;; (3) Schedule H (commercialcooking, heating, air conditioning, refrigeration): 1,520 MWh;; (4) Schedule P (largepower): 6,098 MWh;; and (5) Schedule F (street lighting): 562 MWh.182Transportation Fuel175 MECO Adequacy of Supply 2010:;;;; Sandia National Labs: MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­601, MECO-­602177 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­604178 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­601C179 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­604A, MECO-­610180 Ellen S. Nashiwa, Planning Division Supervisor in the Renewable Energy Services Department, MauiElectric Company, Limited ("MECO"), MECO T-­3, Docket No. 2011-­0092, p. 4181 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO T-­3182 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­312 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 67
  • 68. The County of Maui charges a county fuel tax of 16.0¢ for both gasoline anddiesel.183 Moloka`i was allocated a portion of the Maui County fuel tax: $185,998(2010) and $161,037 (2011), based on the proportion of gallons used on theisland.184 Therefore Moloka`i motorists consumed 1.127 million gallons (2010), and0.976 million gallons (2011). The Moloka`i portion of the Maui tax was 1.86%(2010), and 1.49% (2011).185Money ExportedMoloka`i electric ratepayers give MECO $12 million a year. MECO drivers pay $5million a year for fuel. Producing all energy on island would pump an added $17million/year into the local economy.Energy DeliveryMoloka`i has five circuits (distribution lines) including one running from Kaunakakaito Halawa.186Future Energy SourcesMoloka`i could rely on a combination of hydro, biomass/biofuel and batteries forhalf of its power generation and solar/wind for the other half.EmployeesMECO employs fifteen people on Moloka`i: Power Supply (8), Transmission &Distribution (5) and Customer Service (2).187183 State of Hawaii Department of Taxation: comparison of liquid fuel tax collections & allocation fortwo years ending December 31, 2011­fuels-­compare.pdf185 County of Maui Data: Highway fuel consumption (millions of gallons): 67.4 (2009), 61.7 (2010);;Annual vehicle miles of travel (million on miles): 1,369 (2009), 1,375 (2010). Table 18.17-­-­ motorvehicle fuel consumption and vehicle miles, 1990 to 2010, and by county, 2009 and 2010­individual/18/181710.pdf186 HECO: Supplemental Information for the Generating Units represented on Attachment A to the RFP(May 3, 2010);;­molokai-­solar-­limits-­reached187 MECO-­1301 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 68
  • 69. CHAPTER 8. LANA`ILana`i188 Solar is the strongest resource for Lana`i. The first choice should be solar water heaters followed by concentrated solar power, solar photovoltaic panels, and micro wind. Liquified Natural Gas can firm up the variable resources.Lana`i is the smallest of the main Hawaiian islands, with an area of 141 squaremiles;; it runs eighteen miles by thirteen miles. The population in 2012 wasestimated to be about 2,800. There are approximately 1,600 households, and theprimary land owner, David Murdock, through Castle and Cooke, owns all but onecommercial building and half of the 1,000 homes in Lana`i City. In 2010 Lana`i hada total population of 3,135.189188­lanai.jpg189­says-­maui-­racial-­mix-­50-­50-­white-­asian/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 69
  • 70. Lana`i has one large solar facility. According to Castle and Cooke, owners of thefacility, the 1.5 MW “La Ola” solar plant has been in service on Lana`i sinceDecember 2008. It “generates 3,000 MWh of electricity per year. The powergenerated from La Ola Solar Plant equals the use of 5,000 barrels of oil or 237,000gallons of gasoline and eliminates 2,300 tons of carbon dioxide emissionsannually.”190At full output, the 1.5 MW “La Ola” facility can produce about 30% of the daytimepeak of 5 MW.The solar energy generated can be smoothed out by the building of a natural gaspowered generator. The combined solar-­gas generation would act as baseloadenergy, thus creating room on the circuit for the installation of extensive amountsof residential solar systems. The limitation would be the acquisition and storage ofnatural gas.La Ola Solar Plant, Lana`i191 Lana`i High and Elementary School192Alternatively, solar/hydropower could provide the answer. Castle & Cooke Resortsowns and operates the Lana`i water system. In 2008 the amount of waterwithdrawals from the aquifer was 2.2 million gallons per day. The sustainable yieldis about 6 million gallons of water per day. A quarter of the current withdrawal isunaccounted for due to loss and waste in the system.193190 Christopher Lovvorn, Castle & Cooke Resorts, LLC at Asia-­Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)workshop on renewable energy grid integration systems, March, 2009.191 Lanai could have future water issues By Ilima Loomis (Maui News, August 9, 2010). Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 70
  • 71. Castle & Cooke Resorts could recover some of the wasted water and make a one-­time withdrawal of that groundwater to be injected it into a sealed water tank. Thetank could be connected via a closed pipe to a second tank at lower elevation.Solar energy could pump water from the lower to upper tank (reservoir) duringthe day. During the evening the upper reservoir could release the water creatinghydropower.It would be much cheaper to rely on open reservoirs rather than sealed tanks. Inthis scenario water lost due to evaporation would need to be replaced.The size of the Lana`i pumped storage hydroelectric facility will be highlydependent upon the geographical location chosen. The amount of electricity thatcan be generated by a hydroelectric plant is related to the height of the impoundedwater and the flow (volume) of water.194There are several sites on Lana`i that could support additional renewable energysystems, however, coastal areas, sensitive habitat, cultural sites and areas withsignificant view planes should be excluded from consideration.194;; Hydro Power (P) measured in watts = Head (H) x Flow(F) divided by 10: The Head (H) is measured in height (feet). The height is a proxy for measuring thepressure since one foot of height equals a pressure of 0.433 pounds per square inch (psi). The “headis a vertical distance. Its starting point is where the water begins to impact the pressure at the hydroturbine and its ending point is where the water ceases to affect the pressure at the hydro turbine.With closed diversion systems, head is the change in elevation from the water surface at the inlet tothe closed diversion system and the elevation at the turbine nozzle. Head is the most important factorin determining if [a] site is adequate for an impulse type turbine.” The flow (F) “represents volume,not speed. It is the volume of water, stated as Cubic Feet Per Second (ft3/s) or gallons per minute(GPM), that flows past a specific point in a specific amount of time.” Example: Flow = 20gallons/minute & Head = 30 feet -­-­> Power = (30 x 20 / 10) = 60 Watts. See also: Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 71
  • 72. Appendix: Lana’i Technical Profile195GenerationLana`i has one electric power facility, the Miki Basin Power Plant, located in PalawaiBasin. The facility has six 1.0 MW EMD Diesel Generators and two 2.2 MWCaterpillar Diesel Generators for a total of 10.4 MW.Lana’i had a 2010 system peak of 4.825 MW (gross) on December 27, 2010, andhad a 2010 reserve margin of approximately 112%.The La Ola solar facility was intended to include a flow battery that could generate250 kW/hr. for three hours. However, the battery manufacturer, VRB, went out ofbusiness in 2008 and a replacement installed by Xtreme Power is not yet fullyfunctional.The 236-­room Manele Bay Hotel has a CHP unit,196 which offsets energy use andcosts;; approximately 800 kWh are added to the grid each day.Fossil FuelIn 2011 MECO estimated that the average cost per barrel of fuel in 2012 would be:Miki Basin (Diesel): $150.1867;; Miki Basin (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel): $164.6233;;and Manele Combined Heat and Power (CHP) (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel):$165.9358.197Lanai Oil Company sells all petroleum products on Lana`i. Lanai Oil Companypurchases fuel from Chevron. The fuel is shipped by a fuel barge (“Tara”) fromKalaeloa Harbor, Oahu to Kaumalapau Harbor, Lana`i. Tara is operated under anagreement with Sause Brothers.198Fuel is stored at the Miki Basin Generating Station (capacity: 5,730 barrels) andManele Bay CHP (capacity: 212 barrels)199195 MECO Adequacy of Supply 2010: National Labs: CHP is a “combined heat and power” plant that, when optimized, feeds a chiller to operate airconditioning at the Manele Bay Hotel, and could also provide energy for the hotel’s water heatingsystem.197 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­602198 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­601B199 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­604A Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 72
  • 73. Electricity SoldIn 2011 MECO estimated the average number of ratepayers for 2012 would be1,630.200 They would purchase 25,430 MWh201 for a total cost of $11.1 million.202By sector, Lana`i sales (MWh) would be (1) Schedule R (residential): 7,400;; (2)Schedule G/J (general service): 7,373;; (3) Schedule H (commercial cooking,heating, air conditioning, refrigeration): 549;; (4) Schedule P (large power): 9,982;;and (5) Schedule F (street lighting): 126.203Transportation FuelThe County of Maui charges a county fuel tax of 16.0¢ for both gasoline anddiesel.204 Lana`i was allocated a port of the Maui County fuel tax: $85,808 (2010)and $107,442 (2011), based on the proportion of gallons used on the island.205Therefore Lana`i motorists consumed 0.536 million gallons (2010), and 0.671million gallons (2011). 206Money ExportedLana`i ratepayers pay MECO $11 million/year and Lana`i motorists spend $ 2-­3million/year for fuel. Replacing imported fuel with local fuel would pump $13million/year into the local economy.Energy DeliveryThere are three circuits distributing electricity from the power plant: Circuit # 1feeds Lana`i City, the Project District at Koele, and one of the island’s welloperations. Circuit #2 feeds Lana`i City, the remaining wells, Kaumalapau Harborand the Airport. Circuit #3 is dedicated to the Manele Project District and connectswith the 1.2 MW La Ola Solar Facility.Future Energy SourcesThere are approximately 1,500 single and multifamily residences on the island, 500of which are owned by Castle and Cooke.200 Ellen S. Nashiwa, Planning Division Supervisor in the Renewable Energy Services Department, MauiElectric Company, Limited ("MECO"), MECO T-­3, Docket No. 2011-­0092, p. 4201 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO T-­3202 In the Matter of the Application of MAUI ELECTRIC COMPANY, LIMITED For Approval of RateIncreases and Revised Rate Schedules and Rules. Docket 2011-­0092, p. 4203 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, MECO-­311204 State of Hawaii Department of Taxation: comparison of liquid fuel tax collections & allocation fortwo years ending December 31, 2011­fuels-­compare.pdf206 County of Maui Data: Highway fuel consumption (millions of gallons): 67.4 (2009), 61.7 (2010);;Annual vehicle miles of travel (million on miles): 1,369 (2009), 1,375 (2010). Table 18.17-­-­ motorvehicle fuel consumption and vehicle miles, 1990 to 2010, and by county, 2009 and 2010­individual/18/181710.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 73
  • 74. A one kilowatt-­peak (kWp) panel generates 1200-­1600 kWh/year. Thus, 1,500homes each with a 2 kW solar system could produce over 3 MWh/year.Similarly, the potential for bio-­fuel and CSP is great, as thousands of acres thatused to be dedicated to pineapple production now lie fallow;; the potential forbiofuels to replace diesel would require approximately 2,000 acres of the 12,000that used to be dedicated to pineapple.EmployeesMECO has 11 employees on Lana`i: Power Supply (7) and Transmission &Distribution (4).Reality CheckAs noted, except for the coastline, which is public, the island has been largelyowned by one person for over a hundred years. Biofuel production would requirethis individual to promote island sustainability at the same time he is focused onbuilding a massive industrial-­scale wind power plant on the island and exporting thepower to O`ahu via an undersea cable.Therefore a more practical solution might be installing on-­site solar/Bloom boxes asa way of disengaging from the grid. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 74
  • 75. CHAPTER 9. HAWAI`I ISLANDIsland of Hawai`i207207­SbwVBVbBP7M/Taob2_iuWSI/AAAAAAAAADk/tNyDMdL7SRA/s1600/Hawaii_map_%2528The_Big_Island%2529.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 75
  • 76. Hawai`i IslandHawai`i Island (“The Big Island”) is a volcanic island at the eastern-­most andsouthern-­most point in the chain of Hawaiian islands. The island is ninety-­threemiles across and has a land area of 4,028 square miles, comprising 62% of theHawaiian Islands total land area, and is the largest island in the United States. In2010, the Big Island had a population of 185,000.Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea, it is the worldstallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest. The island has five shield volcanoes:Kohala (extinct), Mauna Kea (dormant), Hualalai (active but not currentlyerupting), Mauna Loa (active) and Kilauea (erupting continuously since 1983).208 The island of Hawai`i has a wide variety of abundant renewable resources including solar, wind, and geothermal. The first choice should be installing solar water heaters. Geothermal can serve as the continuous baseload renewable energy resource.Existing and Potential Energy Sources209Source 2005 (M kWh/yr.) Theoretical Technical Potential PotentialPetroleum 950Geothermal 221 11,618 7,124Hydropower 40Wind 7 2,031,000 41,000Solar PV 1 9,239,000 1,359 26,035 719Total 1219 11,308,000 50,288Baseload Energy -­ GeothermalHamakua Energy Partners (HEP) is a naphtha-­fueled 60 MW combined cycle powerplant located in Honoka`a. HEP, the existing geothermal facility in Puna, and newgeothermal facilities could provide all of the baseload power needed on the island.208 Ibid. Hawaii County Electricity Production by Fuel Type, 2005 (Table 2.1, p. 30);; RenewableResource Theoretical and Technical Potential (Table 3.1, p. 48);; Theoretical potential: every scrap ofland on the island would be used solely to produce energy (leaving no room for homes or businesses).Technical potential includes restrictions based on land use and other feasibility issues, but excludescost considerations. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 76
  • 77. Geothermal Zones210Area Description/Location Resource (For this report, we have considered the 10th percentile MW value to be a minimum;; there is a 90% probability that geothermal energy reserves will exceed this level for the area being evaluated.)Hualalai Approx. 5-­mile section of The calculated 10th percentile value of the northwestern rift zone reserves is 7 MW, and the mean value of the volcano, at an is 25 MW. average elevation of about 5,200 feet.Kilauea East 32 miles from the summit The calculated reserves within theRift Zone of Kilauea Volcano to the entire KERZ have a 10th percentile(KERZ) sea value of approximately 291 MW and a mean value of approximately 778 MW. For the lower KERZ (excluding areas within the national park and existing or planned forest reserves), these values are 181 MW and 438 MW, respectively.Kilauea Approx. 21 miles long The 10th percentile value of recoverableSouthwest energy reserves is estimated to be 133Rift Zone MW, with a mean value of 393 MW. The corresponding values for the lower portion of the rift (excluding areas within the national park) are 64 MW and 193 MW, respectively.Mauna Loa Approx. 11.5 miles long. The calculated 10th percentile value ofSouthwest The average elevation reserves is 35 MW, and the mean valueRift Zone along this part of the rift is is 125 MW. about 4,600 feet, resulting in an estimated range of average reservoir thickness from 2,400 feet to 5,400 feet.Mauna Loa 8.5-­mile portion of the The calculated 10th percentile value ofNortheast upper rift. The average reserves is 22 MW, and the mean valueRift Zone elevation in this zone is is 75 MW. about 5,400 feet.210 Assessment of Energy Reserves and Costs of Geothermal Resources in Hawaii (2005). Submittedby GeothermEx, Inc. for DBEDT. http://maui-­­assessment-­05.pdf;; Seealso­content/uploads/2011/11/KERZ_Map_Hawaii_Island.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 77
  • 78. Geothermal power can be developed on the mainland at 5-­10 cents/kWhr. Evenallowing for higher costs in Hawai`i, geothermal power on the Big Island can bedeveloped at below 15 cents/kWhr. New plants with a combined capacity of 50-­75MW should be built in Hualalai.All other fossil fuel power plants should be decommissioned.Geothermal ImpactsResistance to developing geothermal facilities is largely the result of two things:arrogance and the lack of safeguards. In the past, some proponents sought toaggressively campaign for geothermal with little concern for the local population.The initial facilities were open-­cycle systems which emitted toxic pollutants into thelocal community. In the late 1980’s opposition to geothermal development becamethe largest and most protracted energy generation struggle in Hawaii’s history.Geothermal research started on the Big Island in 1961, and from 1981-­89 a 3 MWpilot project was built and tested. In 1990 this facility was replaced with the 25-­30MW Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) facility. In 2004 the PGV facility was acquiredby Ormat Technologies, Inc.The State considered building a 500 MW generator and constructing a Deep WaterCable Project (1982-­90), to bring power from the Big Island to O`ahu. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 78
  • 79. In 1991 PGV had a 31-­hour well blowout. According to a U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, PGV had nineteen gas releases between 1991 and 1996 and theplant was a significant source of hydrogen sulfide released into the environment.The native Hawaiian community formed the Pele Defense Fund (PDF) which ledcommunity and native Hawaiian opposition to geothermal projects. This group wasfounded by followers of traditional Hawaiian religious practices, particularly worshipof Pele, the volcano goddess. There were many protests of close to 1,000 people,and the PDF filed a series of lawsuits to block development in Wao Kele O Puna(1985-­2002). PDF was actively supported by numerous environmental, cultural,community and business organizations.According to local blogger Doug Carlson, “In their enthusiasm over geothermalenergy’s potential, supporters misunderstood or simply were unaware of nativeHawaiian cultural and religious sensitivities surrounding geothermal energy. ManyHawaiians came forward to say exploitation of that potential would be an affront toPele, goddess of fire and protector of the Big Island’s volcanoes [] Thatmiscalculation included Hawaiian Electric Company’s TV spot in the early ‘80s shotnear the rim of Halemaumau Crater that ended with a giant electric plug beingjammed into a giant receptacle planted on the ground. A leader in the Pele DefenseFund movement later [said] the spot’s symbolic plunging of a dagger into Pele’sbreast was the trigger that ramped up opposition to geothermal energy on theisland."211The death knell for the project, however, was that the state had appropriated some$17 million over fifteen years without writing an environmental impact statement(EIS). In January 1991 the U.S. District Court ruled that all federal agencies wereprohibited from assisting with the project until a federal EIS was completed.212The Hawaii Supreme Court ruled in 1992 that although the PDF could not contestthe transfer of public ceded lands, it could litigate the extent to which Hawaiiansretained rights customarily and traditionally exercised for subsistence, cultural andreligious purposes in Wao Kele o Puna. The high court issued a landmark finaldecision in 2002 which acknowledged that the State Constitution protectedHawaiian cultural rights including traditional access, gathering and hunting213. TheOffice of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) subsequently acquired Wao Kele o Puna rainforestin 2006, and agreed to manage the forest in partnership with the surroundingcommunities, ensuring that the land will be permanently preserved fromdevelopment.Geothermal remained on the back burner until the energy price spike of 2008,when, for a variety of reasons, the desire to pursue geothermal resurfaced. HECOproposed an inter-­island cable between O`ahu and Maui that would eventually be211 Big Island Geothermal Venture Marks 15th Year, Doug Carlson, December 11, 2008.­island-­geothermal-­venture.html212 Blue Ocean Preservation Society v. Watkins, 754 F.Supp. 1450 (1991).213 Pele Defense Fund v. Paty, 73 Haw. 578, 837 P.2d 1247 (1992). Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 79
  • 80. connected to Hawai`i Island. Economists asserted that geothermal could spureconomic growth on the Big Island. Renewable energy advocates asserted thatgeothermal could supply low climate impact, indigenous, renewable baseloadelectricity.In their haste to support geothermal, business and governmental proponents haveargued for streamlining regulations, relaxing environmental and culturalsafeguards, and have consistently been shown to change their story dependingupon which audience they were addressing.In 2012 a community backlash was ignited.In January, 2012 several bills were introduced at the State Legislature which wouldexempt geothermal exploration from all environmental and cultural review. Theseprovisions were opposed by environmental and cultural groups, and OHA. However,the bills were strongly endorsed by the Administration, and a Department of Landand Natural Resources representative testified that “Geothermal resourcesdevelopment in Hawaii is a priority.214 Two geothermal bills passed the Legislature.SB 3003 SD1 HD2 was signed into law as Act 97.215 SB 2001 SD1 HD2 CD1 is onthe Governors Desk.216The State House supported widespread exemptions for geothermal legislation, andthe Big Island’s Mayor stated his desire to streamline the county permittingprocess.217 The Mayor brought a team of industry and government people to thePhilippines in March 2012 to explore options for expanding geothermal in Puna.218In April the Governor delivered an attack against the Hawaiian and environmentalcommunities. The Governor stressed the need for geothermal and an inter-­islandcable, and characterized those opposing his position as being “pseudo-­214 Written testimony of DLNR Chair re SB 3003, heard by the Hawai`i House Committee on Finance,April 3, 2012:­03-­12_2_.PDF215 The bill differentiates between "geothermal resources exploration" and "geothermal resourcesdevelopment". Designates "geothermal resources exploration" and "geothermal resourcesdevelopment" as permissible uses in all state land use districts and conservation district zones.Repeals geothermal resource subzone provisions under state land use law. (SB3003 HD2) It would amends the Hawaii State Planning Act to include promoting the development of indigenousgeothermal energy resources that are located on public trust land as a source of firm power. Requiresconsultation and public input from the Native Hawaiian communityand general public when developing projects with public land trust lands. (CD1) Geothermal Issue Heats Up Mayor’s Community Meeting by Dave Smith, Big Island Now­dominates-­mayors-­community-­meeting/218 Hawaii county delegation exerting to adopt Leyte geothermal technology­county-­delegation-­exerting-­to-­adopt-­leyte-­geothermal-­technology/;;­news/2012/03/30/hawaii-­county-­adopt-­leyte-­geothermal-­technology-­213973#.T3XX0CzpezA.facebook Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 80
  • 81. environmentalists” and “six minute Hawaiians.” The Governor also favored limitingthe ability of opponents to challenge his actions in court.219In the end the Senate version of the bill was adopted, allowing greater geothermalexploration but without waivers from environmental laws.Many think current proponents of fast-­tracking geothermal development arerepeating earlier mistakes but expecting different results. HydropowerHydropower plants have provided power for sugar mills and utilities in Hawaii formany decades, and continue to produce significant amounts of electricity, mostlyusing “run-­of-­river” flows without dams. Hilo Wailuku River Hydroelectric Power Co.: 11 MW, run-­of-­river;; began operation 1993;; it is located at the junction of the Wailuku River and the Kaloheahewa Stream. Hilo Waiau Hydropower: 1.15 MW, run-­of-­river;; began operation 1920, upgraded 1947, penstock refurbished 1998;; it is located on the Wailuku River. Hilo Puueo Hydropower: 2.5 MW, run-­of-­river, began operation 1910, upgraded 1941 and 2005;; it is located on the Wailuku River downstream of the Waiau project. Umauma: 15 MW potential. The Umauma Stream is located on the Hamakua coast and drains just north of Hakalau. Kawainui: 6 MW potential. The Kawainui Stream is located on the Hamakua coast south of the Umauma project.Drinking Water HydroThe “Hawaii County Department of Water Supply is using the power of waterflowing naturally downhill from its Waikoloa Reservoirs to generate electricity,enough to power its entire Waimea Treatment Plant and sell the excess to theHawaii Electric Light Co. [] A hydroelectric generator at the plant, designed by MikeMaloney of SOAR Technologies Inc., harvests kinetic energy through a Peltonturbine, intercepting the gravity-­fed flow of mauka water. As the turbine spins, theflowing water releases energy to the shaft of an electric generator, creating powerin the system. It is expected to consistently generate a maximum of about 40219 A measured look at Gov. Abercrombie: Who have we got here? by Reed Flickinger, West HawaiiToday­look-­gov-­abercrombie-­who-­have-­we-­got-­here.html Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 81
  • 82. kilowatts of power -­-­ enough electricity to power roughly 50 households daily. Theproject cost is about $190,000.”220Pumped Storage HydroIn HELCO’s Integrated Resource Planning Report (2007-­2026), HELCO examinedpotential pumped storage hydro systems at Puu Enuhe: 30 MW and 5 hours ofstorage (150 MWh total), Puu Anahulu: 30 MW and 5 hours of storage (150 MWhtotal), and studies by MWH Americas for two 25 MW systems.221WindThe Big Island has two operational wind facilities at opposite ends of the island.Hawi Renewable Development operates a 10 MW wind power plant along thenorthern coast at Upolu Point. Tawhiri Power (Apollo) operates a 21 MW wind powerplant at Ka Lae (South Point).Hawaii Wind Map Kohala Wind mapA third wind power plant was located at Lalamilo Wells. This 2.3 MW Waikoloafacility was installed in 1985 with eighty-­one windmills varying between 17.5 and20 kW each. The plains between Kohala and Mauna Kea is a large area withsignificant potential, and several wind developers have eyed the spot and have alsoconsidered building a pumped storage hydro facility adjacent to a new wind facility.A wind turbine existed at Kahua Ranch on the Kohala ridge line. The “Kahua Ranchon the Big Island [] hybrid project used three 10 kW wind turbines, a 10 kW PVarray, and a 30 kW diesel generator, in conjunction with a battery bank and220 Water supply uses its resources to pay the bills by Carolyn Lucas, West Hawaii Today, March 25,2009­25-­09.pdf221 Analysis and Recommendations for the Hawai`i County Energy Sustainability Plan (2007) ByMichael Davies, Claire Gagne, Zeke Hausfather, & Dawn Lippert;; Project Manager: Jeremiah Johnson,Ph.D.;; Faculty Advisor: Marian Chertow, Ph.D.;; Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies;;Research conducted for The Kohala Center, Kamuela, Hawai‘i and the Hawai‘i County Department ofResearch and Development;; Prepared for and Funded by the Hawai‘i County Council Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 82
  • 83. pumped hydro system, to supply power to a greenhouse and 11 homes and shopson the ranch.”222A 10 MW wind project was approved by the PUC and a power purchase contract wassigned in 2001, but the contract was cancelled. The wind facility at Upolu Point isusing existing transmission capacity that would also be used by a wind facility atKahua Ranch, thus additional capacity would be required for a project at Kahua.A fifth wind facility is located at Parker Ranch in Waimea. When the system wasinstalled, it was “the world’s largest hybrid photovoltaic-­wind project. This systemconsists of 225 kw of photovoltaic power and 50 kw of wind power. This systemprovides over 90% of the daytime power to pump drinking water to Ranch livestockin certain grazing areas.”223The recoverable wind resource in the Waikaloa/Kohala area exceeds the combinedrecoverable land-­based wind resources in the rest of the State combined. TheTheoretical Wind Potential on the Island of Hawai`i is 2 billion kWh/year. “There issufficient potential to allow production of all of the Big Island’s electricity from wind.This assumes, however, the resolution of wind intermittency issues, which is mostlikely to occur through storage schemes such as pumped storage hydro (PSH).”224Potential Big island Wind Plants include a 10 MW Kahua Ranch wind power plantand a 50 MW Lalamilo wind plant. They could come on-­line assuming the addition oftransmission, storage and system controls.225Solar (Photovoltaic)The broad area around Waikoloa, from Lanuipuaa to Kawaihae along the coast andinland toward Waimea, is an excellent solar resource. There are existingtransmission lines in the vicinity, and the area around NELHA at Keahole Point(south of the Waikoloa area and north of Kona) is one of the best solar resources inHawaii. The Mauna Lani resort installed an 80 kW photovoltaic system on the mainbuilding roof, as well as a 110 kW system to power Mauna Lani’s golf facility (1998)and a 252 kW tracking PV system (2002).222 Written testimony of Life of the Land witness James (Jay) Griffin, p. 2, lines 24-­26. Griffin held aMasters in Environmental Management (M.E.M.) and a Masters in Public Policy (M.P.P.) from DukeUniversity. Board of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) contested case hearing: In the Matter ofConservation District Use Application for HAWAIIAN ELECTRIC COMPANY, INC. to Construct a 138-­kVTransmission Line at Waahila Ridge, Honolulu, Hawaii (OA-­2801) before THE HONORABLE E. JOHNMcCONNELL.223 Ibid. Written testimony of Life of the Land witness James (Jay) Griffin, p. 2, lines 19-­22. See Hawaii County Baseline Energy Analysis (2007) By Jeremiah Johnson, Dan Leistra, Jules Opton-­Himmel and Mason Smith;; Advisors: Marian Chertow, Arnulf Grübler, and Derek Murrow;; YaleUniversity, Environment Northeast;; Sponsored by the Kohala Center, Kamuela, Hawaii;; Interim Report On Renewables and Unconventional Energy in Hawaii (2003), By Warren Bollmeierwith Tom Loudat and Prahlad Kasturi for the Hawaii Energy Policy Project University of Hawai‘i atManoa;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 83
  • 84. BatteriesHawai`i Description Site Time/ Partners FundingBattery Status SourceProjects226Wind Facility 1 MW Altairnano battery for Hawi Funded, Altair-­ HNEIBESS 10.5 MW wind plant. not nano HELCODemonstrati Research project for Closed yet HELCO,on. loop control system for active HRD voltage and frequency regulation227HREDV/Gen-­ 100 kW Altairnano battery Hawi Funded, Altairnano HREDVX BESS not Gen-­X,Demonstrati yet HELCOon Project active.HELCO BESS Battery vendor: Saft. In DBEDT, ARRA Two batteries. Liion (Ni-­Co-­ procure HELCO $0.9 M Al) 100 kW, 248 kWh. ment Containerized for mobility and testing at different sites.226 Hawi Battery received funding (January 2011) “Hawi wind farm to get battery backup system,” Jan 27,2011 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 84
  • 85. Big Island Technical ProfileHELCO has a peak load of about 200 MW.Hawai`i island can supply 50-­100% of its energy needs with geothermal. Sizablewind and solar opportunities supported by some hydroelectric could meet all of theisland’s energy needs. About 60% of the HELCO mix should be baseload energy andthe rest can be intermittent renewable energy.While the utility states that it wants renewable energy, it has shown greatresistance in signing power purchase contracts for baseload renewable energy.Thus expansion of geothermal facilities has not yet occurred.HELCO Generation Units228 are listed below.They should all be decommissioned, starting with the oldest ones. The oldest dieselunits produce the most pollution per kWhr.Firm Generating Units Operating Fuel Net Service Date Mode Type Minimum Rating (MW)Shipman 3 & 4 Intermediate MSFO 10 1955-­58Hill (Kanoelehua) 5 & 6 Baseload MSFO 25 1965-­74Puna Baseload MSFO 9 1970Hill (Kanoelehua) 11, Peaking Diesel 12.5 1962-­7315-­17, CT-­1Waimea 12-­14 Peaking Diesel 7.5 1970-­72Keahole 21-­23 Peaking Diesel 7.5 1983-­87Keahole CT-­2, 4 & 5 Intermediate Diesel 23 1989, 2004Puna CT-­3 Intermediate Diesel 7.5 1992DG Peaking Diesel 4 1997There are two combined cycle units on the island: HELCOs Keahole Dual TrainedCombined Cycle Turbine (CT-­4, CT-­5 ST-­7) and the Hamakua Energy Partners(HEP) combined cycle power plant.228 HELCO IRP-­3 Report 2007-­2026 (May 2007) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 85
  • 86. CHAPTER 10. MAUIMaui229Maui IslandMaui is the second-­largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles. In 2010,Maui Island had a population of 144,000 residents plus a daily average of 45,000visitors. Maui has a large isthmus between its older eroded West Maui Mountainsthan 10,000 feet above sea level, and measures about six miles from seafloor tosummit, making it one of the worlds highest mountains.The island of Maui is part of the County of Maui. Maui is also part of a much larger i, Kaho olawe, Moloka i, and thenow submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including asrecently as 20,000 years ago, they were joined together as a single island due tothe shallowness of the channels between them.230229 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 86
  • 87. Maui has more energy from wind facilities than the grid can now handle without astorage back-­up. Pumped Storage Hydro or batteries could firm up this resource,and geothermal can supplement the baseload energy. Maui also has great solarpotential.Geothermal Maui has more energy from wind facilities than the grid can handle. Pumped Storage Hydro would firm up this resource, and geothermal canThe current thinking is that Maui island Maui also has great solar potential. supplement the baseload energy. has potential for geothermal development.GeothermalThe current thinking is that Maui Island has geothermal development potential.Below are the geothermal zones231 identified in 2005:Area Description of Location Resource (For this report, we have considered the 10th percentile MW value to be a minimum;; there is a 90% probability that geothermal energy reserves will exceed this level for the area being evaluated.)Haleakala The identified resource area on The calculated 10th percentileSouthwest Rift Haleakala’s southwest rift value of reserves is 20 MW,Zone, above extends over approximately 9 and the mean value is 69 MW.Makena Resort miles. The average elevation in It is expected that it will be this zone is about 3,500 feet necessary to drill down about (half-­way between sea level and 6,000 feet to reach the heat the maximum elevation cut-­off source. of 7,000 feet).Haleakala East The identified resource area on The calculated 10th percentileRift Zone-­ Haleakala’s east rift is similar to value of reserves is 18 MW,including land that on the southwest rift, and the mean value is 70 MW.east and west of extending over a distance ofHana and a about 9 miles.submarineextension knownRidge (HanaRidge)231 Assessment of Energy Reserves and Costs of Geothermal Resources in Hawaii (2005. Submitted byGeothermEx, Inc. for DBEDT. http://maui-­­assessment-­05.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 87
  • 88. WindThe highest average wind speed recorded on Maui was near Ukumehame on thesouthwestern corner of the isthmus at McGregor Point,232 Ma`alaea, where theterrain is fairly complex.233 The Keheawa Wind Project is located high up on a ridgemauka of McGregor Point.In 2008 the Maui Ocean Center installed six small wind turbines on its roof;; each 1kW turbine is only 8.5 feet tall.234 The wind turbines will produce an estimated48,880 kWh per year.235232 Anecdotal information provided to the author by a wind developer;; year not specified.233 A Catalog of Potential Sites for Renewable Energy in Hawaii (2006), Global Energy Concepts, LLCfor DLNR & DBEDT, in response to Act 95, Session Laws of Hawaii 2004.234­Turbines-­Story.jpg235 Wind Energy by Blake Bridges, Chris Parnell, Jeremy Petrowski, Yuren Salazar, Loy Pearce. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 88
  • 89. The coastal areas on Maui Island are not ideal for wind development because of theaesthetic and ecosystem impact of building wind facilities there.Sempra Energy (Auwahi Project) is in the process of erecting a 21 MW wind facilityon Ulupalakua Ranch above Wailea, which includes 12 MW of battery energystorage. It is estimated that this facility could produce enough power for 10,000homes, and is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2012:“The preliminary layout indicated that the proposed wind site could accommodate39 WTGs [wind turbine generators], with a maximum generating capacity of up to117 MW. ...For the first phase of the Project, SWE [Shell WindEnergy] targeted agenerating capacity of approximately 42 MW, with the potential for futureexpansion based on whether pumped hydro storage was determined to be feasible.However, pumped hydro storage was determined to be economically unfeasible....Subsequently, MECO determined that, given the intermittent nature of windenergy, the existing electrical grid could not accommodate all of the wind energyprojects planned for Maui. ...The proposed Project was selected but was downsized Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 89
  • 90. to a generating capacity of 21 MW to meet the MECO requirements regarding themaximum allowable wind energy-­to-­grid capacity.”236First Wind (formerly UPC Wind) currently operates a 30 MW wind power facility atKaheawa Pastures, mauka of Ma`alaea, Maui, which began operations in 2006, andwill complete a second phase that will add 21 MW by mid-­2012;; it is currently thelargest commercial scale wind project in Hawaii. Kaheawa Wind I’s 20 turbines canproduce 9% of Maui’s electricity needs, enough power for 11,000 homes. In fiveyears of operation, it has saved some 900,000 barrels of oil. The 14-­turbineexpansion will power up to 10,000 homes, and will include 10 MW of batterystorage.237 The three wind projects will supply an estimated 16% of Maui Island’selectricity.238 The MW of battery storage is useful information, but the actual MWhof storage is also important. This data will available after testing and operation.Solar (Photovoltaic)The area south and east of Kahului Airport is well suited for solar development.Another desirable region includes areas mauka of developments in the Kihei area,236 Auwahi Wind Farm Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement by Tetra Tech EC, Inc.;;­03-­08-­MA-­DEIS-­Auwahi-­Wind-­Farm-­Vol1.pdf237­energy-­projects-­in-­hawaii-­november-­2011238 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 90
  • 91. and the lower southwest slopes of Haleakala. PVUSA [Photovoltaics for UtilitySystems Applications], a research organization affiliated with the University ofCalifornia at Davis, has a Research and Technology Center located here.239In 2012 Sopogy will install a rooftop array of micro concentrating solar collectors onthe Maui Ocean Center. This is expected to result in an annual electrical savings ofapproximately 26,568 kWh,240 in addition to the 48,880 kWh saved from the smallroof-­top wind turbines.Numerous commercial establishments have now retro-­fitted their roofs with solarphotovoltaic panels.Maui Arts and Cultural Center’s solar facility.241239 A Catalog of Potential Sites for Renewable Energy in Hawaii (2006) Produced for DLNR & DBEDT byGlobal Energy Concepts, LLC in response to Act 95, Session Laws of Hawaii 2004.240 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 91
  • 92. HydroelectricThe HC&S plantation maintained three hydroelectric facilities totaling 5.8 MW thathave operated for many decades within its irrigation system. The three "run-­of-­river" hydroelectric facilities are Kaheka (4.5 MW), Paia (0.9 MW), and Hamakua(0.4 MW). They are used for on-­site energy, and excess electricity is sold toMECO.242Makila Hydro, located in Lahaina,243 once provided power for the Pioneer MillCompany. In 2006, Makila Hydro LLC substantially refurbished the plant and it wasconnected to MECOs grid, providing 0.5 MW. The facility was damaged during theOctober 15, 2006 earthquake and went off-­line. It returned to service in 2008.”244Maui Battery Systems245Project Description Location Time/ Partners Funding Status SourceKaheawa 1.5 MW (1 MWh) Xtreme Kaheawa Active First First WindWind Power battery. Battery Wind,Project 1 project to demonstrate Xtreme functions and capabilities Power of energy storage to enable managing wind plant ramps. Wind smoothing, curtailment mitigationKaheawa 10 MW (20 MWh) Xtreme Kaheawa Expected First First WindWind Power battery. Battery to to be on-­ Wind,Project 2 meet interconnection line in Xtreme agreement requirements. late Power Provide ancillary 2012 services, wind smoothing, curtailment mitigation, frequency regulation, spinning reserve, and AGC response242 MECO Adequacy of Supply 2010, submitted 1/27/11: Id.245 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 92
  • 93. HNU 1 MW (1 MWh?) Kihei Funded, HNU HREDVEnergy International Battery substation not Energy,BESS yet MECODemonstra activetionAuwahi BESS associated with 22 Ulupalakua Expected SempraWind MW wind project on Maui on-­line inProject late 2012RDSI Maui Smart grid project Wailea Active HNEI, DOE $7 MSmart Grid demonstration. SRAProject Distribution management Intl./ system (DMS) and AMI Sentech, infrastructure to manage MECO, distribution-­level Silver resources, such as Spring battery energy storage, Networks controllable loads, /HECOHE distributed PV, and CO provide grid services at distribution and transmission levelsHawaii – Smart grid project Kihei Funded Hitachi, NEDOOkinawa demonstration. Battery, MECO,Smart Grid smart grid/AMI/ DBEDT,Demonstra Communications HECO,tion tech. EVs Including HNEIProject electric vehicle charging, distribution management system, energy management system, smart PV inverters, and community energy storage.MRESS Battery demonstration Kahului In DBEDT, ARRA(Maui for curtailment reduction baseyard Procure MECO $1.2 MRenewable on Maui;; Premium Power mentEnergy 250 kW, 1.25. BESS onStorage Maui plus equipmentSystem) (TBD after interconnection study) to allow additional renewables on Kaunakakai circuit. MWh zinc-­bromide flow battery Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 93
  • 94. Biomass/BiofuelHawaiian Commercial and Sugar (HC&S)The Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar (HC&S) burns a combination of cane fiber(bagasse) and coal, mixed with small amounts of recycled and non-­recycled oil.Coal use for power generation increased from 24,000 short tons in 1999 to 61,000short tons in 2000, primarily due to drought-­induced bagasse shortages and higherfuel prices.246 In the early to mid-­2000s, HC&S combusted 60,000 tons of coal peryear to maintain the temperatures needed for their mill operation boilers.247 In2008, HC&S burned 475,000 tons of bagasse and 95,000 tons of coal.248The HC&S-­MECO Power Purchase Contract expires at the end of 2014, and HC&Shas not yet indicated to MECO that they would renew the contract. Therefore MECOis assuming that it will not be renewed and they are looking for other sources tomake up the shortfall.249Pacific BiodieselIn 1996 Pacific Biodiesel opened the nations first biodiesel refinery at the CentralMaui Landfill. It is the longest continually operated biodiesel production plant in theU.S. It was originally built to process 200,000 gallons of used cooking oil per year.Garbage-­to-­EnergyIn 2012 the County of Maui announced plans to combust 450 tons of trash per dayat the Central Maui Landfill. This would generate 10-­15 MW of energy.250Maui Smart Grid Pilot ProjectsMaui stands out as an ideal petri dish to test Smart Grid concepts since there is anexisting and reliable isolated grid and the island has high penetration levels ofintermittent renewable energy.The tradition electrical grid radiates electricity out from generators to customers.There are only a few large central station generations. Changing customer demand(load patterns) over the course of a day, the week and the year are wellunderstood. Historically, Hawai`i utilities can measure the electricity flow ontransmission lines but not on distribution lines.246 Alexander & Baldwin, Inc. 2000 Annual Report to Shareholders: http://google.brand.edgar-­­5840-­68217&SessionID=Pn59FqfwJUqPd47247­02-­05.php248­09-­17.php 249­electric-­seeks-­to-­add-­50-­megawatts-­of-­firm-­renewable-­ power/250­wants-­to-­convert-­waste-­to-­energy-­at-­puunene-­landfill/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 94
  • 95. By contrast, the modern electrical grid has numerous and ever increasing numberof customers with on-­site generators. Electricity on the grid can flow two directions,as more and more customers can feed excess electricity onto the grid.As customers install more on-­site generators the historic load pattern for utility-­generated electricity is getting distorted. If a cloud passes above solar panels, thereis a sudden need for additional utility power. If there is a sudden change in windspeed at a large wind farm, the utility must immediately adjust its output. If a windfarm goes off-­line due to mechanical problems, the utility must be able todetermine if the sudden loss of load is for 1/100 of a second or an hour.One way the utility can handle all of the changes to the modern grid is by makingeach part of the grid “smart.” This requires having every grid node in two-­waycontact with the central utility energy management system.A “Smart Grid” is a catch-­all term for a great variety of systems involving thisintegration of electrical grids, telecommunications, and sophisticated computerprograms.Smart Grids offer many opportunities, problems and risks. There is a need fortelecommunication systems to relay all the information back and forth.Sophisticated computer programs must be able to accurately assess changingconditions and automatically make the correct modifications to utility generatoroutput. Large amounts of data need to be stored and retrieved. The data and thegrid itself needs to be safe from cyber attacks.Many entities promoting increasing renewable energy penetration levels see theSmart Grid as the only way to proceed. Among Smart Grid advocates are HECO,DBEDT, the State of Hawai`i, the County of Maui, Sierra Club, Blue PlanetFoundation, EarthJustice, Greenpeace International, and the Environmental DefenseFund.Some fear that the Smart Grid will increase the power of the electric monopolymaking it part of the “Big Brother” paradigm while others fear the health impactsfrom residential Smart Meters.Maui has a few different Smart Grid pilot projects underway. Several governmental,industry and educational facilities are involved with these projects.251251 Partners include Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO);; Maui Electric Company (MECO);; U.S.Department of Energy;; DBEDT;; County of Maui;; Maui Economic Development Board, Inc.;; HawaiiNatural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii;; Sustainable Living Institute of Maui (SLIM) atUniversity of Hawaii Maui College;; HNU Energy, a Maui-­based energy and engineering firm;; Japan-­based Department of the New Energy and Industrial Technology DevelopmentOrganization (NEDO);;251 Republic of Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy: Electricity Market andSmart Grid Division;; Alstom;; Corix Utilities;; Silver Spring Networks (Redwood City, CA);; and SRAInternational.­and-­korea-­enter-­smart-­grid-­development-­agreement/;;­Grid-­selected-­for-­ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 95
  • 96. Smart Grids have there place, but like all energy systems, need communityawareness and oversight.Appendix: Maui Technical ProfileIndustrial Fuel Oil (IFO) and diesel is supplied by Chevron and Tesoro. They areshipped from Kalaeloa Harbor, O`ahu to Kahului Harbor, Maui. The fuels are loadedin separate barge compartments on a fuel barge ("NOA") owned and operated by K-­SEA Transportation (formerly known as Hawaiian Interisland Towing, Inc.). TheHana Diesel is supplied to the plant by Maui Oil Company, a local Chevronwholesale jobber. Biodiesel is sold to MECO under the terms of a MECO-­PacificBiodiesel, Inc. supply contract (2004).252Estimated Fuel Costs (2012)253Island of Maui (A) Fuel (B) Fuel (C) = (A) X (B) Consumption Prices Fuel Expense ($M) (BBLs) ($/BBL)Kahului 389,285 99.3313 38.7(Industrial FuelOil)Maalaea (Diesel) 1,252,416 126.8571 158.9Maalaea 2,593 215.0400 0.6(Biodiesel)Hana (Diesel) 126 153.5422 0.02Total 1,644,420 198.1HECO/MECOHECO purchased MECO in 1968, the Lana`i City power plant in 1988, and Moloka`iElectric Company in 1989.254MECO’s peak energy use on Maui Island (206.4 MW net) occurred in 2006. Mauis2010 system peak for Maui Island occurred on December 28, 2010, and was 199.4MW (net) or 203.8 MW (gross). The total system capability of MECO was 262.3 MW(net) at the time of the system peak, resulting in a reserve margin ofMaui-­Smart-­Grid-­project.html?nav=17;;­smart-­grid-­project-­description/project-­team/252 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, Exhibit MECO-­601A253 MECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2011-­0092, Exhibit MECO-­602: Test Year 2012 Fuel Prices254 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 96
  • 97. approximately 32% over the 2010 system peak.255 MECO’s oil-­based power plantsare located at Maalaea (212.1 MW) and Kahului (37.6 MW).There are two MECO 1.0 MW back-­up generators located in Hana.Maui Baseload Generators256Location Generator Nameplate CapacityMa`alaea M1 2.5 M2 2.5 M3 2.5 X1 2.5 X2 2.5 M4 5.6 M5 5.6 M6 5.6 M7 5.6 M8 5.6 M9 5.6 M10 12.5 M11 12.5 M12 12.5 M13 12.5 M14/15/16 58.0 M17/18/19 58.0Kahului K1 5.9 K2 6.0 K3 12.7 K4 13.0HC&S 16.0Hana 1 1.0 2 1.0Total 267.7255;; Maui Unit Ratings (December 31, 2010): MECO Adequacy of Supply, Attachment 2, p. 1, filed withthe PUC (January 27, 2011) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 97
  • 98. CHAPTER 11. O`AHUThe Island of O`ahu257O`ahu (The City and County of Honolulu)O ahu is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous of the islandsin the state of Hawai`i. The state capital, Honolulu, is located on the southeastcoast. Including small close-­by offshore islands such as Ford Island and the islandsin Kaneohe Bay and off the eastern (windward) coast, it has a total land area of596.7 square miles. The island is home to about 953,207 people (approximately75% of the resident population of the state, with approximately 75% of those livingon the "city" or leeward side of the island).O`ahu is a volcanic island forty-­four miles long and thirty miles across with ashoreline of 227 miles. The island is the result of two separate shield volcanoes:Wai anae and Ko olau, with a broad "valley" or saddle (the central O ahu Plain)257 Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 98
  • 99. between them. The highest point is Mt. Kaala in the Wai anae Range, rising to4,003 feet above sea level.258empty has enormous potential to create energy from empty rooftops O`ahu that can support solar water heaters, solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power and micro wind;; from water reservoirs and streams without hydroelectric facilities;; and from ocean waves. Sea Water Air Conditioning can cool off commercial buildings.The island of O`ahu has the largest population and the largest energy demand. Theisland’s annual energy production is approximately 8000 GWh and system loadtypically ranges from a peak of 1,200 MW to a minimum of 600 MW.259 Whilerecent focus has been on attempts to reliably integrate large amounts ofintermittent renewable resource from Neighbor Islands into the grids on O`ahu,many opportunities exist to maximize on-­island resources, thereby eliminating theneed to construct a costly undersea cable.Sea Water Air ConditioningThe use of cold ocean water, by installing sea water air conditioning capacity, couldreduce Waikikis energy bill by 40%.260Potential sites for Sea Water Air Conditioning on O`ahu are Downtown Honolulu,Waikiki, Pearl Harbor, the Honolulu International Airport and Hickam Air ForceBase.”261258 Oahu Wind Integration Study (OWIS), 2/2011.260 Uncontested testimony by Life of the Land witness Dr. John Harrison during the Board of Land andNatural Resources (BLNR) contested case hearing re Conservation District Use Application (CDUA) OA-­2801. Dr. John Harrison worked as a post-­doctoral marine scientist for the University of California atBerkeley where he administered the U.S. Department of Energy funded ocean thermal energyconversion (OTEC) environmental research program in Hawaii. Dr. Harrison wrote the Ocean ThermalEnergy Conversion (OTEC) handbook for the U.S. Department of Energys solar energy researchinstitute. Dr. Harrison was hired by the United States Department of Commerce, National MarineFishery Services to write the environmental analysis section of the federal environmental impactstatement for the 40-­megawatt ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant that was intendedto be installed at Kahe Point adjacent to and in combination with the Hawaiian Electric Kahe Pointgenerating facility.261 Testimony of Dr. David Rezachek in Hawai`i PUC Docket 2005-­145 re: Sea Water Air Conditioning.­2009-­plant/Rezachek.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 99
  • 100. HydropowerO`ahu has several large, dammed reservoirs,262 all of which could providecontinuous power to offset intermittent (variable) wind and solar resources.Currently there are no hydroelectric facilities on O`ahu.Wahiawa Dam, which created Wahiawa Reservoir or Lake Wilson, is located inWahiawa. It is the second largest reservoir in Hawaii (302 acres) and is owned byDole Foods. The concrete dam was first built in 1906 on the Kaukonahua Stream,the state’s longest stream (thirty-­three miles). The entire Kaukonahua Stream flowis 39 MGD gathered from a drainage basin of ten square miles. The height of thedam is eighty-­eight feet and the lake can store 9,200 acre-­feet.Nuuanu Dam, an engineered earthen dam, was first built in 1910 on NuuanuStream and reconstructed in the 1930s. Nuuanu Reservoir was originally used fordrinking water, but it is now used for recreational fishing and flood control. It isowned and operated by the Honolulu Board of Water Supply. It has a maximumstorage of 3,600 acre-­feet. The height of the dam is sixty-­six feet. The normalwater height is thirty feet. Nuuanu Reservoir could store as much as 1.1 billiongallons of water.Hoomaluhia Dam in Luluku was built for flood control in 1980 and is owned by theCity and County of Honolulu. The dam has a height of seventy-­six feet. HoomaluhiaReservoir can hold 4,500 acre-­feet.Kaneohe Dam, on Kamooalii Stream at the base of the Koolau Mountains, has a4,500 acre-­feet capacity. It is an engineered earthen dam, built for flood control, inresponse to devastating floods in Kaneohe in the late 1960s. Its height is 82 feet.Dam Acre-­Feet Height (feet) Stored Energy (kWh)Wahiawa 9,200 88 800,000Nuuanu 3,600 66 230,000Hoomaluhia 4,500 76 340,000Kaneohe 4,500 82 360,000Total 1,730,000The Waiahole Ditch263 is a twenty-­two-­mile water diversion system that historicallytook about 28 MGD of windward water to plantation sugar fields on the centralO‘ahu plain.264262­reports/2004legreports/Map5.pdf264 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 100
  • 101. Lake Wilson HydroelectricA hydroelectric facility can be built at Lake Wilson. A large-­diameter water pipe canbe built adjacent to Kaukonahua Stream along most or all of the stream’s lengthbetween Lake Wilson and Otake Camp in Waialua. The pipe could be used togenerate in-­flow hydroelectric power during periods of peak energy demand.Some of the water can be returned to the Kaukonahua Stream, which empties intoKi`iki`i Stream about a mile mauka of Kaiaka Bay.The diverted water could also flow into new non-­potable water reservoirs. Theadvantage of this is two-­fold:First, during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.) wind facilities can produce power butinstead sit idle, since they are curtailed by the utility due to low demand. The twoNorth Shore Wind Plants (Kahuku, Kawailoa) could send night-­time wind energy toHECO’s Haleiwa (Weed Circle) Sub-­transmission Station and then to the lower endof Kaukonahua Stream, just a mile away. The wind energy could then be used topump water back up to Lake Wilson (pumped storage hydro).Second, Kaukonahua Stream has periodically overrun its banks, flooding anddisplacing communities, especially Otake Camp. In addition, major siltation occursthroughout Kaiaka Bay every time there is a heavy rain. The huge watershed getsits water from four Ko`olau streams and two Mount Kaala (Waianae) streams. Bysiphoning off the stream water into lower reservoirs, electricity would be created,and the flooding and siltation can be avoided.In all probability hydroelectric could play a large role in firming wind energy.Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) Power PlantsThe Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) system delivers 150 million gallons ofpotable water and 7.5 million gallons per day of recycled water. Numerous watertanks exist throughout the island. Water can be pumped uphill when there is excessrenewable energy on the grid, and dropped during periods of peak demand. Thehydropower produced would firm up intermittent solar and wind energy.265Ocean Wave EnergyThe Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a national utility think tank whosemembers represent over 90% of the electricity generated by shareholder-­ownedutilities in the United States, examined wave power in 2004. In consideringHawai`i’s potential for wave power, EPRI concluded that waves off O`ahu’s north-­facing coastline could produce 100% of O`ahus total electrical demand.266265 The Pumped Storage equipment would need to be stainless steel and the lubricant must be mineraloil.266 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 101
  • 102. Similarly, as noted above, the U.S. Department of Energy’s267 report “Tapping intoWave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030” concluded O`ahu couldgenerate twice its electricity needs from ocean wave energy alone.As discussed earlier, the ideal wave energy system for O`ahu is the Blow-­Hole(Oscillating Water Column) Wave Energy System. It consists of a compartment withwater at the bottom and air on top. When a wave arrives, the water level rises andair is forced out of the blowhole. When the wave recedes, the air is sucked backinto the blowhole. A two-­way air turbine spins in the same direction as the air goesin and out, generating electricity. Having the spinning device rotating in the samedirection, regardless of which way the wind is moving, significantly increases theefficiency of the generator. There is only one moving part in Oscillating WaterColumn systems, and unlike most other wave energy systems, it is above the waterlevel. The physical structure rises about 30 feet above sea level. The blowholeenergy systems can produce net power (after accounting for the power to run thesystem) with an eight inch ocean swell.The areas detailed in pink reflect the boundaries of the Hawaiian Islands HumpbackWhale National Marine Sanctuary, and would be considered “restricted areas”268 forocean wave energy development.267 Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wace Energy Resource , EPRI TechnicalReport 2011 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 102
  • 103. WindPUC Chair Hermina Morita, First Wind’s Wren Wescoatt, PUC Commissioner MichaelChampley and PUC Commissioner John Cole at Kawailoa Wind Farm Dedication.(Photo by author)The Koolau Mountains and the Waianae Range serve to enhance O`ahu’s prevalenttrade winds. The northeastern (Kahuku), southeastern (Koko Head), northwestern(Kaena Point), and southwestern (Kahe) tips of Oahu also have areas of substantialwind resource. The best potential combination of land available for winddevelopment and a strong, proven wind resource is found in the Kahuku area.269There are also viable off-­shore wind possibilities in the Kahuku and Kalaeloa areas.269 A Catalog of Potential Sites for Renewable Energy in Hawaii (December 2006)Produced for DLNR and DBEDT by Global Energy Concepts, LLC in response to Act 95, Session Laws ofHawaii 2004. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 103
  • 104. The best on-­shore as well as off-­shore sites, however, appear to be off-­limits: thewealthy Black Point area by Diamond Head, the Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve andthe coastal waters off Aina Haina.Solar (Photovoltaic)Sempra Energy Corporation is “seeking an Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) with Navy-­Hawaii to develop a Solar Photovoltaic Project of up to 300 MW at Pearl Harbor,”270which would involve a “1,500-­acre solar-­energy plant that would generate 300megawatts of power, including 30 megawatts for the Pearl Harbor Navy Base, and270 megawatts for Hawaiian Electric, the local utility.” 271The Sempra proposal would use 0.4% of O`ahu’s land area of 596.7 square milesand would produce over five percent of O`ahu’s electricity load -­-­ at a cost of 20%less than is estimated for Big Wind on a per kWh basis.Average peak Sun Hours272 Solar Radiation273270­presentation.pdf ;; See also­lasermotive-­pitch-­energy-­ideas-­to-­pentagon-­2011-­09-­19271­lasermotive-­pitch-­energy-­ideas-­to-­pentagon-­2011-­09-­19272­content/uploads/manual/galleries/sunHours/images/sun-­oahuSolarMap.jpg273 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 104
  • 105. Solar Radiation274 Solar Radiation275According to HECO (2011), O`ahu can install up to 532 MW of solar, mostlyground-­based: Oahu Scenarios – Solar Site Selection Process.276According to Booz Allen Hamilton (2012), O`ahu can install 992 MW of rooftopsolar.277274­content/uploads/2011/05/solarmap-­oahu.png275 HECO: Expanding the Gap Evaluation Methodology Connecting Issues to Studies to Results:Document submitted for Reliability Standards Working Group’s Gap Analysis Subgroup MeetingDecember 19, 2011, pp. 25-­26277 Matrix of Unadjusted Generation Capacity by Island and Technology (MW), Hawaii Clean EnergyInitiative Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions(2008 –2010) Booz Allen Hamilton (March 2012). (“NREL/SR-­ 7A40-­52442”) pp. 12-­13. Oahu rooftopanalysis is based on NREL analysis: NREL estimates 2.5 kW per house and assumes that half ofHawaii’s 500,036 houses (as of 2006 census) are available for rooftop PV. (National Renewable EnergyLaboratory. [2006]). In 2003, Hawaii had approximately 173 million ft² of office space, according toHECO, with 0.01 kW per ft² (which is the figure for the 309 kW, 31,000 ft² Ford Array). According toNREL, it is assumed commercial buildings are proportional to residential ones when seeking an island-­by-­island estimate, with half of commercial buildings available for rooftop PV. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 105
  • 106. Location Initial Analysis278 Further Analysis279Kailua-­Kaneohe 5 MW Distributed PV 5 MW DPV & 5-­10 MW Feed in Tariff PVMililani 5 MW Distributed PV 20 MW DPV & 100-­200 CPVWaipio 20-­60 MW Central PV included with MililaniDowntown 15 MW Distributed PV 25 MW DPV (including Aina Haina)Ewa-­Kapolei 10-­20 MW Central PV 100-­150 MW CPVWaianae 10-­50 MW Central PV 50-­100 MW CPV & 10-­20 MW DPVHaleiwa-­Waialua 1-­2 MW DPVTotal 65-­155 MW 316-­532 MWThe Kalanimoku Building at Punchbowl and Beretania contains offices of theDepartment of Land and Natural Resources and the Department of Accounting andGeneral Services. The 1,005 solar photovoltaic panels will generate at least300,000 kWh of electricity each year saving the building $300/day.280Combined SystemsAs discussed earlier, the University of Hawai`i, Manoa, employed a small horizontalaxis micro wind mill, along with solar panels, to implement a “combined systems”approach in Saunders Hall.278 Based on existing installed solar, Locational Value Map (LVM) and general development interest,HECO identified some likely locations for solar development. p. 25279 Booz Allen Hamilton identified additional sites.280 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 106
  • 107. The Joint Base Pearl Harbor-­Hickam is testing a solar and micro-­wind system whichcan power so much of the electric grid that feeds the area, while also providinghydrogen for fueling vehicles.O`ahu Battery Systems281The chart below details current storage options being investigated on O`ahu.Project Description Location Time/ Partners Funding Status SourceFirst Wind 15 MW (10 MWh) Kahuku Active Xtreme FirstKahuku Xtreme Power battery at Power, WindProject 30 MW Kahuku site;; First Wind DOE funded & owned by First Wind with DOE loan guarantee. Wind smoothing, curtailment mitigation, voltage regulationWaiawa 1 MW (250 KWh) Waiawa Funded HECO, HNEIHigh-­ Altairnano battery at not Altairnano HECOPenetration HECO substation on high yetCircuit PV penetration circuit. active(PV)Natural GasO`ahu can convert its oil-­based and coal-­based generators to natural gas turbines,which burn cleaner. Natural gas can provide a better offset than other fossil fuelsfor integrating fluctuating intermittent (wind and solar) renewable energy into thegrid.Alternative Baseload ScenarioThis report earlier proposed that Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Pumped StorageHydro (PSH) could provide baseload energy for O`ahu. An alternative approachwould rely on Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).In 1979 a closed-­cycle OTEC facility was successfully demonstrated on a bargelocated off the NELHA facility on the Kailua-­Kona coast of Hawai`i Island. Severalcompanies were involved, including Lockheed Martin Corporation and Makai OceanEngineering.281 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 107
  • 108. Kahe BathymetryDeep water exists just off Kahe Point (O`ahu’s southwestern point).Kahe Point282The ideal site would be located in 4,000 feet of water. This site is a little furtherfrom the shore than the existing Station Kahe, which acts as a long-­term datacollection point located in water 3,000 feet deep.283282­map17.gif283 The facility was established in 1988 as part of a federal and state, government and academia,interdisciplinary research facility used for the purpose of observing and interpreting oceanic variability. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 108
  • 109. A future Kahe Marine Research Park (KMRP) would consist of one or more 100-­200MW OTEC facilities located three-­four miles southwest of Kahe Point.284 It wouldalso house wind, ocean current, ocean wave, photovoltaic arrays, and concentratingsolar thermal systems generating electric, hydraulic and thermal energy.Technical CharacteristicsKMRP could be built on a semi-­submersible vessel, which is a cross between asubmarine (which can go below the water) and a ship (which rides on the water).Part of the lower part of the semi-­submersible vessel is filled with water to preventits movement. The contained water can be removed, allowing the facility to moveunder either its own power, or to be towed. The operating deck is either sealed orlocated on a platform above the wave height. The four components of a platformfacility are the pontoons, structural columns, the operating deck, and the workingarea (offices, dorms, etc.).The Warm Water Intake Pipe (WWP) has the greatest potential to harm organismssince the surface layer has the greatest abundance of sea life. The potential harmto eggs and larvae is a critical issue that must be considered in the design of theintake system. The Cold Water Intake Pipe (CWP) would run about 3,000 feet long,preferably from a single seamless pipe construction on-­site. Such technology iscurrently feasible.284 HECO’s Kahe Generation Station is located across the road from Kahe Point Beach Park, also knownas Electric Beach. Just north of this beach, next to railroad tracks, is a park called Tracks Beach. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 109
  • 110. Upon exiting from the OTEC system, the two water flows are mixed, and dischargedinto the ocean at a depth between the cold water and warm water intake depths.The discharge point would be located where the temperatures of the water outflowand the ocean temperature are the same. The discharged water would be slightlydenser, causing it to sink.Heat Exchanger (HX) units are the critical cost components of OTEC applications,and can consume close to 25% of the total cost of an OTEC facility.When water is heated on a stove, the heat interacts with the bottom layer of water.The bottom layer heats up, expands, and rises. The colder, denser, upper layer fallsand the water mixes. Extensive research has been done in the past few decades onheat transfer, driven primarily by the energy and high tech industries (petroleum,liquefied natural gas (LNG), geothermal, cryogenic, and aerospace), and hasfocused primarily on large temperature differentials. New materials are being used(titanium, aluminum-­alloys and plastics replacing stainless steel), and designs havechanged. Rough surfaces have replaced smooth surfaces, and new fabricationmethods and automation have transformed the industry.The working fluid located in the closed pipe on the deck of the platform wouldcontain ammonia. Since ammonia vapor is lighter than air, leaks will evaporateupwards. Ammonia is difficult to ignite, has a narrow range of flammability and willnot sustain a flame on its own. It will not explode.An Undersea Transmission Line, utilizing two separate undersea corridors, would beconstructed under the beach and the reefs using Horizontal Directional Drilling(HDD). The proposed OTEC transmission lines would have a total length of 7 milesand go through open ocean water. By contrast, the proposed Inter-­islandTransmission Cable System, proposed for the so-­called “Big Wind” project involves70-­200 miles of undersea cables to be routed through sensitive marine habitatsincluding the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary and theSouth Moloka`i Fringing Reef.TransparencyThe Research Facility will house classrooms, labs, dorms, etc. to house marinebiologists, marine chemists, marine physicists, high school, college and graduatestudents, environmentalists, and cultural practitioners. Since all data collected willbe open source, transparent, free and in the public domain, no classified researchwould be conducted. KMRP would share data with local educational institutions withprograms focusing on environmental, cultural and ocean issues.In keeping with the fact that oceans are part of the public commons, the facilitywould convert ocean energy into electricity using a very open, transparent,community-­friendly approach. Data collection will be open, transparent, andavailable. There would be seven underwater video cameras and data collectionsystems associated with the facilities, that would take live feeds. The data collection Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 110
  • 111. system will measure temperature, flow, salinity, CO2 levels and other watercharacteristics. The system would include passive sonar.The seven video systems will be located at critical areas: two at the cold waterintake location (one at the intake itself, the other on the ocean floor), one at thewarm water intake location, one at the water discharge location, two downstreamfrom the water discharge area (one on the surface, the other on the ocean floor),and one under the OTEC Platform.The videos would be able to monitor potential environmental problems ofimpingement (organisms getting stuck on intake screens), entrainment (organismsbeing sucked through the system), attraction (organisms attracted to the facility),avoidance (organisms repelled by the facility), etc.The data collected would be available live on the internet and be open source,transparent, free and in the public domain. The data will be transmitted via highspeed dedicated telecommunication systems (using antennas or satellites) to theUniversity of Hawai`i at Manoa, UH West O`ahu, Leeward Community College andWai`anae High School. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 111
  • 112. Appendix: O`ahu Technical ProfileAt the end of May 2011 HECO employed 1,748 people. The three largest divisionswere: Energy Delivery (481), Generation & Fuels (430), and Customer Solutions(204).285O`ahu Generators286Facility MWHECO: Kahe 650HECO: Waiau 500HECO: Honolulu 113(Downtown)HECO: Campbell Industrial 120 biofuel peaking unitParkAES Hawaii, Inc. 180 coal-­fired cogeneration plantKalaeloa Partners, L.P. 208 oil-­fired combustion turbines burning low sulfur fuel oilHPower 46 garbage to energyKahuku Wind Plant 30Kawailoa Wind Plant 69Airport Dispatchable 8StandbyGeneration ProjectTesoro 18.5 as-­availableChevron 9.6 as-­availableForest City: Kapolei 1 solarSustainable Energy Park*Honua* 6 waste-­to-­energyIC Sunshine* 5 solarKalaeloa Solar I* 4 CSPKalaeloa Solar II* 5 solar * Various states of approval & construction285 HECO 2011 Rate Case, PUC Docket No. 2010-­0080. Revised Response to CA-­IR-­425 (June 7,2011).286 HECO 10-­K, dated February 17, 2012;; HECO Power Facts:;; Hawaii Clean EnergyInitiative Energy Agreement Update -­ Year Two (January 2011) by Hawaiian Electric Companies. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 112
  • 113. CHAPTER 12. KAUA`IKauai Map287empty Kaua`i has enormous potential to create renewable energy from solar photovoltaic and hydropower.287­PUKArx7y8E8/TsJ3_PharAI/AAAAAAAACOc/cKPjr07kbMA/s1600/map-­of-­kauai-­roads.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 113
  • 114. Kaua iKaua i is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3square miles it is the fourth largest of the main islands in the Hawaiian archipelago.In 2010 the population was 58,000.The highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The secondhighest peak is Mount Wai ale ale near the center of the island, 5,148 feet abovesea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460inches, is located on the east side of Mount Wai ale ale. The high annual rainfall haseroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with manyscenic waterfalls. At 3,000 feet deep, Waimea Canyon is often referred to as "TheGrand Canyon of the Pacific." The Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wildsetting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastalcliffs.288Kaua i Electric was incorporated in 1905, became a division of Citizens UtilitiesCompany in 1969, and was sold to Kaua i Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in 2002.KIUC became the first electric co-­op in the U.S. to own both generation andtransmission.KIUC is a utility and is therefore regulated by the PUC. For the most part, KIUCstockholders and ratepayers are the same group. Thus the PUC does not have toguard ratepayer interests against stockholder greed. As a result, the PUC exercisesfar less regulatory authority over KIUC than it does over electric monopolies suchas HECO, MECO and HELCO.Although KIUC is a cooperative, it is not truly representative. While Kauai has58,000 people, KIUC has 32,000 customers (potential members), but only 5,000members voted in the most recent KIUC elections. Thus in 2012 it took just 2,350votes (4% of Kauais population) to be elected to the KIUC Board of Directors.289The energy spike of 2008 forced a review of energy policy on Kaua`i as well as therest of the state. In 2008 KIUC relied primarily on fossil fuels (91.9%), and otherenergy sources were hydroelectric (7.6%), biomass (0.2%), and solar (0.2%).KIUC has embarked on a fifteen-­year drive to generate 50% of its electricity fromrenewables by 2023.In 2011 REC Solar commissioned Kauai’s first commercial-­scale solar facility -­-­ a1.2 MW photovoltaic solar power plant in Kapa’a. REC Solar is working withHomestead Community Development Corporation (HCDC) to coordinate the nextsteps on a 12 megawatt solar project to be located on Hawaiian Homelands inAnahola on the northeast side of Kaua‘i. In 2012 KIUC released a Request for Offer288­results-­2012-­board-­directors-­election;;­events/news-­releases/news-­release-­782011/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 114
  • 115. (RFO) to landowners for sites to host an 8-­10 MW solar facility.290 Xtreme Power,Inc. will install a 1.2 MW battery energy storage system at the Koloa substation.KIUC has several diesel-­fired generators which are capable of burning biodiesel,and KIUC has signed an agreement with Kauai Farm Fuel (KFF) for biodiesel. KFF isKauai’s first company to recycle waste vegetable oil and turn it into a biodiesel.Each year KFF processes 72,000 gallons of used cooking oil and about 18,000gallons of used trap grease. KIUC is working with Free Flow Power (FFP) to explorethe development of several hydroelectric projects, and has begun installingadvanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and other smart grid technologies.291Wind is not an option on Kauai due to the prevalence of protected and endangeredbirds. Bird strikes on existing KIUC infrastructure has proven to be a serious issue,and due to non-­compliance with federal law, environmental and conservationgroups (Ho‘omalu I Ka Aina, Conservation Council for Hawaii, the Center forBiological Diversity and the American Bird Conservancy) represented byEarthJustice filed a lawsuit in 2010. In 2011 KIUC reached an out-­of-­courtsettlement and has initiated a Habitat Conservation Plan.Technical CharacteristicsThe average demand for electricity on Kauai is 75 MW. KIUC operates fourgeneration stations with a total capacity of 125.3 MW: Port Allen (96.5 MW), Kapaia(27.5 MW) and two small hydroelectric facilities on Waiahi Stream (1.3 MW). KIUCalso buys hydroelectric power from several independent companies (7.7 MW). Mostof KIUC’s generators run on diesel. The Kapaia facility runs on naphtha.292290­develop-­second-­large-­solar-­project-­kauai-­0291­energy292­information-­0;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 115
  • 116. CHAPTER 13. NI`IHAUNi`ihau293293 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 116
  • 117. empty Ni`ihau can be powered by solar and batteries.Ni ihau is the seventh largest of the inhabited Hawaiian Islands, having an area ofclose to seventy square miles. Ni ihau lies a little over seventeen miles southwest ofKaua i across the Kaulakahi Channel.The 2000 census set the population at 160, but this decreased to 130 in 2009. Theisland is currently managed and owned by Bruce and Keith Robinson.294In 2007 a 10.4 kW photovoltaic power system with battery storage was installed atNi`ihau Island School, which made it the first 100% renewably powered school inHawai`i.294 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 117
  • 118. CHAPTER 14. THE MILITARYOver the past two decades the military has led the effort to wean the State awayfrom the use of fossil fuel.Solar/PhotovoltaicIn 1997 President Clinton established the goal of one million solar roofs by 2010. Atone point the Navy in Hawai`i represented over half of all solar installed ongovernment facilities throughout the entire country.Energy PolicyIn 2010 the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE)signed a Memorandum of Understanding whereby fifty percent of the military’s totalenergy consumption would come from alternative sources. Half of all Navy andMarine Corps installations would be net zero295 by 2020 and twenty-­five Armyinstallations will be net zero by 2030.296 Energy efficiency and conservation effortswould reduce demand by 30%.Greg Gebhardt, Director of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC)Hawaii Energy Office, announced at the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH)Renewable Ocean Energy Conference (2012) that the Navy has decided to gofurther than the goals announced in 2010. The new targets are increasing energyefficiency and conservation from 30% to 50% by 2020, and dividing the remainingload requirement in half: split evenly between fossil fuel use and renewable energysystems.OilEach dollar increase in the price of a barrel of oil costs the military another $30milllion dollars annually.297Wave Energy Conversion SystemsIn 2004 the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) partnered with Ocean PowerTechnologies, Inc. to test a "PowerBuoy" wave energy conversion system at a newWave Energy Test Site (WETS). WETS is located 3,900 feet offshore at a depth ofninety-­eight feet (thirty meters) and was constructed with rock bolted anchors thatcan support a single three-­point mooring Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) system.Over the years several versions of the PowerBuoy were tested at the wave hub. In295 Net Zero: On site energy production equals or exceeds on-­site demand.296 DoD’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Initiatives (July 2011). Statements of Navy Secretary Mabus and Asst. Navy Secretary Pfannenstiel before theSubcommittee on Water and Power of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and natural Resources.(March 12, 2012)­9df2-­43ba-­b43a-­40ea715ebacc Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 118
  • 119. 2010 PowerBuoy set a national record by being the first grid-­integrated WECsystem.298In 2012 the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (Navfac-­Pacific) issued aRequest for Information (RFI) seeking data on renewable ocean energytechnology.299 This was followed up with a two-­day Renewable Ocean EnergyConference on March 26 & 28, 2012 at the MCBH’s Koa Malina Officer’s Club. Thefirst day was a Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) Industry Forum and the second daywas an Ocean Energy and Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) Industry Forum.MCBH proposes to establish a wave energy testing facility by adding two deepwater (197-­230 feet;; 60-­70 meter) sites to their existing ninety-­eight foot (thirtymeter) water depth site. An electrical and fiber optic transmission cable will beconnected to MCBH.Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)The Navy continues to monitor Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)technology and has identified several sites around the world for which OTEC may bebetween surface & deep water. The Navy has determined that at the Joint BasePearl Harbor-­Hickam, and at MCBH, depths of 700 meters would be required.BiofuelsIn 2010 MCBH installed the first 85% ethanol (E85) pump in the state of Hawaii,becoming the first US military installation in the world to do so.300Micro-­GridsMicro-­grid research is being conducted at Camp Smith, Hawai`i. The Smart PowerInfrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) projectfocuses on integrating multiple renewable energy generators into one micro-­grid.Micro-­grids are small grids that can be separated from and run independently fromthe utility grid. Thus it adds a layer of security. During a recent O`ahu blackout,MCBH was one of the last areas of the island to come on-­line. This is due in partbecause it is a large load near the end on the transmission system.298 Ocean Power Technologies 10K (July 14, 2011)299 Request for Information, N62742-­12-­R-­1198, DoN Ocean Energy Technology Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 119
  • 120. Combined SystemsIn 2009 Sunetric built a 146 kW solar array project at Hickam AFB designed toproduce hydrogen for vehicles and electricity for the grid. The solar/hydrogenproject is the first commercial hydrogen project in Hawai`i and the first to bedeveloped for the Air Force.Hickam AFB is also working with MicroWind Solutions to develop a micro-­windfacility (five 10 kW vertical axis wind turbines) on the same electric circuit at a siteadjacent to the Base’s runways.301 Hickam AFB Solar Array302 Proposed Wind Facility303The combined solar/wind system located on one circuit would be the fourthsolar/wind facility built in Hawai`i. The others were Kahua Ranch (Kohala, Hawai`iIsland) which built a combined solar/wind system/hydrogen demonstrationfacility;;304 Parker Ranch (Waimea, Hawai`i Island) a combined solar/wind systemdesigned to move irrigation water around the ranch;; and Saunders Hall (Universityof Hawai`i, Manoa) a rooftop combined solar/wind system designed to provideelectricity for the building.301 Hawaii Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies (HCATT)­10.pdf302­array-­for-­hydrogen-­station303­turbines-­for-­hydrogen-­station304 Integrated Wind-­PV-­electrolysis system at Kahua Ranch (2005-­2007) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 120
  • 121. CHAPTER 15. THE PATH FORWARDState PolicyRecently the State has adopted a policy that emphasizes moving Hawai`i awayfrom the volatility of fossil fuel prices, and the insecurity of being at the end of thefossil fuel distribution system. The new state policy prefers to pay more up front inthe drive to transition to domestic renewable energy resources.Hawai`i State Capitol (Photo by author)State GDPIdeally, moving expeditiously to replace imported fossil-­fuel-­based electricgeneration, with domestic renewable energy resources, makes great economicsense. Each year Hawai`i buys 40 million barrels of oil from abroad. At $100/barrelthat is $4 billion dollars leaving the State. If in fact that money stayed here, itwould ripple through the economy, much as a rock dropped in the middle of a pondsends ripples in all directions. Using the classic economic multiplier, the Department Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 121
  • 122. of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) estimates that eachdollar circulated locally adds three dollars to the economy.Thus keeping $4 billion a year in Hawai`i would add $12 billion to State coffers. Toput this in easy-­to-­understand terms, the estimated state Gross Domestic Productin 2012 is $71 billion305, so adding $12 billion to the economy would result in 17%more economic activity and a sharp rise in employment. This financial injectionwould provide added tax revenue that would allow greater funding of coregovernmental functions including education, health, and safety net programs.Any such financial gain would be offset by the continued reliance on the importationof solar panels, wind turbines, steel, plastic, and other components of renewableenergy systems and the exportation of profits by out-­of-­state investors.Project CostsHistorically, specific financial data on Hawai`i-­based energy systems has been verydifficult to obtain. In practically all regulatory proceedings data is consideredconfidential and is only made available to other parties who are non-­competitorsand who sign a Protective Order, a legally-­binding, court-­enforceable, non-­disclosure document. “Back-­of-­the-­napkin” cost estimates vary greatly and arehighly dependent upon the assumptions used.Since 2001, national security laws have been relied upon to restrict publicknowledge of transmission and distribution grids.Many elements factor into a financial analysis of a utility’s system. Current andfuture governmental actions have an enormous impact on the viability of newelectric generation projects, as do income and property tax rates, production taxcredits, and depreciation rates. The “cost” of money is also a key issue,determined by the percentage of debt, interest rates, and discount rates. The costof the project itself is critical, and includes capital purchase costs, the cost of land,engineering, installation, insurance, and interconnection.Finally, the revenue stream can vary greatly. There are two major commercial windfacilities on the Big Island, one at South Point and one at Hawi. The former has anaverage output of 61% of its maximum output, while the latter has an averageoutput of 37% of its maximum output. Thus for an average hour, for each 1 MW ofcapacity, the South Point facility produces 0.61 MWh while the Hawi facilityproduces 0.37 MWh. Finding sites that allow high capacity factors are much soughtafter, and thus location-­based data is very valuable and highly protected.Existing Power Purchase Contracts (2008-­12)In the last few years the prices have become more transparent for some renewableenergy resources (the notable exception has been biofuels). For many of the power305­economy Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 122
  • 123. purchase contracts, the price varies for on-­peak & off-­peak production, for theamount of energy sold, whether there is a yearly price escalator, and for the type ofState tax credit/refund the developer is able to secure. The data can be difficult tounderstand without expertise in cost accounting and contracts.Technology Contracts First year Price (cents/kWhr)Biomass KIUC-­Green Energy Team confidential HECO-­Honua306 18-­22Geothermal HELCO-­PGV307 5.43-­11.8Hydroelectric Feed-­in Tariffs308 18.9-­21.3Solar HECO-­Kapolei Sustainable Energy 17.75-­23.6 Park309 HECO-­Kalaeloa Solar II310 HECO-­IC Sunshine311Solar-­Electric (PV) Feed-­in Tariffs 18.9-­27.4Solar-­Thermal (CSP) Feed-­in Tariffs 25.4-­33.5Wind MECO-­Auwahi Wind312 20.3Wind Feed-­in Tariffs 12.0-­16.1Even if the price analysis is understood, there are other issues that must befactored into the equation. For reliability and load reasons, the utility may cut backon the acceptance of available renewable energy resources. This issue ofcurtailment cannot be overstated. Issues concerning curtailment are discussed bythe PUC Reliability Standards Working Group (which the author serves on), but arediscussed behind Protective Agreements..A Protective Agreement is a legally binding non-­disclosure document. ProtectiveAgreements are used to protect sensitive financial data, national security data, andthird party confidential documents. Those who sign Protective Orders can betterunderstand issues and can file supportive or non-­supportive documents andtestimony. Once the docket is complete, all confidential documents held by entitiesother than the party who filed the document, must be destroyed.Levelized Cost of ElectricityHCEI sought to compare the costs of different renewable energy resources throughthe use of the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE), as measured in cents/kWhr313306 PUC Docket 2010-­0010.307 PUC Docket 2011-­0040, D&O Decision Date: 12/30/2011.308 Docket 2008-­0273, PUC D&O: 12/29/11, HECO Tariff: 12/30/11.309 PUC Docket 2011-­0185 D&O Decision Date: 11/18/2011.310 PUC Docket 2011-­0051;; D&O Decision Date: 9/21/2011.311 PUC Docket 2011-­0015;; D&O Decision Date: 1/26/12.312 PUC Docket 2011-­0060. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 123
  • 124. Technology Low Average HighSolid Biomass 6.7 10.85 15Wind 6.9 11.3 15.6Geothermal 6.7 7.7 8.6Small Hydro 5.7 9.65 13.7Solar-­Residential Roofs 20.0 27.25 34.5Solar PV (Large Roof/Utility Scale 19.0 22.85 27.6MSW/Landfill Gas 5.0 6.5 8.0Ocean Energy (Wave) 13.5 29.0 44.5Energy Efficiency 5.0 7.5 10.0Comparing intermittent resources with firm resources using the “levelized” costapproach is like comparing apples to oranges.ImplementationBy implementing conservation, efficiencies, geothermal, and small scale hydro, onecan save enough money to finance more expensive options.Conservation means not using electricity in the first place. Often rooms haveenough ambient light during the day that light bulbs are not needed. People need tolook at the existing light before automatically turning on light switches.Energy Efficiency has a very quick payback period, often less than one year. That isto say, implementing energy efficiency often reduces costs in the first year.Geothermal and hydro are low-­cost baseload renewable energy resources.In the end, the exact mix, and thus the cost, should be dependent upon localchoices, which will be driven by local values, desires and available resources.This Report is merely the first step in illuminating the distributed path.Policy OptionsVehiclesAll new cars would need to be electric, hybrid or hydrogen powered, unless theowner preferred a gasoline powered vehicle accompanied by a significant yearlyfee.313 HCEI Update to Electricity and Transportation Wedge Analysis: Scenarios to illuminate policy needsand inform technical working groups (Sept 30, 2008) Updated cost inputs. pdf p. 126. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 124
  • 125. UtilitiesHECO, MECO and HELCO would be merged into one utility. This would simplifyregulation of the utility since one rather than three companies would make filings.The combined utility would equalize ratepayer rates (tariffs) across the islands.PrizesThe utility could offer a micro-­grid energy prize and an innovative energy prize eachyear.The micro-­grid award would go to the individual, company or team that was able tocreate a mini-­grid(s) with the greatest variety of renewable energy resources. Forexample, at one time the Kahua Ranch in Kohala on the Big Island had fivedifferent types of generators mostly using renewable sources of energy.The innovation award would go to the most creative demonstration of renewableenergy use. For example, a hat on a jogger with a tiny wind propeller which lights atiny light alerting drivers of the jogger’s presence, or an exercise bike in whichturning the wheels powered the readout, or a road on which vehicles travelling overit would create mechanical power.BuildingsStarting in 2015 all new buildings would have to be net zero buildings unless thedeveloper could demonstrate that it would be cost prohibitive. In that case, thedeveloper would need to install renewable energy systems elsewhere so that thenet impact would still be zero.Public pressure could be brought into the picture. “After all, how much power doesany piece of a city block use? There’s no way to tell. A building’s facade, unless it’scovered with lights, isn’t exactly screaming its annual energy expenditures.”314Buildings consume two thirds of the energy used in New York City. A ColumbiaUniversity research team collected data from the New York City Mayors Office ofLong-­Term Planning and Sustainability, so that the public can see energy use blockby block;; this allows them to prod building owners to implement energy efficiencyand renewable energy.315314­mind-­blowing-­map-­of-­energy-­consumption-­in-­every-­single-­nyc-­building315 Mapping New York Citys energy hogs by Martin LaMonica.­11386_3-­57369503-­76/mapping-­new-­york-­citys-­energy-­hogs/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 125
  • 126. Columbia University’s map of NYC Energy Use316In 2011 San Francisco enacted the “Existing Commercial Building EnergyPerformance Ordinance,” joining Washington, D.C., and New York City in requiringdisclosure of energy use data.317TariffsHECO, MECO, HELCO and the Public Utilities Commission have established a veryconfusing set of tariffs for small renewable energy generators (0-­5 MW) under thename of Feed-­In Tariffs. In essence, there are almost a dozen different rates,depending on the island, the size of the system, and the technology. Since the goalis to reduce the use of fossil fuel, the utility should set one price at which it will buy316­large/post-­inline/inline-­nyc-­energy-­use-­map.jpg317 As San Francisco Requires Buildings To Disclose Energy Use, The Obama Administration Pushes ForFederal Action, by Naomi Millán, Associate Editor -­ June 2011.­San-­Francisco-­Requires-­Buildings-­to-­Disclose-­Energy-­Use-­the-­Obama-­Administration-­Pushes-­for-­Federal-­Action-­-­12491 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 126
  • 127. renewably-­generated electricity, and anyone who is willing to install a system musthave the right to sell the excess to the grid at that one price.Currently tax credits are used to subsidize renewable energy systems, but ownerscannot predict the pay-­back period due to uncertainty surrounding utility imposedcurtailment and utility-­imposed minimum monthly fees. Furthermore, the minimummonthly fees are often high enough to act as a deterrent to installing on-­sitesystems in the first place. The minimum monthly fee should be set at $5 or less.Curtailment must not be applied to small systems.Intermittent ResourcesTo offset fluctuating load, Lana`i and Moloka`i would utilize Pumped StorageHydroelectric;; the Island of Maui would utilize Pumped Storage Hydroelectric andgeothermal;; the Island of Hawai`i would utilize geothermal and naphtha (theHamakua Energy Partners);; and O`ahu would utilize Pumped Storage Hydroelectricand Natural Gas. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 127
  • 128. Golden Rule: The Community Knows Best Local communities should determine which resources are appropriate for their community and which resources should not be deployed in their community. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 128
  • 129. Scenario (2030)The following tables represent a dynamic view of where Hawai`i could be in 2030.While Natural Gas is an attractive “bridge” fuel, more efficient and cost effectivestorage could lead to less reliance on Natural Gas and Naphtha. Increases inreliability and decreases in the cost of on-­site generation could lead to a fasterexodus from the grid.By IslandIsland RE Primary Baseload (baseload must Major Intermittent % provide 50% of the total load) ResourcesMoloka`i 90 Combined Solar /Gas Facility (1.5 Solar (10-­15 MW) MW);; Hydroelectric (1 MW);; Pumped Storage Hydro (1.5 MW)Lana`i 75 Combined Solar /Gas/Battery Solar (10-­15 MW), Biofuels Facility (4 MW) (4-­5 MW)Hawai`i 100 Geothermal (100 MW);; Naphtha (60 Wind (300 MW), Solar (50 MW) MW)Maui 100 Wind /Pumped Storage Hydro (80 Wind (80 MW), Solar (20 MW);; Geothermal (20 MW) MW)O`ahu 90 Energy Efficiency (200 MW On-­shore Wind (100 MW);; reduction in demand);; Combined Off-­shore Wind (200 MW);; Solar /Gas Facilities (300 MW);; Solar (300 MW), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Concentrated Solar Power (200 MW) (200 MW);; Wave Energy (200 MW)Kaua`i 100% Hydroelectric SolarNi`ihau 100% Batteries Solar Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 129
  • 130. By ResourceResource Resource O`ahu Maui Lana`i Moloka`i Hawai`i Kaua`i Ni`ihau TotalTypeEfficiency 200Baseload Geothermal 20 100 120 Ocean 200 200 Thermal LNG 300 2 300 WPSH 80 1.5 SPSH 4 1.5 50 Naphtha 60 Hydro 30 1 20 electricIntermittent Photovoltaic 300 20 10-­15 10-­15 50 50 1 CSP 200 Wind – 100 80 300 onshore Wind-­ 200 200 offshore Biomass 50 20 Biofuel 4-­5 Wave 200 200 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 130
  • 131. AcronymsAC Alternating CurrentBESS Battery Energy Storage SystemsBLNR Board of Land and Natural ResourcesBTU British Thermal UnitCARB Californias Air Resources BoardCFL Compact Fluorescent LightsCG Central GenerationCHP Combined Heat and PowerCNG Compressed Natural GasCSP Concentrated Solar PowerCTAHR University of Hawai`i College of Tropical Agriculture and Human ResourcesDBEDT Department of Business, Economic Development and TourismDC Direct CurrentDCCA Hawai`i Department of Commerce and Consumer AffairsDEM Digital Elevation ModelsDG Distributed GenerationDLAC Deep Lake Air ConditioningDLNR Hawai`i Department of Land and Natural ResourcesDURP University of Hawai`i at Manoa: Department of Urban and Rural PlanningDOA Hawai`i Department of AgricultureDOE U.S. Department of EnergyDSM Demand-­Side ManagementDWAC Deep Water Air ConditioningEIA Energy Information AgencyEIS Environmental Impact StatementEISA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007EPA U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyEPRI Electric Power Research InstituteE2I Electricity Innovation InstituteFCMC Forest City Military Communities, LLCFERC Federal Energy Regulatory CommissionFiT Feed-­in TariffsGEO Green Energy OutletGIS Geographic Information SystemGTE Garbage To Energy Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 131
  • 132. GW GigawattHARC Hawaii Agricultural Research Center (formerly Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association)HC&S Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar CompanyHCEI Hawai`i Clean Energy InitiativeHCH Hickam Community HousingHECO Hawaiian Electric CompanyHEEP Hawaii Energy Efficiency ProgramHELCO Hawaii Electric Light CompanyHIEV Hawaii Electric VehiclesHISO Hawaii Independent System OperatorHNEI Hawaii Natural Energy InstituteH-­POWER Honolulu Program Of Waste Energy RecoveryHUB Help Us BridgeHVCA Hawaii Venture Capital AssociationIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic EngineersILUC Indirect Land Use ChangesIPP Independent Power ProducerKW KilowattkWh Kilowatt-­hourkWyr Kilowatt-­yearLED Light-­Emitting DiodeLPG Liquefied Petroleum GasLUC Hawai`i Land Use CommissionMECO Maui Electric CompanyMSW Municipal Solid WasteMTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl EtherMW MegawattMWh Megawatt-­hourMWyr Megawatt-­yearNBB National Biodiesel BoardNEM Net Energy MeteringNEPA National Environmental Policy ActNOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNRDC National Resources Defense CouncilNREL US Department of Energys National Renewable Energy LaboratoryOCEES Ocean Engineering and Energy SystemsOHA Office of Hawaiian Affairs Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 132
  • 133. OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesOTEC Ocean Thermal Energy ConversionOWAC Ocean Water Air ConditioningPF Power FactorPGV Puna Geothermal VenturePPA Power Purchase AgreementPUC Hawai`i Public Utilities CommissionPQ Power QualityPURPA Public Utilities Regulatory Policy ActPV PhotovoltaicQF Qualifying FacilityRFP Request for ProposalsRPS Renewable Portfolio StandardsRSPO Roundtable on Sustainable Palm OilSIA Standard Interconnection AgreementSOEST School of Ocean Earth Sciences and TechnologySPRB Special Purpose Revenue BondSWAC Sea Water Air ConditioningTED The Energy DetectiveTPPPA Third Party Power Purchase AgreementUH University of HawaiiUHM University of Hawaii at ManoaUNIDO United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationV2G Vehicle-­to-­GridVG Variable GenerationWEC Wave Energy Conversion SystemWTE Waste To Energy Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 133
  • 134. GlossaryAdequacy: The ability of the electric system to supply the aggregate electricaldemand and energy requirements of the end-­use customers at all times, taking intoaccount scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outages of systemelements.Alcohol: A general class of hydrocarbons that contain a hydroxyl group (OH). Theterm "alcohol" is often used interchangeably with the term "ethanol," even thoughthere are many types of alcohol including Butanol, Ethanol, and Methanol.Alternating Current (AC): Electric current in which electrons repeatedly changedirection.Ampere (amp): A unit of electric current used to measure the rate of flow.Ancillary Services: Those services necessary to support the transmission ofcapacity and energy from resources to loads while maintaining reliable operation ofthe utility system in accordance with good utility practice.Automatic Generation Control (AGC): Equipment that automatically adjustsgeneration in a utility system from a central location to maintain the systemfrequency, balance generation and load, and control transmission flows. AGCcommands are sent from the system operator to each generator on AGC typicallyevery 2 to 4 seconds.Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum productsequivalent to 42 U.S. gallons.Baseload: The power that can be continuously produced.Baseload Electricity: Electricity available 24/7.Battery: A device that stores electricity.Behind The Meter: Term used to refer to an on-­site generator that is betweenthe utility’s meter and the customers’ load. Sometimes referred to as “Behind TheFence.”Biodiesel: A biofuel produced through transesterification, a process in whichorganically-­derived oils are combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in thepresence of a catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester. Biodiesel can be made fromsoybean or rapeseed oils, animal fats, waste vegetable oils or microalgae oils.Bioenergy: Renewable energy produced from organic matter. The organic mattermay either be used directly as a fuel, or processed into liquids or gases.Biofuel: Fuel made from biomass. Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel and methanol. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 134
  • 135. Biofuel Path: a scenario focused on converting existing generators from burningpetroleum to burning biofuels.Biogas: A combustible gas derived from decomposing biological waste. Biogasnormally consists of 50 to 60 percent methane.Biomass: Renewable organic matter such as agricultural crops and residue, woodand wood waste, animal waste, aquatic plants and organic components of municipaland industrial wastes.Biomass fuel: Liquid, solid or gaseous fuel produced by conversion of biomass.Blackstart Capability: In the case of a utility shutdown contingency, thecapability provided by a generating unit(s) and its associated set of equipment tobe started without support from the utility system or is designed to remainenergized without connection to the remainder of the utility system, with the abilityto energize a bus in order to meet the utility operator’s restoration plan needs forreal and reactive power capability, frequency and voltage control.Bloom Box: a solid oxide fuel cell technology using natural gasBritish Thermal Unit (BTU): A standard unit for measuring the quantity of heat.Capacity: The amount of electric power delivered or required for which agenerator, turbine, transformer, transmission circuit, station, or system is rated bythe manufacturer. Carbon Sequestration: The absorption and storage of carbon dioxide from theatmosphere.Cascading: The uncontrolled successive loss of electric system elements triggeredby an incident at any location. Cascading results in widespread electric serviceinterruption that cannot be restrained from sequentially spreading beyond an areapredetermined by studies. Editor’s Note: electric system includes both utility andnon-­utility elements.Cascading Natural Deregulation: The belief that as the price of renewableenergy falls, customers will leave the utility, driving up the prices for thoseremaining on the grid. As utility prices rise more ratepayers will abandon the utility.Cellulose: The main carbohydrate in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletalstructure of the plant cell wall.Central Generation (CG): A method of producing electricity with large powerplants that serve multiple customers and often require high-­voltage transmissionlines to deliver the power to local distribution systems. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 135
  • 136. Clean Energy: A term not defined under state law but generally believed to meanrenewable energy and energy efficiency.Climate Change: Fossil fuels are altering the natural climate causing increasingdisruptions to ecosystems and planetary phenomena.Coal: A readily combustible black or brownish-­black rock whose composition,including inherent moisture, consists of more than 50 percent by weight and morethan 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material. It is formed from plantremains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, andmetamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time.Cogeneration: The sequential production of electricity and useful thermal energyfrom a common fuel source. Also known as Combined heat and power (CHP).Cogenerator: A generating facility that produces electricity and another form ofuseful thermal energy (such as heat or steam), used for industrial, commercial,heating, or cooling purposes.Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL): an energy savings alternative to thetraditional light bulb.Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES): Compressed air energy storage usesexcess or low-­cost electricity during off-­peak periods to compress air to higherpressure. The compressed air can be stored in man-­made vessels or undergroundcaverns. The compressed air is then released as input to an air turbine or engineduring higher value, peak electricity periods to generate electricity.Compressed Natural Gas: a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petroleum)consisting mostly of methane (CH4).Concentrated Solar Power: A method of concentrating solar energy andconverting it to thermal power. One approach is to use curved mirrors focus thesunlight on a tube containing a liquid or gas. This gas/fluid can be run immediatelythrough a turbine or stored for future use.Conflict of Interest: a perceived or actual situation in which an individual ororganization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corruptthe motivation for an act in another.Conservation: Efficiency of energy use, production, transmission, or distributionthat results in a decrease of energy consumption while providing the same level ofservice.Constrained Facility: A transmission facility (line, transformer, breaker, etc.) thatis approaching, is at, or is beyond its system or reliability operating limit. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 136
  • 137. Contingency: The sudden failure or outage of a system component, such as agenerator, transmission line, transformer, circuit breaker, switch or other electricalelement.Cooperative: an autonomous association of persons who voluntarily cooperate fortheir mutual social, economic, and cultural benefitCritical Assets: Facilities, systems, and equipment which, if destroyed, degraded,or otherwise rendered unavailable, would affect the reliability or operability of theutility’s transmission system.Current (Electric): A flow of electrons in an electrical conductor. The strength orrate of movement of the electricity is measured in amperes.Curtailment: A reduction in the scheduled capacity or energy delivery from ascheduled or otherwise preferred generator generally due to the power system’sinability to accommodate the generator’s operation.Daylighting: The practice of using natural light to provide internal lighting.Decoupling: A regulatory approach to regulating monopolies whereby the profitsof a utility are independent of the income of the utility.Demand: 1. The rate at which electric energy is delivered to or by a system or partof a system, generally expressed in watts (“W”), kilowatts (“KW”) or megawatts(“MW”), at a given instant or averaged over any designated interval of time. 2. Therate at which energy is being used by the customer.Demand Response: Demand response is the deliberate management of customerconsumption of electricity in response to supply conditions, for example, havingelectricity customers reduce their consumption at critical times or in response tomarket prices. Demand response can involve actually curtailing power used or bystarting on site generation which may or may not be connected in parallel with thegrid. This is a quite different concept from energy efficiency, which means usingless power to perform the same tasks, on a continuous basis or whenever that taskis performed. At the same time, demand response is a component of smart energydemand, which also includes energy efficiency, home and building energymanagement, distributed renewable resources, and electric vehicle charging.Demand-­Side Management: The planning, implementation, and monitoring ofutility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify patterns of electricityusage, including the timing and level of electricity demand.Diesel Engine: A compression-­ignition piston engine in which fuel is ignited byinjecting it into air that has been heated (unlike a spark-­ignition engine). Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 137
  • 138. Diffuse Radiation (or Insolation): As solar radiation passes through the earthsatmosphere, some of it is absorbed or scattered by air molecules, water vapor,aerosols, and clouds. The radiation that has been scattered out of the direct beamis called Diffuse Solar Radiation.Direct Current (DC): Electric current that flows in one direction only.Distributed Generation (DG, Distributed Energy Resources;; DER):Generation located at or near where it is needed. Also known as on-­site generation,dispersed generation, embedded generation, decentralized generation, anddecentralized energy.Distributed Systems: Systems that are installed at or near the location wherethe electricity is used, as opposed to central generation systems that supplyelectricity to grids. A residential photovoltaic or wind systems or a CHP areexamples of distributed systems. Distributed systems are generally referred to asDG.Distribution System: That portion of the power system which connects retailcustomers to the transmission system.District heating or cooling: A system that involves the central production of hotwater, steam, or chilled water, and the distribution of these transfer media to heator cool buildings.Disturbance: 1. An unplanned event that produces an abnormal system condition.2. Any perturbation to the electric system. 3. The unexpected change in nominalsystem voltage or frequency that is caused by the sudden failure of generation,transmission, distribution, or interruption of load.Economic Dispatch: The cost to operate power plants can vary from plant to plantbased on different factors including the type of fuel used, efficiency of the plant,start-­up costs and other variables. Economic dispatch generally means sequentiallyselecting and utilizing the least expensive plant to meet energy demand.Economic Multiplier: The rate at which an input changes an output. For example,an added dollar invested within Hawaii will ripple through the economy just as arock dropped in a pond creates ripples across the pond. The added dollar mayincrease the state’s economic activity by $3-­4 dollars.Electricity: A form of energy produced by the flow or accumulation of electrons.Electron: A subatomic particle with a negative electrical change.Energy: The ability to do work. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 138
  • 139. Energy Agreement: The major document that forms the basis for the HawaiiClean Energy Initiative (HCEI). The agreement was signed in October 2008.Energy Crops: Crops grown specifically for their fuel value. These can includecorn, sugarcane, switchgrass, soybeans and algae.Energy Efficiency means doing the same work with less energy. Energy efficiencyis often thought of as the “low hanging fruit.” It is better to not produce energy inthe first place and if it is produced, to use less of it.Energy Efficiency Path: a scenario focused on reducing the demand for grid-­based electricity through conservation and efficiency. It offers the quickest paybackperiod for investors.Energy Storage: A method of storing energy for future use.Ethanol: Ethyl alcohol produced by fermentation and distillation. An alcoholcompound with the chemical formula CH3-­CH2-­0H formed during sugarfermentation by yeast. Also known as grain alcohol.Externality: A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services.Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.Fault: An event occurring on an electric system such as a short circuit.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): A quasi-­independentregulatory agency within the Department of Energy having jurisdiction overinterstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, naturalgas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification.Federal Power Act: Title 16 of the United States Code, entitled "FederalRegulation and Development of Power". Enacted as the Federal Water Power Act onJune 10, 1920, and amended many times since, its original purpose was to moreeffectively coordinate the development of hydroelectric projects in the UnitedStates. Prior to this time and despite federal control of navigable waters and thenecessary congressional approval to construct such facilities, Congress had left theregulation of hydroelectric power to the individual states.Feed-­in Tariffs (FiTs): A method whereby small self-­generating customers cansell electricity to the grid. Two meters are used, one to purchase electricity and oneto sell electricity. Different rates apply to each meter.Firm Demand: Firm demand is that portion of the demand that a power supplier isobligated to provide except when system reliability is threatened or duringemergency conditions.Firm Power: Power or power-­producing capacity intended to be available all of thetime. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 139
  • 140. Fischer-­Tropsch Fuels: Liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced by a process thatcombines carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The process is used to convert coal,natural gas and low-­value refinery products into a high-­value diesel substitute fuel.Flexible-­fuel vehicle: A vehicle with a single fuel tank designed to run on varyingblends of unleaded gasoline, ethanol and/or methanolFlywheel: A flywheel is a cylinder that spins at very high speeds, storingrotational kinetic energy. The faster the flywheel spins, the more energy it retains.Energy can be drawn off as needed by slowing the flywheel.Fracking (hydrofracking): An industrial technology involving the injection ofwater and chemicals into a bore hole to induce hydraulic fracturingFossil-­Fuel: Coal, petroleum, and natural gas.Frequency: The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform,expressed in cycles per second or Hertz (“Hz”). The nominal power systemfrequency in North America and Hawaii is 60 Hz.Fuel: Any substance that can be burned or “fissioned” to produce heat or convertedto useful energy.Fuel Cell: A device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to electricityand heat, without combustion.Game Changers: Technology that suddenly alters desired solutions, including: (1)Hybrid vehicles and electric transportation with using Vehicle to Grid (V2G)technology;; (2) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion;; and (3) batteries and storagemechanisms.Gas Engine: A piston engine that uses gaseous fuel rather than gasoline. Fuel andair are mixed before they enter cylinders;; ignition occurs with a spark.Gas Turbine: (combustion turbine) A turbine that converts the energy of hotcompressed gases (produced by burning fuel in compressed air) into mechanicalpower.Gasification: A chemical or heat process to convert a solid fuel to a gaseous form.Gasifier: A device for converting solid fuel into gaseous fuel.Gasohol: A motor vehicle fuel which is a blend of 90 percent unleaded gasolinewith 10 percent ethanol (by volume);; term used in the late 1970s.Generator: A machine used for converting rotating mechanical energy to electricalenergy. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 140
  • 141. Geothermal energy: Energy derived from the natural heat of the Earth containedin hot rocks, hot water, hot brines or steam.Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP): A method of using the temperature of the earthto regulate temperature within buildings.Geothermal Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a steam turbine. Theturbine is driven either by steam produced from hot water or by natural steam thatderives its energy from heat found in rocks or fluids at various depths beneath thesurface of the earth. The energy is extracted by drilling and/or pumping.Gigawatt (GW): One billion watts.Gigawatthour (GWh): One billion watt-­hours.Greenhouse Effect: The increasing mean global surface temperature of the earthcaused by gases in the atmosphere (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrousoxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbon). The greenhouse effect allows solar radiationto penetrate but absorbs the infrared radiation returning to space.Grid: An electric utility´s system for transmitting and distributing power.Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI): A Hawai`i initiative for transformingenergy delivery. HCEI stresses strengthening the utility monopoly, streamliningregulations, building a Smart Grid, switching from oil to biofuel and building aninter-­island cable. The cornerstone of HCEI is the belief that 400 MW of wind fromLana`i and Moloka`i are needed to power O`ahu.Hawai`i Energy Policy Forum (HEPF): A coalition of several dozen energyplayers initially formed in 2002 by HECO. Initial funding of $250,000 was providedby HECO following the Board of Land and Natural Resources (BLNR) rejection ofHECO’s proposed Wa`ahila 138-­kV Transmission Line.Hawaii’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP): a measure of the total goods andservices produced within Hawaii.Hawaii’s Gross State Product (GSP): a measure of the total goods and servicesproduced by Hawai`i residents.Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO): The Hawai`i electric utility which serves allcounties except Kauai.Heat Rate: The amount of fuel energy required by a power plant to produce onekilowatt-­hour of electrical output. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 141
  • 142. High Tech Path: a scenario focused on using the internet, computers, and two-­way real-­time information exchanges. Time of use rates encourage users todecrease energy use during traditional peak periods.Horizontal Wind Turbines: The traditional large-­scale wind turbine where themain rotor shaft and electrical generator are placed at the top of a tower, and mustbe pointed into the wind to generate power.Hybrid electric vehicle: A vehicle that is powered by two or more energy sources,one of which is electricity.Hydroelectric Plant: A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by fallingwater.Hydrogen: The lightest element constituting roughly 75% of the Universeschemical elemental mass. Hydrogen only exists on this planet in compound form.The vast majority of hydrogen used in industry is derived from fossil fuels.Hydroelectric power (hydropower): The generation of electricity using fallingwater.Hydraulic fracturing: The propagation of fractures in a rock layer caused by thepresence of a pressurized fluid.Independent Power Producer: A power production facility that is not part of aregulated utility. Unlike traditional electric utilities, Independent Power Producers donot possess transmission facilities or sell electricity in the retail market.Independent System Operator: An independent entity that manages an electricgrid.Insolation: The solar power density incident on a surface of solar collector’s areaand orientation, usually expressed as Watts per square meter. Sometimesreferred to as radiation.Interconnection Requirements (Standards): a set of technical guidelines andprocedures to facilitate the interconnection and parallel operation of generatingfacilities with the utility system.Intermediate (or Cycling) Generation: A generator that operates at a mediumto high capacity factor;; generally dispatched by the system operator to meet non-­peak demands on the utility system above that met by baseload generation on theutility system.Inverter: A device that converts direct current (“DC”) electricity to alternatingcurrent (“AC”) either for stand-­alone systems or to supply power to an electricitygrid. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 142
  • 143. Investor-­owned utility: (IOU) A private power company owned by andresponsible to its shareholders, such as Hawaiian Electric Company.Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts.Kilowatt-­hour (kWh): One thousand watt-­hours.Landfill gas: Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfilldisposal sites. Landfill gas is approximately 50 percent methane.Levelized life-­cycle cost: The present value of the total cost of a resource. Bylevelizing costs, resources with different lifetimes and generating capabilities can becompared.Life-­cycle costing: A method of comparing costs of equipment or buildings basedon original costs plus all operating and maintenance costs over the useful life of theequipment. Future costs are discounted.Light Emitting Diode: a semiconductor light source.Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): Natural gas cooled tovolume 600-­fold. This allows for easier transport.Load (Electric): The amount of electric power delivered or required at any specificpoint or points on a system. The requirement originates at the energy-­consumingequipment of the consumers.Load factor: Load factor is the ratio of average demand to maximum demand or tocapacity.Load Management: Any method or device that evens out electric power demandby eliminating uses during peak periods or shifting usage from peak time to off-­peak time.Macro Path: a scenario focused on an interisland grid inter-­connecting the grids ofthe Big Island, Maui, and Oahu and utilizing wind and geothermal to power the grid.The path stresses streamlining regulation and building infrastructure rather thanimplementing an immediate renewable energy solution.Megawatt: (MW) The electrical unit of power that equals one million Watts (1,000kW).Megawatt (MW): One million watts.Megawatt hour (MWh): One million watt-­hours. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 143
  • 144. Methane: An odorless, colorless, flammable gas with the formula CH4 that is theprimary constituent of natural gas.Methanol: Methyl alcohol having the chemical formula CH30H. Methanol is usuallyproduced by chemical conversion at high temperatures and pressures. Also woodalcohol. Although usually produced from natural gas, methanol can be producedfrom gasified biomass (syngas).Micro-­CSP: A proprietary Concentrated Solar Power system developed by Sopogy.Micro Path: a scenario focused on distributed power -­-­ small grids powered byrooftop wind and solar, supplemented by small waste oil to biodiesel facilities.Monopoly: One seller of electricity with control over market sales;; absence ofcompetition.Municipal solid waste: (MSW) Garbage. Refuse offering the potential for energyrecovery;; includes residential, commercial, and institutional wastes.Naphtha: a class of hydrocarbons consisting of the lightest and most volatilefractions of the liquid hydrocarbons in petroleum.National Environmental Policy Act: (NEPA) A federal law enacted in 1970 thatrequires all federal agencies to consider and analyze the environmental impacts ofany proposed action.Natural Gas: A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-­hydrocarbongases found in porous geological formations beneath the earths surface, often inassociation with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane (CH4).Net Metering: A method of allowing a self-­generator to use the grid as a battery.During the day a customer is generating more energy than needed and the excessis sold to the grid. At night the customer is taking energy from the grid. The systemuses one meter and the customer pays only for the net energy used. At the end ofthe year the system is zeroed out – any excess energy given to the grid withoutcompensation.Non-­Firm Power: Power or power-­producing capacity supplied or available undera commitment having limited or no assured availability.Non Utility Generator (NUG): Conventionally, a utility-­term for a non-­utilitygeneration facility (including one or more generators) that is owned and operatedby an entity which is not a regulated electric utility. Sometimes referred to as anIPP. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 144
  • 145. Ocean Path: a scenario focused Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)supplemented by Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) and Wave Energy ConversionSystems (WECs).Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: A method of generating electricity fromdifferent temperature layers in the ocean.Ocean Wave Energy: A method of generating electricity from the rising and fallingof the ocean, technically, the ocean swells and not the waves.Oil: See PetroleumOrganic compounds: Chemical compounds based on carbon chains or rings andalso containing hydrogen, with or without oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements.Outage: When a generating unit or distribution or transmission line is notoperating. An outage can be planned and scheduled ahead of time to performplanned maintenance and is commonly referred to as planned or scheduled outage.An outage can occur suddenly due to equipment failure and is commonly referred toas an unplanned or unscheduled outage and is sometimes referred to as aContingency.Peak Demand: The maximum load during a specified period of time.Peaking Generation: Generation that operate at a low capacity factor;; generallydispatched by the system operator to meet high demand periods, typically a fewhours a day on peak load days and perhaps 200 hours per year.Peak Load (Demand): Can refer to the highest electricity usage occurring (by acustomer or by the system) in a given period (e.g., an hour, a day, month, season,or year) and, with time-­of-­use rates, corresponds with increased rates due toincreased system demand, higher costs or as a demand-­side measure.Peak Shaving (Shifting): A method for reducing the power system capacityrequirement and dealing with the high cost of meeting the peak load by shaving (orreducing) peak demand in order to minimize or eliminate the need for peakinggenerators. These measures include: demand response and dynamic demand,discharging storage systems, such as utility-­scale batteries and pumped-­hydro, andon-­side distributed resources.Petroleum: One of the three types of fossil fuels, along with coal and gas.Phantom Power: The electricity used by a device when it is off. Often devices usealmost as much electricity in the off position, which is a "consumer" convenienceallowing quick starts.Photovoltaic: A system that converts direct sunlight to electricity using semi-­conductor materials. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 145
  • 146. Power: The rate at which energy is transferred. Electrical energy is usuallymeasured in watts. Also used for a measurement of capacity.Power Factor (PF): The ratio of the real power over the apparent power. It is adimensionless number between 0 and 1 (frequently expressed as a percentage, e.g.0.5 pf = 50% pf). (From Reference 7)Power Purchase Agreements: A contract between an energy producer and anenergy user.Power Quality (PQ): Power Quality is the extent to which the voltage and currentat a point in the power system deviate from the intended perfect sine wave.Measures of power quality include: frequency variations, voltage variations, andharmonic distortion (variations in the power waveform). Without the proper powerquality, an electrical device (load, generator, transformer, etc.) may malfunction,fail prematurely or not operate at all.Preferred Path: a scenario involving a combination of (1) Distributed Generationbased on solar and concentrated solar power;; (2) central station wind and wave;;(3) energy displacement via energy efficiency and sea water air conditioning;; (4)small scale waste oil and crop-­based biodiesel.Public Utilities Commission (PUC), Public Service Commission (PSC): Agovernmental agency that regulates utilities for the public interest.Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act: (PURPA) A federal law requiring a utilityto buy the power produced by a qualifying facility at a price equal to that which theutility would otherwise pay if it were to build its own power plant or buy power fromanother source.Pumped-­Storage: A process that generates electric energy during peak-­loadperiods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir duringoff-­peak periods when excess generating capacity is available to pump the water.When additional generating capacity is needed, the water is released from thereservoir through a conduit to turbine generators located in a power plant at alower level.Pyrolysis: The thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures (greaterthan 400 degrees Fahrenheit, or 200 degrees Celsius) in the absence of air.Qualifying Facilities (QFs): Under PURPA, QFs fall into two categories: qualifyingsmall power production facilities and qualifying cogeneration facilities. A qualifyingsmall power production generating facility was initially limited to 80 MW or lesswhose primary energy source is renewable (hydro, wind or solar), biomass, waste,or geothermal resources. A qualifying cogeneration facility is a generating facilitythat sequentially produces electricity and another form of useful thermal energy Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 146
  • 147. (such as heat or steam) in a way that is more efficient than the separate productionof both forms of energy.Ramp Rate: The rate, expressed in megawatts per minute, that a generatorchanges its output or a load changes its consumption.Reactive Power (var): The portion of electricity that establishes and sustains theelectric and magnetic fields of alternating-­current equipment. Reactive power mustbe supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors andtransformers. It also must supply the reactive losses on transmission facilities.Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, static varcompensators, statcoms, or electrostatic equipment such as capacitors and directlyinfluences electric system voltage.Real Power: The portion of electricity that supplies energy to the load andperforms work. Real power is measured in watts (“W”), kilowatts (“kW”), ormegawatts (“MW”).Reliability: An electricity service level or the degree of performance of the bulkpower (“utility” in Hawaii) system defined by accepted standards and other publiccriteria . There are two basic, functional components of reliability: operatingreliability and adequacy.Renewable Energy: Energy that is replenished continuously in nature or that isreplaced after use through natural means;; a sustainable energy source;; renewableenergy sources include the sun, the winds, flowing water, waves, biomass andgeothermal energy.Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS): Hawaii Revised Statutes (“HRS”) §§269-­91 to 269-­95, each electric utility company that sells electricity forconsumption in the State must make a certain percentage from renewable energyresources.Sea Water Air Conditioning: Using cold ocean water to cool buildings andcommercial facilities.Sequestration Path: a scenario focused on business-­as-­usual fossil fuel approachwhile seeking to dispose of the waste products in an environmentally acceptableway.Smart Grid: A new term that describes multiple high tech approaches to managingthe grid.Solar: the popular name for Photovoltaics (PV). PV is a method of generatingelectrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity usingsemiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 147
  • 148. Solar Water Heaters: systems that use solar energy to heat water stored intanks.Storage: a system or a device capable of storing electrical energy to serve as anancillary service resource on the utility system and/or to provide other energyservices.Storage Path: a scenario focused on building an electric transportation systemwhich can send power between electric vehicles and the utility grid. Batteries cansteady the output of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind,while providing power to electric vehicles and the grid.Synchronous Generator: An electrical generator that draws its magneticexcitation independently of the grid and runs at a constant speed that is “locked” tothe grid frequency.Syngas: A syntheses gas produced through gasification of biomass. Syngas issimilar to natural gas and can be cleaned and conditioned to form a feedstock forproduction of methanol.Thermochemical conversion process: Chemical reactions employing heat toproduce fuels.Transmission: The process of long-­distance transport of electrical energy,generally accomplished by raising the electric current to high voltages.Transmission System: An interconnected group of lines and associatedequipment for the movement or transfer of electric energy between points of supplyand points at which it is transformed for delivery to customers or is delivered toother electric systems.Turbine: A machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the energy ofa stream of fluid (such as water, steam, or hot gas). Turbines convert the kineticenergy of fluids to mechanical energy through the principles of impulse andreaction, or a mixture of the two.Variable Generator (VG): A generator whose output varies with the availability ofit primary energy resource, such as wind, the sun and flowing water.Vertical Wind Turbine: small wind turbines which rotate vertically around acentral pole.Volt — a unit of electrical powerVoltage — a type of "pressure" that drives electrical charges through a circuit.Watt: The electrical unit of power. Watt equals volts x amps. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 148
  • 149. Watt-­hour (Wh): An electrical energy unit of measure equal to 1 watt of powersupplied to, or taken from, an electric circuit steadily for 1 hour.Wave Energy: The use of only wave energy (ocean swells) in conjunction withbatteries (storage) that could achieve energy self-­sufficiency for all non-­transportation needs: i.e., heat, light, electricity. The technology offers Hawai`i thegreatest opportunity to get off fossil fuel.Wayfinding: The traditional navigation methods used by indigenous peoples ofPolynesia. In more modern times, Wayfinding has been used to refer to the userexperience of orientation and choosing a path.Wind Energy: the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such asusing wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumpsfor water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.Wind-­Pumped Storage Hydro (WPSH): An energy storage method wherebywind energy pumps water uphill. The water can be dropped to create hydropower. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 149
  • 150. General ReferencesAitken, Donald W. , Ph.D.: Transitioning to a Renewable Energy Panel on Public Affairs Committee on Energy and Environment: Challenges ofElectricity Storage Technologies (May 2007)­reports/upload/Energy-­2007-­Report-­ElectricityStorageReport.pdfArent, Doug;; John Barnett;; Gail Mosey;; Alison Wise: The Potential of RenewableEnergy to Reduce the Dependence of the State of Hawaii on Oil. Proceedings of the42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences -­ 2009, Reb: Sea Water Air Conditioning. Makai Ocean Engineering. Hawaii PUCDocket 2005-­­2009-­plant/Bellinger.pdfBooz Allen Hamilton: Electricity and Transportation Wedge Analysis: Scenarios toilluminate policy needs and inform technical working groups. (2008), Michael: The Sierra Club (February 2, 2012)­sierra-­club-­and-­natural-­gas.htmlBudge, Juliette et al: Biofuels in Hawai‘i: A Case Study of Hamakua. Report by theDepartment of Urban Regional Planning Master’s Practicum. Spring 2009 AdvisorDr. Makena Coffman IEPR Staff: The Use of Large Scale Pumped Hydro -­Energy Storage forGrid Reliability, Renewable Integration and Renewable Load Shifting.Technologies to Support Renewable Integration (Energy Storage and AutomatedDemand Response) November 16, 2010­11-­16_workshop/presentations/05_Divine_The_Use_of_Large_Scale_Pumped_Hydro.pdfCoastal Response Research Center, University of New Hampshire, and NOAA:“Technical Readiness of OTEC”. (2009) Response Research Center, University of New Hampshire, and NOAA:“Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Physical, Chemical and Biological Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 150
  • 151. Impacts and Risks” (2010) Response Research Center, University of New Hampshire, and NOAA,“Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Workshop: Assessing Potential Physical,Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks. A Primer” (2010), David: A Review of Energy Storage Technologies For the integration offluctuating renewable energy (2010), University of Limerick. A brief examinationinto the energy storage techniques currently available for the integration offluctuating renewable energy was carried out. These included Pumped HydroelectricEnergy Storage (PHES), Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage(UPHES), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), Battery Energy Storage(BES), Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES), Flywheel Energy Storage (FES),Supercapacitor Energy Storage (SCES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage(SMES), Hydrogen Energy Storage System (HESS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES),and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The objective was to identify the following for each:, Henry: Big Wind, Geothermal & Inter-­island Transmission Lines, Henry: Energy Chapter in "The Value of Hawaii: Knowing the Past, Shapingthe Future" (July 2010), Craig Howes (Author, Editor), Jonathan KayKamakawiwoole Osorio (Editor)Curtis, Henry: “Energy Independence for Hawai`i (2030) An Integrated Approach toEconomic Revitalization in a Culturally and Environmentally Sensitive Way”(February 25, 2011).Curtis, Henry: The Hilo Geothermal Industrial Park (January 24, 2012)­geothermal-­industrial-­park.htmlCurtis, Henry: Peles Dilemma: The Future of Geothermal in Hawai`i (October 6,2010)­dilemma-­future-­of-­geothemal-­in.htmlDavies, Michael et al.: Analysis and Recommendations for the Hawai`i CountyEnergy Sustainability Plan (2007) Yale School of Forestry and EnvironmentalStudies. Research conducted for The Kohala Center, Kamuela, Hawai‘i and theHawai‘i County Department of Research and Development. Prepared for and Fundedby the Hawai‘i County Council Wave Energy Study (1992) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 151
  • 152. Hawaii Energy Strategy (2000), Hawaii Data Book (2008), and US DOE: Hawaii Clean Energy Report 2011: Renewable Energy in Hawaii (June 2011)­studies/2011-­renewable-­energy.pdfDBEDT: Hawaii Energy Strategy Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of theEnvironmental Response, Energy and Food Security Tax (January 3, 2012) ReportPursuant to Act 73, Session Laws of Hawaii 2010.­reports/2012-­clean-­energy-­initiative.pdfDenniss, Dr. Tom: Blowhole Wave Energy. Energetech (Oceanlinx). Hawaii PUCDocket 2005-­0145­2009-­plant/Denniss.pdfECONorthwest: Environmental and Socioeconomic Analysis of Biofuel Production onHawai‘i Island: A Scope for Future Work (September 2011)­Final10-­22-­11.pdfElefant, Carol: Ocean Energy Blog. Attorney focusing on helping ocean energy,offshore wind and other marine renewables and hydro developers get projectsfunded, permitted and built. Honolulu: Imports, Exports and Economic Development (August 28,2003): Honolulu: Export Enhancement and Import Substitution -­ Key Strategiesfor Hawaii’s Prosperity (September 4, 2003) Technical Report: Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean WaceEnergy Resource (2011) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 152
  • 153. EPR/E2I: Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues (2004)Principal Investigator: George Hagerman. Contributors: Roger Bedard (EPRI)December 21, Wave Energy Devices. Wave Power in the U.S.: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues. Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues. (2004). Economic Assessment Methodology for Offshore Wave Power Plants.(2004) System Level Design, Performance and Costs -­ Hawaii State OffshoreWave Power Plant (2005) Survey and Characterization of Potential Offshore Wave Energy Sites inHawaii (2004). Economics: Verification of Hawaii Energy for Project Year (PY) 2010(January 13, 2012) re Hawaii Energy (HE) Conservation and Efficiency Programs(CEP) Evaluation, Measurement & Verification (EM&V) Inc.: Evaluating Natural Gas Import Options for the State of Hawaii (April2007) Prepared for The Hawaii Energy Policy Forum, The Hawaii Natural EnergyInstitute & The Office of Hawaiian Affairs, Honolulu, Hawaii.http://eere-­­Evaluating_Natural_Gas_Import_Options_for_Hawaii-­Revised.pdfFesharaki, Dr. Fereidun (Principal Investigator);; Dr. Jeff Brown (ProjectCoordinator);; Mr. Shahriar Fesharaki;; Ms. Tomoko Hosoe;; Mr. Jon Shimabukuro:“On Evaluating Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Options for the State of Hawaii” (FinalReport, January 2004) Prepared for the Hawaii Energy Policy Project University of Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 153
  • 154. Hawai‘i at Manoa., Karen Anne, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada“Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion”, Guelph Engineering Journal, (1), 17 -­ 23.ISSN: 1916-­1107. ©2008­017-­023_Finney_Ocean_Thermal_Energy.pdfFriedman, Tom: The Lexus and the Olive Tree (2000)Geothermal Working Group Report: Evaluating geothermal energy as the primaryresource for baseload power in the County of Hawaii *January 1, 2012)­report.pdfGlobal Energy Partners LLC (2004). Assessment of Energy Efficiency and DemandResponse Potential. Prepared for HECO.Hawaii Natural Energy Institute: Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Report HawaiiNatural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii­09.pdf/downloadHawaii Natural Energy Institute: Assessment of the State of Hawaii’s Ability toAchieve 2010 Renewable Portfolio Standards (2008) Prepared for Public UtilitiesCommission­11-­12%20puc.pdfHawaiian Electric Company. (28 October 2005). Integrated Resource Plan, 2006 -­2026. Electric Company: Ocean Energy Development Guidelines (July 2007)­energy-­development-­guidelines-­final-­word.pdfHawaii Electric Light Company. (May 2007). Integrated Resource Plan, 2007 -­2026 Energy: Video: Hawaiis Energy Efficiency Utility wants to reduce yourenergy bill Energy: Annual Report (2011):­07-­05v4FINAL.pdfHawken, Paul: The Ecology of Commerce (1994) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 154
  • 155. Hawken, Paul;; Amory Lovins;; Hunter Lovins: Natural Capitalism: Creating the NextIndustrial Revolution (1999)Hawaiian Electric Undustries (HEI): SEC Filings and Reportshttp://phx.corporate-­­secHertzog, Christine. Five nines reliability: reliability and the smart grid (2010).­nines-­reliability/Hitch, Thomas Kemper: Islands in Transition: The Past, Present, & Future ofHawaiis Economy. (1992) Edited by Robert M. Kamins.Hybrid Cars: The Power of the Gas Pump (­cars/power-­of-­pump.htmlInternational Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Roadmap: Concentrating SolarPower (2010) Act, Jeremiah;; Dan Leistra, Jules Opton-­Himmel, Mason Smith: Hawaii CountyBaseline Energy Analysis (2007) Advisors: Marian Chertow, Arnulf Grübler, andDerek Murrow. Yale University. Sponsored by the Kohala Center, Kamuela, Hawaii, Mansur “Shamcher: A Memoir of Bryn Beorse & His Struggle to IntroduceOcean Energy to the United States” 1991 & 2006 Editions Island Utility Cooperative. (16 February 2007). Integrated Resource Plan.­16-­07).pdfKauai Island Utility Cooperative. (March 2005). Renewable EnergyTechnologyAssessments. Bureau voor Economische Argumentatie: Solar Energy: from perennialpromise to competitive alternative.Krock, Dr. Hans: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. Hawaii PUC Docket 2005-­0145­2009-­plant/Krock.pdfLife of the Land: Palm Oil. Hawaii PUC Docket 2007-­0346, Amory B. and theRocky Mountain Institute. Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 155
  • 156. Solutions for the New Energy Era (2011)Lovins, Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins. Brittle Power: Energy Strategy for NationalSecurity (1982, re-­released in 2001)Lovins, Hunter: Climate Capitalism: Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change(2011)Lovins, Hunter: Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution (1999)Magesh, R. (Coastal Energen Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, Tamilnadu, India) “OTECTechnology-­ A World of Clean Energy and Water” Proceedings of the WorldCongress on Engineering 2010 Vol II (WCE 2010), June 30 -­ July 2, 2010, London,U.K.­1623.pdfMakai Ocean Engineering “Deep Pipelines for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion”­otec.htmMartí, José A;; Thomas J. Plocek;; Manuel A.J. Laboy, Offshore InfrastructureAssociates, Inc. “Commercial Implementation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion(OTEC): Social and Economic Implications for Puerto Rico,” Presentation toCOHEMIS, International Conference on Green Communities, UPR Mayaguez Campus(2008) Electric Company. (30 April 2007). Integrated Resource Plan, 2006-­2026, Kristan: 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Hawaiian ConventionCenter (June 20-­25, 2010). Chairman of the Arizona Corporation Commissionadvocates firing PUC Commissioners who do not aggressively support renewables.(21 minutes), Stephen E.;; Olivier A. Pennetier, David M. Ansberry, Meco Indriaja MarcusBrunner: Assessment of solar energy potential on existing buildings in a region, Carl: Hawaii: The Electric Century (1991). A history of HECOMyers, Edward P. et al, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS);;“NOAA Technical Report” NMFS 40 (1986):, III, Robert J. “Public Comment by Sea Solar Power International, LLC.”,U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Meeting. Washington, D.C., January 24, 2003, Dr. Tad: Biofuels . Hawaii PUC Docket 2005-­0145 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 156
  • 157.­2009-­plant/Patzek.pdfPiersol, Mike Offshore Ports LLC, “Executive Summary for Kona Co-­Op 100Megawatt Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project”, T.J. and M. Laboy, Offshore Infrastructure Associates;; J.A. Martí, TechnicalConsulting Group, “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Technical Viability,Cost Projections and Development Strategies” (2009), Robert: How Reliable are those USDA Ethanol Studies? (2006), Robert: Energy Blog. objective discussions on energy and environmentalissues., Robert. “OTEC”.­thermal-­energy-­conversion/Rezachek, Dr. David: Sea Water Air Conditioning. Hawaii PUC Docket 2005-­0145­2009-­plant/Rezachek.pdfRocky Mountain Institute: Hawaii Biofuels Summit Briefing Book (2006), Simon De;; Jake Seligman;; Joseph Teng;; Yupu Zhao;; Christopher Cooke.Energy Efficiency in Low-­Income Communities on Hawai`i Island: Analysis andRecommendations. Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale School of Forestry &Environmental Studies (June 2011) A., P.Srivalli Sneha, Prasad V. Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology,Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad. “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: A seminarreport” by­ocean-­thermal-­energy-­conversion?pid=27252#pid27252Takeda, Brian, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawaii.“Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion at Kahe Point: An Attempt at CommunityDialogue” (November 1986). Program on Conflict Resolution (PCR), MatsunagaInstitute for Peace, University of Hawai`i at Manoa. Prepared for the Hawaii NaturalEnergy Institute (HNEI) and the State of Hawaii Department of Planning andEconomic Development (DPED). Working Paper Series: 1987-­03 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 157
  • 158. Takahashi, Patrick, "On the Blue Revolution: The Coming of OTEC" Huffington Post(November 21, 2008)­takahashi/the-­coming-­of-­otec_b_145634.htmlUchida, Richard N. Southwest Fisheries Center Honolulu Laboratory, NationalMarine Fisheries Service, “Summary of Pertinent Biological Characteristics ofPotential Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Sites in the Pacific Ocean”(August 1983)­13.pdf.U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: FinalEnvironmental Impact Statement (July 1981) Department of Energy: OTEC Department of Energy: Section 4: Results for Available Wave Energy ResourceTable 4-­4 Hawaii Available Wave Energy Resource by Major Island, p. 4-­3­wave-­and-­tidal-­ocean-­power-­15-­water-­power-­2030­cap.pdfVan Ryzin, Joe. “Design of OTEC Heat Exchanger Test Facility”, Makai OceanEngineering;; See also­otec.htmVega, Luis A, National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Hawaiiand Dominic Michaelis, Energy Island Ltd. UK. “First Generation 50 MW OTECPlantship for the Production of Electricity and Desalinated Water” OTC 20957Copyright 2010, Offshore Technology Conference. This paper was prepared forpresentation at the 2010 Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas,USA, 3–6 May 2010., Luis “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)”, Brian: How the Sierra Club Took Millions From the Natural Gas Industry—and Why They Stopped, Time Magazine (February 2, 2012)­how-­the-­sierra-­club-­took-­millions-­from-­the-­natural-­gas-­industry-­and-­why-­they-­stopped/ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 158
  • 159. Yergin, Daniel: The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. Pulitzer Prizefor General Non-­Fiction in 1992.Office of Naval Research: Wave Demonstration Project at Kaneohe Marine Air CorpsStation Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 159