National Civic Summit - Cristina Vasile and Regina Eaton


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National Civic Summit - Cristina Vasile and Regina Eaton

  1. 1. Election Day Registration id e Gu Best Practices n io nt at e e m m pl A n I Cristina Vasile & Regina Eaton
  2. 2. - About Demos Dēmos is a non-partisan public policy research and advocacy organization. Headquartered in New York City, Dēmos works with advocates and policymakers around the country in pursuit of four overarching goals: a more equitable economy, a vibrant and inclusive democracy, an empowered public sector that works for the common good, and responsible U.S. engagement in an interdependent world. Dēmos was founded in 2000. Miles S. Rapoport, President Tamara Draut, Vice President for Policy and Programs About the Democracy Program The Democracy Program works to strengthen democracy in the United States by reducing barriers to voter participation and encouraging civic engagement. Dēmos sup- ports state and national reform efforts by conducting research on current and long-range issues, advancing a broad agenda for election reform, providing advocates and policymakers with technical support, and strengthening reform networks. Dēmos utilizes policy, advocacy and litigation to achieve reform goals. About the Authors Regina Eaton, Deputy Director of the Democracy Program Regina M. Eaton joined the Democracy Program in 2006, focusing on policy issues aimed at increasing voter registration and turnout, including Election Day Registration. Prior to her present position, Ms. Eaton was a consultant with Break the Chains, a national organization building a national movement within communities of color against punitive drug policies. Ms. Eaton was the first Executive Director of the Alliance for Quality Education (AQE), from March 2001 to March 2005. As Director, Ms. Eaton was both the chief executive officer and principle spokesperson of the organization. From March 1991 to March 2001, Ms. Eaton served as Counsel to New York State Assembly Deputy Speaker Arthur O. Eve, gaining extensive experience working with various levels of government and community-based organizations to develop legislation, obtain funding and/or modify programs to serve the people of the state of New York. Cristina Vasile, Lead Researcher Cristina Vasile joined Dēmos in June 2008 to work with the Democracy Program on issues concerning election reform and voting rights. She has expanded her work to the International Program, where she is researching issues surrounding globalization and trade. Cristina holds a B.A. in Political Science with a concentration in Amer- ican Government & Politics from New York University. She is currently pursuing a Masters in Politics with a concentration in International Relations, and is a public policy scholar with the Alexander Hamilton Center for Political Economy at New York University.
  3. 3. Table of Contents Background & Introduction 1 Methodology 1 I. Poll Worker Recruitment & Training 2 Recruiting Poll Workers 2 Student Poll Workers 5 Poll Worker Training 8 II. Avoiding Congestion & Confusion at the Polls 13 Administration 13 Voter Education and Outreach 21 III. Assisting Special Populations 23 IV. Preserving the Integrity of Elections 26 V. Looking Ahead 28 Automatic Voter Registration in Minnesota 28 Using Laptops at the Polls 29 Endnotes 30
  4. 4. Acknowledgments Board of Directors The authors would like to thank all of the people who made the Stephen B. Heintz—Board Chair Miles Rapoport publication of this handbook possible. Rockefeller Brothers Fund President, Dēmos Peer Reviewers: Dēmos Staff: Ben Binswanger Amelia Warren Tyagi The Case Foundation Business Talent Group Tim Hurst Cory Isaacson Chief Deputy, Design & Production Associate Idaho Secretary of State Christine Chen Ruth Wooden APIA Vote Public Agenda Jim Lardner Kevin J. Kennedy Senior Fellow Director and General Counsel, Amy Hanauer Charles R. Halpern— Wisconsin Government Policy Matters Ohio Founding Board Chair Emeritus Steve Carbó Accountability Board Visiting Scholar, University of California Senior Program Director, Sang Ji Law School, Berkeley Democracy Program Linda Langenberg White & Case LLC Deputy Secretary of State, Allegra Chapman Iowa Counsel, Van Jones On Leave: Democracy Program Green For All David Scanlan Robert Franklin Eric Liu Morehouse College Deputy Secretary of State, Scott Novakowski New Hampshire Senior Policy Analyst, Author and Educator Democracy Program David Skaggs Clarissa Martinez De Castro Colorado Department of Higher Education Patty O’Connor Director of Taxpayer Services, Tim Rusch National Council of La Raza Blue Earth County, Minn. Director of Communications Ernest Tollerson Arnie Miller Metropolitan Transportation Authority Cynthia Reichert Isaacson Miller Elections Director, Affiliations are listed for identification Minneapolis, Minn. Spencer Overton purposes only. The George Washington University School As with all Dēmos publications, the Sandra L. Wesolowski of Law views expressed in this report do not nec- Director of Clerk Services, essarily reflect the views of the Dēmos Franklin, Wis. Wendy Puriefoy Board of Trustees. Public Education Network Julie L. Flynn Deputy Secretary of State, Maine Copyright © 2009 Dēmos: A Network for Ideas & Action
  5. 5. BACkgRounD & InTRoDuCTIon To EDR 1 Background & Introduction “I think Election Day voter registration gives every citizen Election Day Registration (EDR), sometimes called Same Day Registration (SDR),* allows eligible voters to register and cast a ballot on the same day. Nine states currently have EDR or SDR. Maine, Minnesota and the greatest opportunity to Wisconsin adopted EDR in the 1970s. Idaho, New Hampshire and Wyoming enacted Election Day Regis- participate in the greatest right tration in 1994. Montana implemented EDR in 2006. In 2007, Iowa and North Carolina both enacted Same that they have been provided.” Day Registration—Iowa now allows registration and voting on Election Day, and North Carolina permits -Debbye Lathrop, County Clerk, registration and voting during the state’s early voting period. Laramie County, Wyo. By counteracting outdated and arbitrary voter registration deadlines, EDR greatly enhances the opportunity for Americans to participate in the electoral process and cast a ballot that will be properly counted. States with EDR have consistently boasted turnout rates 10 to 12 percentage points higher than states that do not offer Election Day Registration.1 The benefits of EDR are clear, and our research has shown that implementation is relatively simple and cost-effective. The consensus among offi- cials in EDR states is that Election Day Registration actually makes the election process easier to administer, as it reduces or eliminates the need for provisional ballots and mitigates pre-deadline surges in registrations. *Same Day Registration includes the ability to register and vote on any day that voting is allowed in the state, including during an early voting period, if there is one. Election Day Registration generally refers to the ability to register and vote on Election Day. (Portions of this text were taken from a previous Dēmos EDR publication, Voters Win with Election Day Registration, published in 2008.) Methodology Between July and October 2008, Dēmos conducted telephone surveys of state and local election officials in six EDR states: Idaho, Maine, Minne- sota, New Hampshire, Wisconsin and Wyoming. The jurisdictions ranged in size from small localities to densely populated urban areas. The sur- veys also included areas with substantial college populations in order to reflect concerns about this unusually mobile subset of voters. Most of the local officials surveyed were town, city or county clerks for whom election administration was often just one of multiple responsibilities. In a few cases, the respondents were full-time election administrators. In total, 21 state and local officials took part. In the interviews, they were asked a variety of questions concerning the administration of EDR, its cost, effective training and recruitment methods, the integrity of election results, voter education and outreach. Based on these interviews, Dēmos has put together a “how-to guide” on EDR implementation and administration for election officials and policy- makers in states and localities where it is being considered. Conversations and interviews with officials at the county, local and state level provided first-hand insight into the day-to-day implementation of EDR. This guide focuses on key areas such as poll worker recruiting and training, EDR administration, avoiding confusion and congestion, addressing special populations and looking ahead to the future.
  6. 6. I. Poll Worker Recruitment & Training Recruiting Poll Workers Recruiting qualified poll workers can be a challenge for any locality. Election officials in a number of EDR states attract qualified workers using a variety of media and public relations tactics, employing innovative methods to get the word out. Poll worker opportunities should be publicized widely through different outlets (Figure 1); common and effective mediums include public service announcements, newspaper ad- vertisements, television appearances and radio spots. In Blue Earth County, Minnesota, notices are sent out in water bills and placed in church bulletins. Forms are also posted online so people can sign up to be election judges and submit their applications electronically. Judy Schwartau, an election specialist in Minneapolis, Minnesota, reports that offering an online application helps attract more poll workers. She suggests marketing the position as a nonpartisan way to be involved in elections. Wyoming has recently experimented with adding an option on voter registration forms for people interested in becoming poll work- ers (Figure 2). This program is still in its early stages but has shown some initial success. Voter registration forms in Wisconsin also include this option (see page 1 of the online appendix, Dianne Hermann-Brown of Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, finds simple word-of-mouth to be an invaluable tool. She also distributes surveys to those who may be interested in working the polls (Figure 3). She promotes working at the polls as a way to meet people and socialize with neighbors, and says that giving workers a positive experience usually guarantees that they will come back for the next election. In Minnesota, legislation was passed requiring employers to grant paid time off for election judges.2 Wisconsin also has a program in which state and county employees receive paid time off if they are appointed as election officials. This helps to attract state workers. In the private sector, all employers must provide time off for employees appointed as election officials. State statutes such as these may not be feasible for all localities, but consider other options to encourage people who may want to participate (see page 2 of the online appendix). In Franklin, Wisconsin, and some municipalities in Maine, split shifts are allowed in order to attract workers who may be unable to serve full days. This also makes it easier for high school students to become involved. 2 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT & TRAInIng: Recruiting Poll Workers
  7. 7. PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT & TRAInIng: Recruiting Poll Workers 3 1
  8. 8. 2 3 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Recruiting Poll Workers
  9. 9. PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Student Poll Workers Student Poll Workers Setting up a program that allows high school students to work as poll workers can be extremely beneficial for election officials, students, educators and voters. Employing high school students can help ease the difficulty of finding qualified people to work at the polls (Figure 4). Students benefit from working as poll workers in a number of important ways; they gain professional experience, enhance their resume, and become actively engaged in the democratic process and, by doing so, are instilled with a sense of civic duty. Having student poll workers has proven to be a great way to staff the polls on Election Day and programs that do so have seen huge suc- cesses (Figure 5). In Minneapolis, Election Director Cindy Reichert hired over 200 high school students for the 2008 presidential election. According to a 2007 report published by the United States Election Assistance Commission, 37 states already have statutes allowing stu- dents to work at the polls.3 Since publication of that report, both Iowa and Utah have passed legisla- tion allowing high school students “I really enjoyed seeing how the election process worked at the local level. I felt like I had over the age of 17 in good academic a key part in making the election process efficient and successful.” standing to serve as poll workers, —Casey B., 18 years old bringing the total number of states that allow students to serve as poll workers to 39. “I enjoyed actively participating in government by carrying out my civic duties. I feel it is one of the few things that government asks us to do and I can carry it out with pride.” These programs are most effective —Jacob B., 17 years old when they are coordinated direct- ly with high schools—either with school administrators or individual “It makes you realize every vote counts. I learned a lot about the preparation for teachers—to come up with a pol- elections and the importance of election rules.” icy that is beneficial for everyone. —Kristin H., 17 years old In some cases, schools provide ex- tra credit to students who serve as poll judges, or include poll worker service in the curriculum. In Uinta County, Wyoming, offering extra credit to students is helpful in attracting students to the program. The program in Uinta County is coordinated directly through history or civics teachers at different high schools.
  10. 10. In Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, election officials coordinated a program directly with high schools through the social studies departments. Wisconsin state law allows for high school students over the age of 16 to work as election judges.4 Janice Mertes, a social studies teacher and the coordinator for the program, has had such great success getting students involved that there is often a waiting list to participate in the program—60 students worked the polls for the 2008 presidential election. Janice has integrated the program into the school’s service learning requirement and, as a component of this requirement, students have to compose a follow-up report and present it to their fellow classmates. This has generated even more enthusiasm among the students. Students fill out an application that must be signed by a parent and the principal to certify that the student meets the requirements for participation, and the application is then sent to city hall. Requirements include having a 3.0 grade point average, good civic standing and city residence. Dianne Her- mann-Brown, the city clerk, then does a formal training session specifically for the students, who perform the same duties and are paid at the same rate as other poll workers. Dianne has used Spanish-speaking students as translators at the polls, which is another way to involve students in the process. Election officials in Franklin, Wisconsin, find that if administrators are unwilling to designate the day as an excused absence, students will often still participate if they are allowed to come in after school hours. An effective practice is to conduct training sessions at the school, or during school hours. Judy Schwartau, an election official from Minneapolis, Minnesota, has conducted training sessions directly at high schools with great success. Patty O’Connor of Blue-Earth County, Minnesota, reports that student poll workers are especially adept at handling Election Day Registration. 6 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Student Poll Workers
  11. 11. PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Student Poll Workers
  12. 12. Poll Worker Training Proper poll worker training is a key component to a successful and smoothly run election. Dianne Hermann-Brown of Sun Prairie, Wiscon- sin, considers training to be the most vital part of administering Election Day Registration. Providing comprehensive education makes work- ers more comfortable with the process and more likely to return for subsequent elections. Reference materials such as guides, manuals and supplementary videos or diagrams are especially useful in helping to prepare poll workers for Election Day. Work with state or local officials to create a training manual or consider supplementing state-provided guides with a manual that is tailored to your locality (Figures 6 7). In Minnesota, trainees are provided with DVDs that they can take home to review. In Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, Dianne Hermann-Brown provides multiple training sessions for election workers. This makes it possible to accommodate different schedules and achieve a better turnout. Every state has different training practices; however, providing training or refresher courses close to election time seems to be the most effec- tive method. Training sessions can be tiring, so try to make them as interactive as possible. If participants are actively engaged they are more likely to retain information. In Minnesota, training sessions include games such as scavenger hunts and Jeopardy. Role playing is also a key component of the train- ing. This allows workers to practice the skills they have learned and to discover things they may be doing incorrectly before Election Day. In addition, role playing can help prepare election judges for different situations they may encounter on Election Day. Officials in Minnesota provide troubleshooting exercises as a component of role playing (see page 3 of the online appendix). In Keene, New Hampshire, election officials quiz trainees at the end of each session in order to ensure that the training has been ef- fective and to assess weaknesses and strengths. In Minnesota and Wyoming, election officials have found that providing separate sessions for varying levels of experience makes the training process more efficient. Clearly differentiating roles and duties also helps to make the most of training sessions. In Minnesota, each poll worker is provided with a description of the role and an enumeration of the duties (Figure 8). In addition, materials are color-coded to easily differentiate between those used for pre-registered voters, on the one hand, and citizens seeking to register, on the other. In Keene, New Hampshire, administrators have a separate election procedure manual for each of the different checklist duties. They also distribute a brief one-page summary of each election official position to trainees; positions include moderators, supervisors, reg- istrars, clerks and assistants. 8 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Poll Worker Training
  13. 13. PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Poll Worker Training One of the most important things officials can do to make elections run smoothly is to learn from past experience. Officials in Minnesota use a report card that is filled out by poll workers after each election (Figure 9). This system helps them evalu- ate the process, spotlight problems and tailor the training program for the next election. Officials in Minnesota also use evaluation forms to rate Election Day processes (see page 4 of the online appendix). Make sure to ask election workers what you can do to make life easier on Election Day. Poll workers are your best resource in determining which procedures work and which do not in your municipality. State officials in New Hampshire recently received a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts to create a pilot online training program for poll workers. While still in its beginning stages, the program is a promising supplement to in-person training sessions.
  14. 14. 6 10 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Poll Worker Training
  15. 15. PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Poll Worker Training 11 REGISTRATION JUDGE 4: Address and apartment number 6: Date of birth DUTY • Register new voter in the correct precinct 7: ID information or last four digits of SSN • Use state-approved proofs of residence 8: Signature affirming oath today’s date OPTIONAL (but helpful): Prior registration information, phone, email address STEPS 1. Ask the voter, Are you registered in this precinct? 5. Check card for legibility and completeness. Yes—refer voter to Polling Place Roster table Maybe—refer voter to Greeter List (or Roster table) 6. Judge records type of proof of residence and ID number if applicable. No—proceed with qualifying and registering voter Vouching—form on back of VRA must be completed by voucher and EJ 2. Use the Precinct Finder to make sure each applicant is registering in the correct precinct. • A voter who is vouched for on Election Day CANNOT vouch for another voter • Challengers CANNOT vouch 3. Confirm the voter has state-approved proof of residence listed below: ID with current name and address in the precinct Voter Voucher: Oath by another voter of the precinct vouching for a maximum of 15 voters: • Valid Minnesota Driver’s License or Minnesota Learner’s Permit or receipt for either Election Judge fills out a Precinct List of Persons Vouched For form which tracks the number of showing current name and address in the precinct voters vouched for by a voter voucher. Use the Green Folder to collect and organize these forms. At • Valid Minnesota ID or receipt showing current name and address in precinct closing, return the Green pocket folder with its contents in the clear bag with all other Election Day • Tribal photo ID with current name, address in the precinct and signature registration materials. Photo ID with Utility bill or fee statement Employee Voucher: Voucher by an employee of a residential facility within the precinct Column 1 Column 2 may vouch for an unlimited number of people. Check for employee name on the Certified List of ONE APPROVED PHOTO ID ONE APPROVED UTILITY BILL Employees of Residential Facility in the Green pocket folder, or see other employee ID. Must contain Must contain • Current name • Current name Late Notice of Registration: Collect from voter and place with VRA. • Photo • Current address in precinct • Old address or no A • Payment due within 30 days before or after 7. At the lower left corner, the Judge fills in the W P, and initials the application. address Election Day N 8. Voter completes the polling place roster for Election Day registration (Green Sheet) by MN Driver’s License Electric printing: MN State ID D Gas • Name MN post-secondary Student ID Internet Service • Address and apartment number Tribal ID Rent statement that itemizes utilities • Date of birth and U.S. Military ID Sewer Service • Voter signs the roster U.S. Passport Solid Waste (garbage) Student Fee Statement (current) 10. Hand the voter a Registered Voter’s Receipt and direct voter to the Demonstration Judge. Telephone: cell phone, landline or VoIP TV: cable, satellite NOTE: An election judge who registered a voter cannot distribute a ballot to the same voter. Water (MR8200.5300) Other • Voter Voucher: Oath by another voter of the same precinct. Voter voucher must be a SUPPLIES NEEDED pre-registered voter or registered today with any authorized proofs of residence except for being vouched for. A voter who is vouched for cannot vouch for another voter. May vouch • Ballpoint pens - black for a limit of 15. • Voter Registration Applications with Oath of Vouching to Voter’s Eligibility on back • Employee voucher: Voucher on a Certified List of Employees of a Residential Facility • Precinct List of Persons Vouched For form (Maximum list of 15) from a facility within the precinct, or other employee ID. May vouch for an unlimited • Green folder (will contain “Certified List of Employees of Residential Facility” if there are number of people. any for your precinct) • Late Notice of Registration postcard mailed by election officials within the two weeks • Polling Place Roster for Election Day Registrations (Green Sheets) prior to election day, showing name address of voter in the precinct • Precinct Finder (pink cover - city-wide) • Previous registration in same precinct: valid registration in the same precinct under a • Precinct Finder (purple cover - specific to precinct) former name or address. Look up voter on Greeter List/Roster for VID #. • Polling Place List for Minneapolis • MN post-secondary student photo ID if school has provided a housing list to election • Registered Voter’s Receipts officials • Dorm list (if applicable) • Voter Registration Tally and Bag 4. Give the voter a Voter Registration Application (VRA). Ask the voter to carefully read the • Oath (green - enlarged on tent) instructions before filling out the registration. Voter completes the registration application by • Election Day Registration IDs (white) 8 entering the required information in the numbered shaded boxes: • Challenger forms 1 2: questions at the top about citizenship and age 3: Name For further information see the MN Election Judge Guide or ask your Chair Judge.
  16. 16. EDR REVIEW: HIGHLIGHTING AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Note: Materials/supplies needed: Precinct Voter Registration Tally sheets, Green Rosters, VRAs, R2L cards/lists, Green Folder w/Certified Employee Voucher Voucher Max 15 forms, stapler and red pen. Election Date: Ward: Ward: Reviewer: ID INFORMATION PROBLEMS OTHER REGISTRATION PROBLEMS COMMENTS GREEN FOLDER INCOMPLETE OTHER ISSUES ID Inform. incomplete or Total VRA Tally missing (DL#, In-person number of missing, # voters student ID, Voucher signatures on VRAs with AB VRAs (1 + 2 incomplete or outside of No ID Invalid ID by passport #, utility Late Notice Oath Voucher Oath PO Box as Missing Max Cert List of Pct green roster (1) stamp (2) =3) incorrect precinct listed type type) missing missing incompl. No signature No DOB address No EJ initials 15 Voucher EEs Misc comments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 public:EDR BEST PRACTICES:EDR Review 2008 DRAFT.xls 12 PoLL WoRkER RECRuITMEnT TRAInIng: Poll Worker Training
  17. 17. AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration 13 II. Avoiding Congestion Confusion at the Polls Administration Election Day Registration is a simple process. Implementing EDR merely re- 10 quires that the same registration procedures currently conducted at registrar of- fices and other registration locations be offered at polling places as well. Organizing the polling place to effectively accommodate Election Day Registra- tion reduces confusion and congestion (Figure 10) (see pages 5 6 of the online ap- pendix for additional examples). Polling places should be configured into two separate areas—one for voter reg- istration and one for vot- ing. Each polling place should have at least one staff person who has been specifically trained in conducting registra- tions on Election Day. Separate tables for new registrants may not be necessary in smaller pre- cincts, but in most cases having a separate table is most efficient. Make sure that tables are clear- ly marked and that signs are posted directing people to the correct lines. Citizens who need to register should be directed to the registration area (Figure 11). This prevents long lines for voters who are already registered, and reduces confusion among voters and regis- trants.
  18. 18. Most officials interviewed find that using greeter judges, who direct people to the correct area and verify that they are in the right place, al- leviates congestion. In Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, greeter judges provide voters with an information card as soon as they are checked in. This card tells the voter which ward and precinct to vote in, as well as the forms of identification required for Election Day Registration. This can be especially helpful in polling places that house more than one precinct. Municipalities in Maine and Wyoming find greeter judges especially useful in avoiding confusion and making the process run smoothly in high-traffic precincts or those with large student popula- tions. Another option is to install a check-in table at which people verify that they are in the right pre- cinct and are directed either to a registration table or voting area (Figures 13 14). Debbye Lath- rop of Laramie County, Wyoming, has used this method and finds it successful. Once new voters are directed to the registration area, they show proof of residency and fill out a registration card if they have not done so already (Figure 15). They become registered voters by completing the same process they would at a registrar’s office (Figures 16 17). According to elec- tion officials in New Hampshire, Wisconsin and other EDR states, the entire process should take only a minute or two. Try to keep the lines moving as quickly and efficiently as possible. Long lines or wait times can discourage voters. Officials in Maine, Minnesota and Wisconsin report that allowing people to fill out registration cards while they are waiting in line helps to speed up the process. Maine offers online voter registration forms for voters to fill out ahead of time and bring to the polls on Election Day. In Wyoming, state election officials find it useful to supplement poll workers with their own staff in larger or higher-volume precincts. All six EDR states included in this study require registrants to provide proof of residency. Of these states, Idaho is the only one that requires a photo ID to accompany proof of residency. New Hamp- shire requires proof of citizenship. Make sure that new registrants are informed about acceptable forms of proof (Figure 18) (see additional examples on pages 7-9 of the online appendix). These rules vary by state.5 1 AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration
  19. 19. AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration 1 Determining acceptable forms of proof of residency can be one of the most difficult components of poll worker training (see pages 10 11 of the online appendix). A significant amount of time must be dedicated to ensuring that trainees are educated about what proof is sufficient. Provide each trainee with a list of acceptable residency documents that they can take home with them. Officials in Wyoming, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Maine provide workers with an interactive flow chart to show which kinds of com- binations of proofs they may accept (Figure 19) (see pages 12-15 of the online appendix for more examples). Officials in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Wyoming, among other EDR states, find that posting signs describing the required documents eases confusion (Figure 12). In Minnesota, a checklist is included on registration cards so that poll workers can indicate which type of proof or supplementary materials were provided (Figure 20). This serves as an extra safeguard to ensure that correct proof was provided. 12 In Kootenai County, Idaho, after providing acceptable documenta- tion, voters with completed registration cards receive a “residence veri- fied” stamp so that clerks filling in the poll books are assured that reg- istrants reside in the correct precinct. In addition to signage, officials in Minnesota provide voters who do not have acceptable proof of residency with a list that they can take home so that they can return with the correct documentation. To facilitate the process for new registrants without acceptable proof of residency, jurisdictions in Maine and New Hampshire allow regis- trants to self-attest to their residency (Figures 21 22). In these cas- es, registrants sign an oath swearing to their residency. New Hamp- shire allows another registered voter (in the same precinct) to vouch for the residency of a new registrant. In Wyoming, voters without ac- ceptable proof of residency can vote with a provisional ballot and then have until close of the next business day to provide the registrar’s office with acceptable documentation.
  20. 20. Poll workers should have assigned positions and be aware of exactly what their duties are for the day. Make sure that at least one person at every polling place has been trained specifically in conducting registrations on Election Day. In Keene, New Hampshire, poll workers must read a one-page summary of their obligations and sign it to ensure they understand their tasks. No one can anticipate everything; however, it is important to be prepared for potential problems. Develop contingency plans to deal with is- sues that may arise. Officials in Minnesota use special precinct support judges to handle issues as they occur so that other election judges can continue their own duties in the event of any problems. Have mechanisms in place to deal with problems such as ballot shortages (Figure 23). For example, Wisconsin and Wyoming have procedures in place, if needed, for photocopying extra ballots that are then manually counted and for obtaining ballots from precincts that have extras. The elections director in Milwaukee established a team of experienced poll workers to serve as mobile troubleshooters on Election Day. They are available all day to help address problems as they occur and to transport supplies and staff as needed. Any issues should be noted on an incident log and reviewed after the election. This is a valuable resource to use in future poll worker training seminars. 16 AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration
  21. 21. AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration 1 13 1
  22. 22. 1 16 Date _____/______/_______ New Registrants Green Roster _W_______P_______ City of Minneapolis I certify that I am at least 18 years of age and a citizen of the United States; that I reside at the address shown and have resided in Minnesota for 20 days immediately preceding this election; that I am not under guardianship of the person in which the court order revokes my right to vote; have not been found by a court to be legally incompetent to vote, and that I have the right to vote because, if convicted of a felony, my felony sentence has expired (been completed) or I have been discharged from my sentence; and that I am registered and will be voting only in this precinct. I understand that giving false information is a felony punishable by not more than five years imprisonment and a fine of not more than $10,000, or both. Please Print Name Signature Affirming Oath Address Birth Date (Last, First, Middle) 18 1 18 AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration
  23. 23. AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration 1 1 20
  24. 24. 21 22 By signing this roster I certify that I — l am at least 18 years of age and a citizen of the United States; l reside at the address shown and have resided in Minnesota for 20 days immediately preceding this election; l am not under guardianship of the person in which the court order revokes my right to vote; l have not been found by a court to be legally incompetent to vote; l have the right to vote because, if convicted of a felony, my felony sentence has expired (been completed) or I have been discharged from my sentence; l am registered and will be voting only in this precinct; understand that giving false information is a felony punishable by not more than 5 years l imprisonment or a fine of not more than $10,000, or both. August 2008 By signing this roster I certify that I — l am at least 18 years of age and a citizen of the United States; l reside at the address shown and have resided in Minnesota for 20 days immediately preceding this election; l am not under guardianship of the person in which the court order revokes my right to vote; l have not been found by a court to be legally incompetent to vote; l have the right to vote because, if convicted of a felony, my felony sentence has expired (been completed) or I have been discharged from my sentence; l am registered and will be voting only in this precinct; l understand that giving false information is a felony punishable by not more than 5 years imprisonment or a fine of not more than $10,000, or both. August 2008 23 20 AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Administration
  25. 25. AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Voter Education outreach 21 Voter Education and outreach The key to making Election Day Registration work is to ensure that the public knows about the availability of EDR and how it operates in a particular state. Public education in the weeks leading up to Elec- tion Day, as well as on Election Day itself, is crucial. Make sure voters know that EDR is available to them, and know what they need to bring in order to register. Rules concerning provisional ballots (if applicable) should also be advertised. Newspaper advertisements, letters to the editor, public service an- nouncements, television and radio appearances and mailings are all ef- fective ways to provide information to the public. Town hall meetings can also be used to discuss and explain EDR. Be creative with outreach programs. Election officials in Bannock County, Idaho, work with the Meals on Wheels programs to distribute registration forms and information to the elderly. Working with Col- lege Democrats or Republicans can be a great resource to get informa- “I think it is important that you know how strongly tion out to college students. I feel about EDR. Our last day to register before the election is October 10th. It is around the middle of The Office of the Minnesota Secretary of State provides a 15- October when people are just starting to think about minute video online to prepare voters for Election Day.6 It in- the upcoming election and wondering if they are cludes a segment on Election Day Registration and acceptable registered properly. If they have moved and forgot forms of identification and eligibility requirements. to register, without EDR they would not be able to vote. What a shame that would be! When we tell The Wisconsin Government Accountability Board distributes our electors that they can register and vote at the a press kit to local election officials that contains sample news- polls, they are very happy to hear the news...Thanks paper columns and press releases promoting EDR and voting, to EDR, their election day is whatever day they which the officials then customize for their municipality. vote, whether at the polls on Election Day or at the absentee precinct, they get to register and The Office of the Minnesota Secretary of State issues press re- leases and voter information leaflets for Minnesotans facing VOTE! Wahoo!” home foreclosure (Figure 24). —Peg Jardine Idaho Elections Administrator, Bannock County
  26. 26. One of the easiest ways to reduce congestion at the polls on Elec- tion Day is to register as many voters as possible beforehand. Voter registration drives and outreach programs are a great way to shrink the size of the EDR pool. Make sure that voters know their correct precinct and the location of the polling place. Providing a toll-free hotline or an online poll locator are easy ways to make sure voters show up at the right place on Election Day. It is important that voters are aware of policies concerning voting at the wrong precinct.7 If voters will be turned away at the incor- rect precinct, they need to be made aware of this ahead of time. Have a list of other polling places in your district available so you can send them to the correct place. Assure voters that their votes will be counted at the correct polling location—voters who appear at the wrong polling site may become agitated or feel they are being turned away from voting. 22 AVoIDIng CongESTIon ConfuSIon AT ThE PoLLS: Voter Education outreach
  27. 27. ASSISTIng SPECIAL PoPuLATIonS 23 III. Assisting Special Populations Municipalities with large student or military populations may encounter unique challenges in administering EDR. Election officials in vari- ous states have developed best practices to deal with these obstacles. The biggest potential issue with large student populations is the sheer number of students who are likely to want to register and vote on Elec- tion Day. Many out-of-state students do not request absentee ballots from their home state and wish to register in the locality of their college. Conducting voter registration drives before Election Day and encouraging students to fill out absentee ballots can be extremely helpful in re- ducing the number of registrants on Election Day. Election officials in Minnesota reach out to students in creative ways. They work with the schools to distribute information and voter registration forms in student move-in packets and also work with off-campus housing landlords to distribute materials with leases. Election officials in Maine find it helpful to work directly with the schools to get more students registered ahead of time, and to make sure that registration cards are filled out correctly. Increase staffing at precincts with large student populations, especially by providing extra workers for registration. Some localities, including Orono, Maine, report it useful to set up polling places directly on college campuses. In Blue Earth County, Minnesota, polling places are set up right in the dormitories to better serve student populations. In Keene, New Hampshire, precincts are drawn to group students on campus into the same ward. It is important that students are aware of Election Day Registration policies. For example, students who have registered to vote in that local- ity in the past but have since moved—even if just from one room to another in the same dormitory building—may need to file a change of address. In Orono, Maine, officials find that if students are made aware of this before Election Day, it cuts down on the number of address changes that need to be dealt with on Election Day. One of the common difficulties with large student populations is misinformation about or lack of correct identification for EDR registrants. Many out-of-state students do not have an in-state driver’s license, the most commonly accepted proof of residency, and/or are unaware of or misinformed about the types of proof that will be accepted at the polls. Make sure that lists of acceptable documents are distributed widely and made readily available to students.
  28. 28. Election officials in a number of states found a creative solution to this problem. They obtain a certified list of students and their places of residence directly from the college (Figure 25). This “dorm list” is provided to the polling places around campus. Students who are on this list are then allowed to register using their student ID. This reduces confusion about identification and makes it much easier to register students. Out-of-state students’ eligibility to register at their college address is a particular source of confusion. Residential eligibility laws vary by state and should be advertised extensively to students. There has been much confusion surrounding the issue of whether or not registering to vote in a new state will affect students’ health insurance, scholarships or their residency for tax purposes. These policies also vary by state and it is extremely important that students are made aware of them.8 Election officials in New Hampshire distribute information leaflets to students explaining their right to register in New Hampshire and any potential ramifications this may have for purposes of health or car insurance, taxes, scholarships or financial aid (Figure 26). This is very helpful in answering questions and clearing up misconceptions. States with large military populations may experience similar challenges to those with large student populations. In Laramie County, Wyo- ming, election officials have tried to work directly with Voting Assistance Officers on base to help military personnel register ahead of time or request absentee ballots from their home jurisdictions. Officials in Wisconsin have special procedures in place to register homeless people (Figure 27). A homeless person may use a tempo- rary residence such as a shelter for registration purposes. The individual must provide a letter from a shelter or social service organiza- tion verifying her status and the location being designated as a temporary residence. 2 College Students The Election Commission may request that a college or university prepare and provide a certified student list. Students can use this certified list as proof of resi- dence in order to register to vote. If a student chooses to use the list as proof of residence, he or she must also provide his or her college ID or fee card when reg- istering. A college student’s ID or fee card must contain a photo of the cardholder. If a student does not appear on the list, he or she cannot register to vote using his/ her college ID as proof of residence and must supply some other form of proof of residence or corroborating witness. 2 ASSISTIng SPECIAL PoPuLATIonS
  29. 29. ASSISTIng SPECIAL PoPuLATIonS 2 26 VOTING AS A COLLEGE STUDENT IN NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VOTER REGISTRATION Car insurance – usually affected only if you obtain insurance through a family plan that requires your legal domicile to be your family residence. Check with I. Introduction your family or your insurance agent. Voting is a fundamental right and a responsibility of citizens in our Taxes – only individuals with significant assets or tax liabilities might be democracy. Under Part I, Article 11 of the New Hampshire Constitution, every affected. If you are in this category, you may want to check with your tax inhabitant of the State of New Hampshire, who is a United States citizen and age 18 advisor. or older, is qualified to vote in New Hampshire. Voting is the most important right because it is the right by which citizens protect all other rights. Any scholarship or grant that is conditioned on your being and remaining at a legal resident of a particular town/city or state. Financial aid officers report that major student loan and grant programs including Pell, Perkins, Stafford, II. College Student Voting PLUS, SEOG, and Federal work study are not affected. Check with your financial aid officer. New Hampshire election law provides college students with a special privilege when determining where they register to vote. A college student in New Hampshire Many legal interests, such as your in-state versus out-of-state tuition status is may choose as his/her voting domicile, either the domicile he/she held before entering not affected by establishing your voting domicile in the municipality where you live college or the domicile he/she has established while attending college. New while attending college. Hampshire law provides the following definition of domicile: If you have questions about the election laws, the complete laws are available An inhabitant's domicile for voting purposes is that one place where a at Questions may also be directed to the Secretary person, more than any other place, has established a physical presence of State's Office at 603-271-3242 or to your town/city supervisors of the checklist or and manifests an intent to maintain a single continuous presence for domestic, social, and civil purposes relevant to participating in 2 clerk. If you believe your rights as a voter are being denied you may file a complaint with the Attorney General's Office by calling toll free 1-866-868-3703 (1-866- democratic self-government. A person has the right to change domicile voter03). Day Registration for Homeless Persons Election at any time, however a mere intention to change domicile in the future Homeless individuals may designate a fixed location for their residence for III. does not, of itself, terminate an established domicile before the person votingRegistering to Vote an identifiable location in the state of Wisconsin which purposes if it is actually moves. A person’s claim of domicile for voting purposes shall not be conclusive of the person’s residence for any other purpose. could While voting isserve asthetemporary residence. This who wantsmay be a conceivably a right, a law imposes on every person location to vote a duty to prove that heaor she is qualified.other location where a homeless individual homeless shelter, park bench, or Proving that one is qualified to vote occurs Under no circumstances may college students retain two voting domiciles. during the registration return to when absent. In order to establish that a person may spend time or process. Like any other citizen, college students have only one voting domicile and may only without traditional residence is a qualified elector, the person needs to produce Provided you bring the correct documents with you, registering to vote is a quick and easy process. You may register in name and residencecity clerk's office a form of identification with his or her person at the town or for voting purposes. cast one vote in any election. Accordingly, college students attending college in New Hampshire are encouraged to make a determination as to whether they wish to for the townof identification may include a letter voting a shelterup tothe homeless This form or city where you have established your from domicile for 10 days register to vote in the New Hampshire town or city where they live while attending prior to the private or public school service polling place. To help facilitate the or from a election or on election day at your organization providing services college or to exercise that right in their hometown. process, each applicant should bring documents which can prove identity, describes for homeless individuals. The letter identifies the individual and domicile, citizenship and age. The law treats a New Hampshire driver’s license, non-driver ID, The following is not legal advice and is meant only to provide you with or other government issued as the identification that listsfor voting purposes. The the location designated photo person’s residence your name and the address information that may help you make an informed decision regarding where to vote. If you claim as your voting domicile, letterhead and signed form person affiliated with identification letter should be on or vehicle registration by a as presumptive you have questions, you are encouraged to consult with your parents, legal advisor or evidence ofservices organization. generally be accepted as proof of age and the social your domicile, and will college officials. Changing your legal address may impact other things such as: identify. If you individual cannot produce a letter of identification,registered If a homeless are licensed to drive in New Hampshire or have a vehicle the person may in New Hampshire, these are the most helpful documents to bring with you. Other Health insurance – most health insurance is not affected. If you obtain use a corroborating witness. documents which may prove these requirements are: state or federally issued driver’s insurance through a family plan that requires your legal domicile to be your family residence, you may want to check with your family or your insurance If an individual cannot provide proof of residence or provide residency agent. through use of a corroborator, the individual CANNOT register to vote and 2 therefore CANNOT VOTE.
  30. 30. IV. Preserving the Integrity of Elections While actual voter fraud was not an issue in any of the states surveyed, a variety of things should be done to discourage potential fraud. States that use EDR have implemented a number of mechanisms to preserve the integrity of their elections. “EDR is much more secure because you have the person right Barbara Hansen, Wisconsin’s Statewide Voter Registration Project Director, describes the in front of you—not a postcard in the mail. That is a no-brainer. preventive measures that her state takes to address voter fraud: We [Minnesota] have 33 years of experience with this.”9 “There are a couple safeguards at the polling place for people coming in to register. One is they have to show proof of residence, and that is held up in court cases that this is a valid —Mark Ritchie, way to identify someone, and we also have the challenge process, so we have observers at Minnesota Secretary of State the polling place that could challenge someone’s right to register and right to vote. We also conduct a post-election audit, and now, with our Statewide Voter Registration System, we are able to make sure that the same person cannot vote twice in the same election.”10 Maine, Wisconsin, Idaho and Minnesota send out non-forwardable mailings to new registrants after each election. If the cards are returned as undeliverable, an investigation is launched which sometimes results in voters being purged from the registration list, al- though any ballots they may have cast will already have been counted. However, these situations are rare and almost always have an innocent explanation.11 In Wyoming, registrations are entered into the statewide registration database to identify potential duplicates. Matches are made based on driver’s license number and/or social security number, as well as birth date and name. Duplicate registrations are then investigated to determine if fraud has actually been perpetrated. Lynne Fox of Uinta County, Wyoming, reports that duplicate registrations are usually due to a change of residence, change of name or clerical error. Research by Dēmos and the Brennan Center for Justice also shows that duplicate registrations are rarely indicative of voter fraud.12 Voters in Maine must disclose their previous place(s) of registration or state that they have never before registered to vote. Registrations will not be accepted without this information. In instances of prior registration, the registrar is required to send a cancellation form to the previous jurisdiction, whether in or out of state. Proof of residency and other verification requirements at the polls for new registrants help to deter those who might use fraudulent identities to vote. In Maine, voters without the required documents are allowed to “self-attest” to their residency or identity by signing an oath. However, these voters are given a “challenged ballot.” Challenged ballots are counted, but if the race is very close the chal- lenged votes are investigated to verify the correct residency. 26 PRESERVIng ThE InTEgRITy of ELECTIonS
  31. 31. PRESERVIng ThE InTEgRITy of ELECTIonS 2 Make sure the public is aware that intentionally double-voting is a crime. Someone who has already voted by absentee ballot or in another district should not vote again. Doing so may result in criminal prosecution. In Maine, all polling places have signs listing the voter eligibility rules as well as the penalties for fraud. Officials in Wisconsin also post notices concerning double-voting and registration fraud among other issues (Figure 28). In addition, make sure people know about computerized voter registration databases and realize they will get caught if they try to double-vote or double-register. Making the threat of prosecution known is a powerful deterrent. 28
  32. 32. V. Looking Ahead Automatic Voter Registration in Minnesota In February 2007, Minnesota Secretary of State Mark Ritchie introduced legislation that integrates change of address records and the voter registry.13 This system will automatically update registrations for Minnesota voters who fill out a United States Postal Service Change of Ad- dress form. Voters who change their permanent address will receive a notification that their registration address is also being changed unless they notify the registrar that they would not like to update their registration address. The bill was passed in April 2008 and will take effect when the Secretary of State certifies that the statewide voter registration database is prepared to accommodate the new process laid out in the statute. This election reform measure will help reduce the number of people registering to vote on Election Day and save money for local governments. The “In the last presidential election, approximately 580,000 statute also makes the voting process easier for Minnesotans registered on Election Day—more than half constituents, as they will no longer have to re-reg- of whom simply needed to update their address information. ister solely because they have moved.14 Under the new system, those that changed their address with Secretary of State Ritchie also called for automat- the Postal Service since the last election will already have ic submission of voter registration applications for their information updated. At a time when local govern- individuals applying for driver’s licenses or state ments continue to have their funding cut, this legislation will identification cards or reporting an address change save money and make voting faster and easier.”16 at Departments of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Once completed, the requisite DMV form would be —Mark Ritchie, treated as an application for voter registration— Minnesota Secretary of State unless the individual opted not to register. The legislation that was ultimately adopted took the contrary approach. No voter registration applica- tion would be submitted through the DMV unless persons affirmatively opted for voter registration.15 Secretary of State Ritchie is expected to re-intro- duce his original proposal. 28 LookIng AhEAD: Automatic Voter Registration in Minnesota
  33. 33. LookIng AhEAD: using Laptops at the Polls 2 using Laptops at the Polls A number of states use laptops at the polls to help with the registration and election process. Election workers in Presque Isle, Maine, have access to laptops at the polls and can look up information in the Central Voter Registra- tion System (CVR) to determine if voters are in the correct precinct, or check previous registrations, if any. In Uinta County, Wyoming, election judges have access to laptops that are directly connected to the Statewide Voter Registration System (SVRS), providing real-time access to the database. This is useful because it allows election judges to manipulate the SVRS right at the polls, thus eliminating the need to enter registrations after the fact. Election judges also have the ability to check that vot- ers have not registered or voted in any other precincts on Election Day, and can automatically invalidate registrations in other parts of the state or change an address for those previously registered elsewhere. In Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, a comprehensive program is in place that utilizes laptops at every level of the election process. At polling places, Election Day registrants fill out their registrations directly on a laptop. Registrants are blocked from proceeding to the next question until they have answered all of the previous questions. This guards against incomplete registrations. Once the entire form is completed, it is printed and the voter has the opportunity to review and sign it. The voter then proceeds to another table, hands in the form, has his residency and identification verified, and finally goes on to vote. This process is helpful because it provides extra steps that ensure the ballots are filled out correctly and completely. Also, a typewritten version is much easier to read. Greeters also use laptops to ensure that voters are in the correct precinct. This system is not yet compatible with the SVRS, which means that registrations must be manually inputted into the system after the election, but it still greatly simplifies the process for election officials.
  34. 34. Endnotes 1. Dēmos, Voters Win with Election Day Registration, Winter 2008. 2. Minn. Stat. § 204B.195 (2008). 3. U.S. Election Assistance Commission, Compendium of State Poll Worker Requirements, August 2007. 4. Wis. Stat. § 7.30(2)(2005). 5. Minn. Stat. § 201.061 (2008); Idaho Code Ann. § 34-408A (2008); Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 21-A, § 121 (2005); Wis. Stat. § 6.34 (2005); Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-3-118 (2004); N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 654:12. 6. 7. Officials in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Franklin, Wisconsin, allow voters to register at the wrong precinct if they do not wish to vote that day. In Uinta County, Wyoming, and Portland, Maine, officials allow voters to register at the incorrect precinct only if they would not reasonably have enough time to go to their correct precinct before the polls close. In Presque Isle, Maine, officials contact the Secretary of State’s office and ask permission to cast a challenged ballot in the event that a voter insists on voting at the incorrect precinct. 8. The Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law provides a comprehensive explanation of these issues in more detail, including state-by-state laws and policies surrounding college student voting. See: for more information. 9. Steven Carbó and Brenda Wright, “The Promise and Practice of Election Day Registration.” In America Votes! A Guide to Modern Election Law and Voting Rights, ed. Benjamin E. Griffith, 65–90 (Chicago: ABA Publishing, 2008). 10. State of Illinois, Election Day Voter Registration Commission, 2008. Barbara Hansen, June 25. 11. Lorraine C. Minnite, Election Day Registration: A Study of Voter Fraud Allegations and Findings on Voter Roll Security, Dēmos (2007). 12. Justin Levitt, The Truth About Voter Fraud, Brennan Center for Justice (2007); Lorraine C. Minnite, An Analysis of Voter Fraud in the United States, Dēmos (2003); Lorraine C. Minnite, Election Day Registration: A Study of Voter Fraud Allegations and Findings on Voter Roll Security, Dēmos (2007). 13. Minn. Stat. § 201.12 (2008); Minn. Stat. § 201.13 (2008). 14. For residents who have moved out of state, their Minnesota registration will be inactivated unless they notify the county auditor within 21 days that they are retaining their former address within Minnesota. They would then have to register in their new state of residence. 15. Minn. Stat. § 201.161 (2008). 16. Minnesota Office of the Secretary of State, “Secretary of State Mark Ritchie Applauds Legislature and Governor for Enacting Common Sense Election Reform,” April 2007, available at 30
  35. 35. - Related Resources from Demos Election Day Registration Contact How Same Day Registration Became Law in North Carolina Visit to download research reports, analysis, and commen- Anatomy of a Successful Campaign for EDR in Iowa tary from the Democracy Program. Election Day Registration: A Ground-Level View (A Survey of Election Inquiries about Dēmos’ Democracy Progam or this handbook: Clerks) Regina Eaton, Election Day Registration: A Study of Voter Fraud Allegations and Find- Deputy Director of the Democracy Program ings on Voter Roll Security Same Day Voter Registration in North Carolina 212.389.1403 Election Day Voter Registration in Iowa Media Inquiries: Tim Rusch, Voters Win with Election Day Registration Communications Director 212.389.1407 Books Keeping Down the Black Vote: Race and the Demobilization of American Voters, Margaret Groarke, Lorraine C. Minnite Frances Fox Piv- en, The New Press, 2009. Thinking Big: Progressive Ideas for a New Era, James Lardner Na- thaniel Loewentheil (eds.), Berrett-Koehler, 2009. Momentum: Igniting Social Change in the Connected Age, Allison Fine, Jossey-Bass, 2006. Stealing Democracy: The New Politics of Voter Suppression, Spencer Overton, Norton, 2006. Conned: How Millions of Americans Went to Prison and Lost the Vote, Sasha Abramsky, The New Press, 2006. For additional Election Day Registration resources and documents, please visit the online appendix to this handbook at
  36. 36. - Demos | 220 Fifth Ave., 5th Floor | New York, NY 10001 | 212.633.1405