The basic cause of malnutrition lead to food insecurity in Nigeria such as political,economics factor.
Classification And Causes Of Malnutrition,And Food Security In By Owoeye
According to American Medical Association nutrition is defined“the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the (human) organism ingests, digests, absorbs transports, utilizes and excrete food substances”
Human Nutrition, study of how food affects the health and survival of the human body. Human beings require food to grow, reproduce, and maintain good health. Without food, our bodies could not stay warm, build or repair tissue, or maintain a heartbeat. Eating the right foods can help us avoid certain diseases or recover faster when illness occurs. These and other important functions are fueled by chemical substances in our food called nutrients. Nutrients are classified as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions.
Malnutrition generally implies undernutrition and refers to all deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status in infants, children and in adults. In children, undernutrition manifests as underweight and stunting (short stature), while severely undernourished children present with the symptoms and signs that characterize conditions known as kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic- kwashiorkor.
Gomez Classification: The childs weight is compared to that of a normal child (50th percentile) of the same age. It is useful for population screening and public health evaluations. Percent of reference weight for age = [(patient weight) / (weight of normal child of same age)] * 100
Waterlow Classification: Chronic malnutrition results in stunting. Malnutrition also affects the childs body proportions eventually resulting in body wastage. Percent weight for height = [(weight of patient) / (weight of a normal child of the same height)] * 100 Percent height for age = [(height of patient) / (height of a normal child of the same age)] * 100
Weight for Age With Edema Without Edema(Gomez)60-80% kwashiorkor undernutrition< 60% marasmic-kwashiorkor marasmus
BASIC CAUSES:are political and ideological superstructure and economic structure;these potential resources affect the formal and non- formal institution.Basic cause leads to underlying causes. UNDERLYING CAUSES:Inadequate household food security&inadequate maternal and child care,insufficient health services and unhealthy environment.underlying causes subsequently lead to immediate cause.
IMMEDIATE CAUSE:Inadequate dietary intake and disease,inadequate dietary intake lead to disease or disease leading to inadequate dietary intake. All these from basic cause ,to immediate cause to immediate results into malnutrition and finally death.
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active, healthy life. The main goal of food security is for individuals to be able to obtain adequate food needed at all times, and to be able to utilise the food to meet the body’s needs4. Food insecurity is a situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life. It may be caused by the unavailability of food, insufficient purchasing power, inappropriate distribution, or inadequate use of food at the household level, which may be chronic, seasonal or transitory.5
Household food consumption requirement Number of people in household and their activity status Age, sex, and working status of individuals; Health status of individuals; Childbearing status of women (pregnant, lactating); Household food production Long-term ecological sustainability (natural resource conservation); Endogenous factors: land (including land tenure), technology, farm inputs, Exogenous factors: economic policies (tariffs, price controls, taxes, subsidies, research, etc.); shocks (climate change, long-term drought, land degradation, desertification). Price of food Quantity produced, seasonal availability and activities of middlemen; Size of population, income of population; Economic policies (tariffs, price controls, taxes, subsidies, trade) Income and liquid assets available to purchase food Education and employment opportunities of household members, Capital available, land position, and health status of household members Attitudes towards work, transportation costs,