A hard road to travel from connecticut to


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This is the story of four friends who enlisted in the 17th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry. They marched, tented, and fought together every day on the hard road from Connecticut to Gettysburg where on the fateful day of July 1, 1863 one of them would be killed, two wounded, and only one left standing. Their story is based on their letters, primary and period source documents. The program is illustrated with contemporary and period images. This program was awarded a 2011 Connecticut League of History Organizations Award of Merit in June 2011.

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  • As the title notes, this is the story of four local friends who served during the great Civil War as members of the 17 th Connecticut Volunteers. Friends, mess mates, and tent mates. This is their story. This is not a Civil War history, it is not a regimental history of the 17 th CT, it is not a local history. These men were tent mates and mess mates and would be together almost daily from their enlistment in the summer of 1862 until a rendezvous with fate on July 1, 1863 on a knoll on the northeast side of Gettysburg. That encounter would leave one dead, two wounded, and one left standing. This program explores the experiences of four men who enlisted and fought together until July 1, 1863 and beyond for the survivors.
  • In 2003, a lady from Stratford asked me to look through these letters. She had seen an article about the Civil War Preservation Trust in the Connecticut Post with my name. Creating this program took a few years. I was tied up at the time with various other projects and ironically working other Civil War letters and a diary, among other things. This project could not have been done without her devotion to the man she called Uncle Selah. Though no relation she had inherited these letters and some effects and had preserved them. This program is dedicated to her. She wanted Selah remembered. He lived a long life of accomplishment and service. When he died in 1924, the Evening Sentinel claimed “All Shelton is in mourning for its “Grand old Man”. Selah G. Blakeman died without children and Shelton’s Grand Old Man is little remembered. These letters of Selah’s covered the three year period of his enlistment from 1862-1865. There were many gaps in the letters. The great events such as Chancellorsville and Gettysburg are there, but not in great detail. Other important letters documenting great events if they existed were probably scattered, lost, or sold. Where they may be, if they still exist I do not know. However reading through the letters I began to focus on this man, and his four comrades, his cousin J. Henry Blakeman, from Stratford, Stephen Crofutt from Stratford, and Sylvester Rounds from Huntington. Though there are gaps in Selah’s letters, by combing through old newspapers, obits, the census, obtaining pension records from the National Archives, locating the gravestones of all four men, and obtaining access to J. Henry Blakeman’s Civil War Letters from the U.S. Army Military History Institute at Carlisle Barracks, PA proved to be a treasure trove. The J. Henry Blakeman letters are available from Carlisle Barracks and have been used in research by James McPhearson, William C. (Jack) Davis, and the National Military Park at Gettysburg. Henry was quite the writer and luckily these letters survived.
  • Connecticut in 1862 was in many ways a divided state. Governor Buckingham was a Republican who supported Lincoln’s war efforts. However, Connecticut was heavily Democratic and divided. Copperheads (Democrats who did not support Lincoln, wished to see a negotiated truce with the South to bring about the War’s end and did not care if slavery remained legal, in fact some Democrats supported the institution, were strong in Connecticut. With Lincoln’s call for 300,000 volunteers, Connecticut had a quota to fill and Buckingham would support enlistments with bounties as announced above. Both J. Henry and Selah were very concerned about Buckingham’s reelection because he was opposed by Democrat Thomas Seymour who was anti-Lincoln and anti-war.
  • News from the Republican Bridgeport Evening Standard. Another paper in Bridgeport, the Weekly Farmer was anti-war and anti-Lincoln. It was located at the corner of Water and Wall Streets and was edited by William Pomeroy and Nathan S. Morse. Both men would fill the Farmer’s columns with “scurrilous abuse of Lincoln and Buckingham an d quote with approval rabid Confederate papers such as the Charleston Mercury and the Richmond Enquirer. They advocated peace in an editorial after the Battle of Bull Run in 1861 and in a pro-Union the paper would be sacked, burned and shut down by the rioters. It would resume publication in 1864. Pomeroy would escape the rioting unhurt. Two items to point out in the clippings above: The ad from the Stratford husband whose wife ran away illustrates how powerless women were property-wise and bears a striking resemblance to ads for runaway slaves or apprentices (indentured persons). The other circled notice is that postage stamps will be accepted as legal tender for all sums under $5. Before the Civil War the only way the Federal government touched the lives of it’s citizens was through the post office. There were no income taxes and no federally issued currency until the war. Once federal paper money was issued it bore the face of Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln's chief rival and secretary of the treasury and was a bald attempt as a campaign advertisement because every voter who came into possession of paper “greenbacks” saw Chase’s face on them.
  • The 17 th Connecticut was organized in the summer of 1862, it was begun as soon as the call was issued in July and the regiment was full by the beginning of August. William Nobel was appointed as the Col. Of the Regiment by Governor Buckingham. Nobel was a prominent Bridgeport businessman and often partnered with P.T. Barnum in various enterprises. (Noble like to be called the Grey Eagle. He got off to a rough start but finished the war a brevetted General. Here he is in a post war engraving in his general’s uniform.) Fairfield County raised the entire regiment except for perhaps 50 from outside the county. Different companies were given different names. Company F, the Lockwood Guards was raised in three days, stimulated by the offer of a $1,000 by LeGrand Lockwood, Esq. (Croffut & Morris, Military and Civil History of Conn., p. 230)The ad above is for Company G, known as the Pequonnock Guard, Captain James E. Dunham.
  • Elias Howe, Jr. inventor of the sewing machine started a wave of enlistments when he made a public declaration of his faith in the Union by signing the rolls as a private. His enlistment was publicized through the press and a patriotic revival swept Connecticut (Niven, Connecticut for the Union, p.81) Howe had an income of a quarter of a million dollars, he left Connecticut with the regiment, his long hair cut tight to his head, and a musket on his shoulder. (Croffut & Morris, p. 230)
  • Though the bounties were attractive to many young men, these four undoubtedly enlisted out of patriotism. One of the reason’s bounties were paid was to help the families of soldier’s left behind weather the absence of their fathers, sons, and brothers. Enlistment for many families caused financial hardship. Once the bounty money was gone, a private’s pay was $13 a month and almost always paid late, sometimes months in arrears. Much of the stories of these men will be reconstructed from the letters of Selah, which have many gaps and cannot represent the full measure of his correspondence, and his cousin Henry’s letters, which somehow made their way into the into the archives of the U.S. Army Military History Institute and are available to researchers. Henry’s letters of key events such as the Battle of Gettysburg have been quoted by several prominent historians such as James McPherson, for Cause and Comrades, and William Davis’s Lincoln’s Men. Henry’s July 4, 1863 letter from Gettysburg is also widely quoted. Both men carried and kept diary’s through the war. Henry’s two of Henry’s pocket diaries are owned by a private collector and not available for research. A transcript of Selah’s diary is in the Stratford Historical Society. Soldier’s pocket diaries are small and very terse. They contain much about the weather and jottings about any great events. The rich record is normally contained in letters home to loved ones. The three most written about items in soldier’s letters are 1) the weather, 2) the food, 3) the bowels. This may sound funny to many of us in the 21 st Century but one needs to consider that many soldiers did not spend time indoors or live under a roof for the duration of their enlistment and weather was the subject since many times they were ill dressed to be comfortable in either the heat (wool uniforms) or cold. Food was a huge consideration and diet was often the key to a healthy or ill army. There was no such thing as fast food unless you chased and slaughtered it. Hard tack and salt pork were staples on the march, and coffee that soldier’s comfort was issued as green beans that needed to be roasted and ground before boiling. The southern soldier used a host of substitutes to create a hot coffee like drink. And finally, the bowels. This was an obsession during the Civil War and in 19 th Century America. Consider that the biggest killer of American’s before 1900 was some form of diarrhea. I have found no writings by Stephen and no writings or even a photograph of Sylvester. Their stories emerge through the letters of their two friends, the pension records of three, and Stephen’s Mother’s pension application in the National Archives and other contemporary sources and documents.
  • James Henry Blakeman, who used his middle name all his life was Selah’s first cousin. They would remain close. He would list his profession as Farmer (as would his cousin) his entire life. After the war he would be prominent in Civic affairs and would become commander of the Elias Howe GAR Post in Bridgeport. He and his friends would enlist out of patriotism. This would come through in his and Selah’s letters. His best friend was Stephen Crofutt. The two would grow up together in Oronoke quite close. Family ties were extensive and intertwined and difficult to untangle extending for the Blakemans throughout Stratford and Huntington. Henry would survive the war, despite being wounded the first day at Gettysburg. He would return home to marry Miss Amelia J. Burr, in 1866 whom he corresponded with throughout the war while she was the school teacher in Stepney (Monroe). He would list his profession as farmer throughout his life. Active in civic and veteran affairs he would be considered a prominent citizen in Stratford and the state until his death during the First World War.
  • Handsome Stephen Crofutt would enlist along with his friends in July of 1862 for a term of three years or the duration of the war. He, Henry and Selah would be born within months of each other in 1841 in the Oronoke section of Stratford. Stephen would be killed the first day at Gettysburg and his body never recovered. These photographs were taken before the war and the cased ambrotype is now in the Shelton Historical Society.
  • No photograph of Sylvester Rounds has been found. He may still have family members in the area. He was the youngest of the four, born in 1843 and he was from Lower White Hills in Huntington where he would return after the war in 1866 to marry Miss. Elizabeth A. Drew. Relatives still reside in the area. Sylvester would list his profession as Carpenter when he enlisted. He would be wounded badly the first day at Gettysburg Upon his return the 1866 map of Huntington would show him as living across the street from his father, Levi. Later in life he would move to Mary Street. He was active in the founding and organization of Shelton’s First Baptist Church. He would subsequently become a bookkeeper for Sawyer Feed and ultimately a Vice President for the Ansonia Flour & Grain Co. He and Selah would be active in the Civic life of Huntington and Shelton as members of the Kellogg GAR Post and IOOF, the Odd Fellows (the poor man’s Freemason’s)
  • At the end of his long life in 1924 Selah G. Blakeman would be mourned as Shelton’s Grand Old Man. He joined the 17 th Connecticut in July 1862 with Stephen and Henry. He must have been somewhat of an iron soldier because he is reported to have made every march and roll of the regiment. He would be the only one of his four tent mates left standing on July 1 on Barlow’s Knoll at Gettysburg. He would fight hard the next day with his regiment at the foot of Cemetery Hill and would survive the battle unscathed. The only one of the four to do so. The pictures above show him before the war and posing proudly in his sergeants stripes. He was offered an officers commission in a black unit before his enlistment expired but chose to come home when mustered out at Hilton Head, SC in 1865. Like Henry and Sylvester, he returned home in 1866 to marry his sweetheart, Cordelia A. Wakelee. He purchased a farm in the Corum Section on Huntington by her relatives in 1866 and listed his profession as farmer throughout his long life. The couple never had children. Selah had many accomplishments and was civic minded and involved in public service his entire life.
  • There are numerous accounts of the destruction and gruesome sights around Manassas. The 17 th would miss the battles of 2 nd Manassas fought August 28 & 30, 1862. over 22,000 casualties resulted here. They would miss Antietam and Fredericksburg. In November, the 17 th was placed in Eleventh Corps 2 nd Brigade (McLean) First Division (Stahel). Second Brigade was made up of the 17 th and four OH Regiments, 25gh, 55 th 75 th and 107 th . These five regts would serve for the rest of the war in VA, SC, and FL. In Dec, though the 17 th made a difficult 7 say winter march through slush and show toward Fredericksburg they were held in reserve at Brooke Station. It was probably during this march that J. Henry ruptured himself seriously. This condition would affect him for the rest of his service. He would not take a discharge and his letters for this period are not available. During the march to Gettysbrug Selah mentions it abruptly…Henry is ruptured. This would also be a prominent part of his pension claim along with his wounding at Gettysburg. After the Battle of Fredericksburg the 17 th went into winter camp at Stafford CT House, Belle Plain and Brook Station, all near Potomac landings and railroad from Aquia Creek to Falmouth. (Volunteer Sons of CT, Blaikie Hines, pg.190)
  • Slide 17 : Aquia Creek Landing , Va. View of the Federal supply depot]. Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer; Belle Plain , Va. Army wagons and transports at the lower landing]. O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1864; Falmouth , Va. Group in front of post office tent at Army of the Potomac headquarters]. O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1863
  • Selah wrote this letter to Cordelia, the girl he would marry, while awaiting orders to March on Chancellorsville. She must have been asking him about the chances of a furlough to come home for a visit and this is part of his reply where he speaks about his reason for being in the army. At the end of April 1863, orders were given to move the 11 th Corps, (now under command of Maj. General O. O. Howard) to the area near Chancellorsville. The weather was very warm and the road to Chancellorsville was strewn with surplus belongings. The 11 th Corps crossed the Rappahannock River by pontoons at Kelly’s Ford and the Rapidan River at Germania Ford by a temporary bridge and by wading the river. The 17 was stationed near the extreme right of the union Line. (Haines, Blaikie, Volunteer Sons of Connecticut, pg. 190.
  • Early on May 1 the bulk of the army concentrated around Chancellorsville. Hooker’s plan seemed to be unfolding well. Hooker ordered Slocum’s XII Corps to advance down the Plank road, while Meade’s divisions pushed east along the Turnpike and the River Road. But Lee brought his forces up quickly. Around midday, Sykes’ Yankees on tehTurnpike were hit hard by Mahone’s Rebels who were soon reinforced by two of Andersons brigade4s. This along with the Confederats’ aggressive posture on the Plank Road and the arrival of Jackson’s divisions prompted a suddenly cautious Hooker to order a recall, setting the stage for Lee’s bold countermove.
  • On May 2, Jackson, with 26,000 men, marched 14 miles around to the open Federal right flank, leaving Lee with only 14,000 soldiers to contain Hooker’s 70,000. Although the Federals spotted the Confederate column, Jackson was still able to complete the march and then fall on and route Howard’s totally unprepared XI Corps and with it the 17 th Connecticut.
  • After Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, the largely German 11 th Corps would by mocked as the Flying Dutchmen.
  • Captain Lacey resigned after Chancellorsville. There were claims of cowardice and the Regiment was not unhappy he was gone. Lt., Col Charles Walter was shot dead from his horse. Captain Douglass Fowler was promoted in his place and killed at Gettysburg two months later. The XI corps would again be driven from the field on the first day. Col. Nobel tried to maintain order amid the disorganized retreat of McLean’s Brigade. Nobel was wounded in the right arm and his horse killed from under him.
  • If you every drive the route around Gettysburg, consider the plight of the Civil War infantry man who trudged the same route, putting one tired foot in front of the other in all types of weather wearing ill-fitting army shoes and carrying 60 pounds of equipment. During the Gettysburg Campaign, soldiers sometimes marched more than 30 miles at a stretch. These letters were written by both cousins the very same day. Selah tells his brother that he wrote his while marching. Both these farm boys noticed the richness of the land they were marching through and the crops and comments on it. There were several forced marches to Gettysburg during late June. Both armies had orders to concentrate their forces and were using the road systems in Maryland and Pennsylvania to do so. It was inevitable they would meet at Gettysburg. The next letter available from Selah is dated one month after this, on July 27. J. Henry would write several letters about the battle beginning on July 4, 1863.
  • Selah would make every march that his regiment made without every falling out or behind. This was a remarkable record especially when reading the conditions in which he marched…little sleep, little food, terrible weather conditions...overwhelming weariness….”they have never made March but what I have been with them and carried everything I had but a good many times when we stopped it seemed as if I could not stand up a minute and have to go off on picket all night and then march the next day. Just the same I have made it out to stand it so long…..(July 27 th Letter, Warrenton Junction)
  • After marching from Emmitsburg, the 11 th Corps arrives at Gettysburg about 12:30. They begin to arrive on the battlefield after a march through town colors flying, bands playing and the citizens of Gettysburg lining the streets in welcome with food, water and encouragement. The sounds of battle can be heard as they march toward the guns. The 45 TH NY runs into battle at the foot of Oak Hill and the McLean Farm shouting “Remember Chancellorsville” in English and German. The 11 th Corps is considered the Dutchman’s Corp. Many of the 11 th corps are determined never to run again after Chancellorsville. At 1:30 Barlow’s men, including the 17 th Connecticut appear around the Gettysburg Almshouse which was then located to the left of this picture across the road. Barlow’s men are to secure the Corp’s right flank and extend the line to secure the Harrisburg road. Barlow’s division is small numerically. Von Gilsa and Ames (17 th CT) Brigades. Battery G (above) U.S. Arty commanded by Lt. Bayard Wilkerson deploys on Blocker’s Knoll (Soon to be known as Barlow’s).
  • At about 1:30 General Barlow’s Division, including the 17 th CT appear around the Alms House to secure the Corp’s right flank and extend the line to secure the Harrisburg Road. General Francis Barlow is 28 years old, he enlists as a private and then becomes Col of the 61 st NY. He is wounded terribly at Antietam, promoted to General he hates Germans, writes to his mother constantly about the “Damn Dutch”, calls them miserable soldiers and doesn’t like OH men either. The only soldiers not German or from OH in his entire Division are the 17 th CT. Barlow gets his orders and then very aggressively advances. Barlow was way ahead of his army which was on Oak Ridge to the right. He’s way out on Blocker’s Knoll. Four companies of the 17 th CT A, B. F & K are sent with Major Brady across the Harrisburg Road over the Rock Creek Bridge near the Josiah Benner Farm. That farm would have been visible from Barlow’s Knoll in 1863 (no longer). The remaining 17 th Connecticut men and OH men will lay down on the reverse slope of the hill. Barlow is deployed in a salient and will be crumpled on all sides. Wilkerson’s Arty is powerful until the Confederates get close when Wilkinson is outnumbered 3/1.
  • Major Brady was ordered across Rock Creek with 4 companies of 17 th CT, A, B, F & K. Two companies were deployed as skirmishers as rapidly as possible, right of the bridge along the creek. The other two, held in reserve were advanced in line, loading and firing, making a left wheel to swing the right around the house. They drew Confederate Arty fire and Southern Skirmishers. Brady tells of pouring in of ‘shot, grape, and canister” He dismounted in front of the like of 17 th CT skirmishers and led them near the house. The Confederates observed Brady’s attempt to use the house for cover and turned their guns on it. Portions of the house caught fire. Brisk fighting between the 17 th and the Confederates continued until General Ames recalled Brady’s men. 6,300 Confederates under Jubal Early, with General Gordon leading the right brigade were ready to cross Rock Creek and roll up the 11 th Corps. (Hamblen, Charles P., CT Yankees at Gettysburg, Kent State University Press, 1993.
  • 19 th year old Lt. of the 4 th U.S. Arty, consisting of four Napoleon Cannon would direct his fire against oncoming Confederates as they attempted to take the hill. The 17 th CT was in reserve behind this battery.
  • The battery would come under heavy shelling. Wilkinson would be hit be a shell that nearly severed his right leg. The Lt. coolly lay on a blanket, twisted is sash into a tourniquet and amputated this limb with the initialed pocket knife above. He would die hours later. His father Samuel Wilkinson, the New York Time Correspondent would later write his dispatches from beside his son’s blanket wrapped body. Wilkinson would bitterly assert that this position was one “where a battery should never have been sent.” (these objects now on display in the GNP Military Museum.)
  • Hamblin, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg, pg. 23
  • William Warren 17 th CT would write “the Dutchman’s run right through out regiment and broke us up”. As Gordon chased these men he would run into real resistance from Barlow’s Second Brigade including the 17 th CT. Lt. Col. Douglas Fowler moved his CT companies toward the on-rushing Confederates. He waived his sword, “Now Seventeenth do your duty! Forward double quick! Charge bayonets! And with a yell the 17 th Charged. Hand to hand fighting ensued. The colors on two lines being only 50 paces apart”. Fowler was mounted on a white horse and an easy target, in Warren’s words “Lt. Col. Fowler was killed, his head shot off and his brains flew on the Adjutant (H. Whitney Chatfield), Along with Fowler, Capt. Moore was killed and Capt. French and Lt. Quien wounded and many of the men killed, wounded and taken prisoners.
  • Another 17 th CT Casualty, Justus Silliman of New Canaan, Co H. would draw this picture of Barlow’s Knoll. He described his wounding and capture at Barlow’s knoll in similar terms to J. Henry Blakeman. My gun would not work so I dropped it and picked up another. This also missed fire (it had rained in the morning). Just then a man near me was shot. I seized his gun and had just fired at some rebs advancing on our left when I Experienced a curious sensation in the head. On opening my eyes I found myself in a horizontal position and surrounded by Greybacks, our men having been forced back a short distance. I placed my cartridge box in front of my bruised noodle and lay a short time. Was then sent to a rebel hospital about three miles to the rear. (Hamblin, pg. 31)
  • Fighting would be close and hand-to-hand as the Southern Divisions tightened the vise . Howard’s right flank collapsed first. The first corps would follow the retreat of the 11 th through town. James Walker painting of the 149 th PA on McPherson’s Ridge. Pennsylvanians fight with the firsts to retrieve the captured colors carried by the Confederate right. The middle distance, Doubleday’s Federals make a stand as the Rebs attack down the Chambersburg Pike toward Gettysburg.
  • Barlow’s position at this point became desperate and he had to withdraw or face entrapment. Still unwilling to yield he tried to rally his regiments as they began to move back from the knoll, but at this point he was severely wounded and General Ames assumed command. Some northern units did break and fly but the 17 th withdrew in good order to a position near the Almshouse where it formed again. With the enemy closing in and making requests to surrender many in the 17 th made there escape toward the Almshouse. (Hamblen, pg.25)
  • Major Brady would foil the Rebs and get his four 17 th Connecticut companies away from encirclement by “making a circuit and entering the town near the upper end.” (Hamblin, p.26). The 17 th CT would deploy in the streets to slow the rebel advance through town. The 17 th would help protect the retreat of other as they scrambled through town. The Rebels jammed into town from east, north and west, every street echoed rifle fire and triumphant Rebel yells. Many Feds were taken prisner as lanes of escape collapsed. Heat prostration overcame many. Ewell’s Confederates got bogged down in town and it slowed their advance until disorder had Ewell stop to reorganize and he used his discretion not to move promptly against Cemetery Hill giving the Yanks the time they needed. The exhausted survivors of the 17 th hunkered down at the bottom of the hill under sharpshooter fire until the great assault the next day. The Next morning, July 2, only 241 men answered the roll call. The regiment had lost 145 of 386 men on July 1: 17 killed, 73 wounded and 55 missing or captured. (Hamblin, pgs 26-31)
  • In 1888 J. H. Blakeman wrote a letter detailing his experiences during the Battle to William Warren who devoted years of his life to compiling a regimental history that was never published. These manuscripts are available for research purposes at the Bridgeport Public Library also see Dale Call’s 17 th Connecticut web page. In this 1888 letter Henry recalls how he was wounded and taken prisoner. He also explains how he was wounded and subsequently captured on the first day of the battle and then how on July 2 the wounded prisoners were taken in ambulances and put into the school-house on East High Street from where the wounded prisoners from the 17 th Connecticut watched the Tigers form up and start their charge on Cemetery Hill.
  • Before the technology of photography allowed for action shots and duplication in newspapers and publications, artists like Waud would follow the army and make sketches of events as they unfolded. These real-time sketches were later turned into engravings that could be published with newspapers and magazines. Waud traveled with the Army of the Potomac from Antietam to Appomattox. Inset is the 34 year old’s photograph by Alexander Gardiner in Devil’s Den three days after the battle. In the sketch below, along with Waud’s notes are the guns of Greenleaf T. Steven’s 5 th Main Battery as it fired into the flank of Hay’s Louisiana Tigers during the Confederate attack on Cemetery Hill late on July 2. Selah Blakeman and the 17 th Connecticut are fighting at the base of the hill to the left of the battery.
  • Waud’s more detailed sketch of Harry Hayes Louisiana Tigers atop Cemetery Hill as they struggled hand to hand with federal gunners of Rickett’s Battery. Note the two Federal Officers firing side arms point blank at the attackers and how close the colors are. From the right Federal infantrymen rush up from the right to stop the breakthrough.
  • This is the finished engraving that would appear in Haper’s Weekly in August 1863. Combat conditions must have been hellish exacerbated by the fact that the action took place very late in the day and it was getting dark. Due to the vitamin deficiencies of the 19 th Century, most Civil War soldiers suffered from night blindness and could not see as well as a modern person can. Due to a deficiency in vitamin A in most soldier’s diets, “nyctalopia” or night blindness was a severe handicap and very few Civil War actions would take place after dark, this condition suffered by many soldiers, in addition to the smoke, noise and hellish conditions of hand-to-hand combat can only be imagined. The 17 th Connecticut and the 25 OH, although very depleted in manpower, would not break or run during the fight. Other units on the line did. This assault was made only by two Confederate Brigades. Had Early committed Gordon’s brigade, or had Rhodes division gotten started into the fight, the tables could have been turned and this fight on the second day would have made Gettysburg a Confederate victory. One of the great Confederate missed opportunities at Gettysburg.
  • By July 4 the Battle of Gettysburg ended in Union victory. Now what historian Gregory Coco would call “a vast sea of misery” in a “strange and blighted land” began in the aftermath of the battle. From an 11 th Corps Hospital near Gettysburg, on July 4, 1863, J. Henry Blakeman would write home to his mother: Dear Mother, I think I shall have a chance to send a letter this afternoon and knowing your intense anxiety will write a little. You know we have had a terrible fight and men are slain by hundreds but thanks to our preserver I escaped with my life though pretty severely wounded. I was hit the first day before I had time to fire my gun, taken prisoner and kept one day and then taken to the city and the next day our folk took the town and I was taken to our hospital some three miles back. Here we have to lie on the ground and last night we had a terrible rain so I am as wet as water can make me but that is good for the wound. I was struck by a rifle ball in the left side between the hip and ribs passing through the flank.. Dr. says he thinks it did not enter the cavity and if not it will heal soon. Do not worry about me for it will do no good. I don’t mind it much can get up and walk around quite spry and have a good appetite. I can hardly bring my mind to tell you that Stephen was killed by the same volley that wounded me. He was within three feet of me was shot through the head and killed instantly. Stephen was like by the whole co. and will be much mourned. I know it will almost kill his mother but reality is better than suspense and what I tell you you can depend upon. I saw Selah yesterday morning a few minutes he escaped unhurt. Our Regt is badly cut up they numbered only eighty yesterday. Co. D. only five besides Lieut. Peck. Col. Arrived yesterday morning and had command of the Brigade. Dol. Fowler is killed Maj Brady is wounded and Capt Burr in command of the Regt. I lost everything I had but my canteen and little water. Even lost my cup. I got this sheet of paper of Stiles Wells. It was in a small portfolio in his breast and a ball passed through the whole fifty thickness but did not hurt him it probably saved his life. He was afterwards wounded in the leg. Sylvester is hurt in the shoulder not seriously. There are twelve of us from Co. D here together wounded they say this morning that the Rebs are getting off as fast as possible and I guess they are pretty badly whipped. The 11 th Corps did not run much this time as their cas. Plainly shows. I cannot tell you where to direct to me now for I don’t know where we shall be taken. I will write again as soon as I am established in a hospital. Don’t worry about me I am feeling as well as circumstances can permit. So with much love and many good wishes for your welfare I remain you Son in good spirits. Henry P.S. Tell them I was hit face toward them no reb saw my back. Henry
  • The body of Lt. Col. Fowler was never recovered. Lt. Doty noted that members of the 17 th CT returned to Barlow’s Knoll on July 4 in an effort to recover those buried there but found Fowler and many others (Stephen Crofut most probably among them) had been “stripped of all but underclothing by the Rebels and thrown into a ditch, ten or twelve at a time and covered over…so it was impossible to recognize them.” see Doty letter in Warren Scrapbooks. In 1889 the veterans of the 17 th erected a flag pole on Barlow’s Knoll to mark the spot where Fowler was killed. (Hamblin, CT Yankees at Gettysburg, notes page 137)
  • After Gettysburg the 11 th Corps was broken up and the 17 th CT and the OH regiments were sent in August to Folly Island, SC the regiment participated in the siege operations against Ft. Wagner. After Wagner’s fall in Sept ’63, they did duty at Folly Island, SC until February ’64 and moved to Jacksonville, FL They participated in They participated in Actions at Welaka, Dunn’s Lake and Braddock Farm and were mustered out on July 19, 1865 at Hilton Head, SC. After almost 11 months in the hosp, Henry rejoined the regiment in Fla. After his wounding Sylvester was transferred on January 5, 1864 to the invalid corps 136 th , co. CT 2 nd. He never again served with the 17 th CT. Selah remained with the regiment through every action and march. On January 30, 1864 he was promoted to Sergeant and put in charge of various pioneering (construction) operations for the regiment. From Hilton Head before discharge, J. Henry writes on July 11, to his future wife Amelia Burr, “…Selah has been offered a commission if he will stay, but Col. Beard of the 22 nd U.S.C.T. But he thinks he has been in the army long enough and will probably not accept the proposed honor.” Selah came home with his regiment. The three survivors all married their sweethearts in 1866. They remained active in veteran affairs and civic matters all their lives. Selah would be remembered in his obituary as “Shelton’s Grand Old Man.”
  • Selah in his GAR Colonel's uniform and at the places marked by the monuments where he fought. These pictures are from his photo album and were probably taken during the 50 th Anniversary of the Battle during the last great reunion in 1913 or there about.
  • Selah Blakeman and his wife did not have children. Selah’s niece Miss Harriett Blakeman would devote much of her time and resources to her uncle and his causes. In 1964, 99 years after the 17 th Connecticut was mustered out of service in Hilton Head, SC, in her capacity as the Treasurer and long after the last Civil Veteran had passed, she would close out the 17th Regiment Connecticut Volunteer Ass’n by sending a check for $908.06 to to the Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Association.
  • A hard road to travel from connecticut to

    1. 1. A Hard Road to Travel From Connecticut to Gettysburg 1863 The Story of Four Friends From The Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteers Company D Researched and Presented by Carolyn Ivanoff
    2. 2. The journey to this program began several years ago with 42 Civil War letters from Selah G. Blakeman of the 17 th Connecticut Volunteers
    3. 3. Connecticut 1862 – The Governor Calls for Volunteers and Bounties are Advertised
    4. 4. The Local Fairfield County News The Bridgeport Evening Standard, August 1862
    5. 5. The 17 th Connecticut – The Fairfield County Regiment
    6. 6. 17 th Connecticut Volunteers – Company D The Howe Rifles Dear Brother … .You probably read in the B. Standard that Howe was a Private in this Regt and endured all the privation of the camp. That is not so for he has not been with us much then he was Postmaster and had a large tent by himself so don’t believe all you read about him…..Selah G. Blakeman Stafford Court House, December 24th, 1862
    7. 7. Four Friends In Company D The Howe Rifles <ul><li>… we have hard tack, salt pork, rice sometimes and some fresh coffee and suggar. We have enough to eat when we are lying still but when we are on a march we expect to go hungry sometimes but it is all in the 3 years. You know there is Stephen, Henry, Sylvester R. and Selah G. in our tent. We have not got but 3 half tents. H. threw his away one morning. We lye rather thick but it is warmer for this cold weather……Selah G. Blakeman </li></ul>James Henry Blakeman Stephen Curtis Crofut Sylvester Rounds Selah Gould Blakeman Stafford Court House, December 24th, 1862
    8. 8. J. Henry Blakeman Farmer Oronoke, Stratford, CT Born November 20, 1841 Died September 21, 1918
    9. 9. Stephen C. Crofut Fisherman Oronoke, Stratford, CT Born August 29, 1841 Died, July 1, 1863
    10. 10. Sylvester Rounds Carpenter Lower White Hills Huntington, CT Born April 26, 1843 Died February, 18, 1899
    11. 11. Selah G. Blakeman Farmer Oronoke & Corum Born May 23, 1841 Died December 18, 1924
    12. 12. A Copy of Selah Blakeman’s Enlistment from his Pension Records in the National Archives
    13. 13. Fairfield County Furnished 1. 167 Recruits to the Seventeenth Regiment - The Regiment Departed For The Front on September 3, 1862 leaving from Camp Aiken, Seaside Park, Bridgeport, CT
    14. 14. <ul><li>Oct 19 th , 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>… I saw the Capitol and the treasury building and the President’s house but I did not see him. They are all very nice buildings. It was very hard walking because it was mudy and it made it very slippery…Selah </li></ul><ul><li>October 18, 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>… I have heard of Virginia mud before but now I have had the pleasure of seeing and feeling it….We had a chance to see most of the places of interest in Washington as we stopped in plain sight of the Capitol…on the march we passed the treasury building…we also passed directly in front of the president’s house and had as good a view of it as we could without stopping. ….I should Be satisfied with as good a house as that to live in, but I don’t know as there is much chance of my getting there to live, this week at any rate… Henry </li></ul>Marching Through Washington
    15. 15. Quite an Accident Happened to our Col… <ul><li>October 19, 1862 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When we were marching out here the colnels horse reared up and put his shoulder out of joint but we had not got out of the citie so he got it fixt and come up in a carriage. Selah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>October 18, 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Quite an accident happened to our Col. Yesterday while on the march– he was thrown from his horse onto the cobble stones, with which the roads are all paved in Washington. It was a wonder it did not kill him, but only dislocated his shoulder and that will soon get well….he came on in a carriage and overtook us before we reached our place of destination. Henry </li></ul>
    16. 16. Nov. 1862: We took the cars for Manassas Junction…. <ul><li>We saw along the road where the cars had been burnt down. …We got to Manassas about 4 o’clock then they gave us 2 days ration…. We left there Wed noon and marched 10 miles to Gainsville. I was never so tired before in my life. I ate some raw pork and hard bread…We marched across the Bull Run battlefield. There was a great many graves and dead horses that were killed in the last battle. There was lots of shot and shell and old guns and everything that a soldier uses. It looked awful. I can not tell you…. Selah </li></ul>
    17. 17. Four views of encampments of the Army of the Potomac where the 17 th would have stayed or been stationed during the winter of 1862-1863
    18. 18. 1863Connecticut Gubernatorial Election in a Divided State Businessman-politician and able administrator: William A. Buckingham, Civil War Governor of Connecticut Brave and bitter reactionary: Thomas Hart Seymour, leader of the disloyal opposition Camp near Brooks Station, March 28, 1863 I would like to be home to put in a vote for Gov. B. but I can not but I hope he will be elected for such peace as the democrats say Semour would make would not suit you and me ….let me know about election for I want to hear. Camp near Brooks Station, April 16, 1863 I was glad to hear that you whipped the copperheads in old Stratford but I did long to be there to help you whip them election day…I suppose I should have have thought that Huntington would have gone so strong. I hope that Gideon (Wakelee) did not help them but I don’t think he would….Your brother Selah
    19. 19. The Road to Chancellorsville <ul><li>Camp near Brooks Station, April 19, 1863, Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Cordelia, </li></ul><ul><li>Another Sabbath morning finds us here in our old camp but I guess that it is the last one…This Corp is to be on the right wing of our Army in the advance. We shall be in more danger there for we shall have to do more picket duty there and when there is a fight we shall have to be the first one into it but it is our turn at it for I believe that the only way that we can have peace is to whip the Rebs and to do that some one has got to fight. I do not long to fight but I am willing to for I long to see the day when this land is once more in peace. I may lose my life in helping to do it but if I do I hope that my friends at home will live to enjoy it. I have always thought that we should be victorious for I think that we are in the right. A good many times it looks dark to us but we can not expect to gain every battle but I believe our men will gain the last one. </li></ul><ul><li>Your Friend </li></ul><ul><li>Selah G. Blakeman </li></ul>
    20. 20. Near Brooks Station, May 10, 1863 -Sunday Dear Brother, <ul><li>… it was one week ago today the other side of the Rappahanock and I don’t think that I shall ever forget the day if I should live to be an old man…We crost the Rappahanock Tuesday night at 1 oclock, Wed night we crost the Rapidan about 2, it was very dark and rainy. It is a bad river to cross it runs very quick and it is steep and rocky on each side. Thurs night we got to our place where we were to wait for the Rebs….. </li></ul>Sketching by moonlight, Edwin Forbes show columns of Union troops snaking across the pontoon bridges at United States Ford on the evening of April 30.
    21. 22. … Thursday night we got to our place where we were to wait for the Rebs. Friday we were on picket. We came in to the Regt Saturday morning. We lay in line of battle all day. We were close by Division headquarters, the right wing of the Regt was lying in the garden to the house. We were supporting a battery. About 5oclock in the afternoon the fight began….. 1865 photograph of Dowdall’s Tavern looks northwest across the Plank Road
    22. 23. … it come like a clap of thunder. They came in right length ways of rifle pits where we were. There was some troops outside of us. We were ordered to lye down which we did but suden for the way the shell and bulletts came in there was curious. I never saw a garden plowed and planted so quick before in my life but we never run until we had orders.
    23. 24. … we never run till we had orders, then the Rebs were close up to us. That night we had to run. Old troops said that it was the hottest fire that they were ever under. Alfred Waud’s sketch, panic stricken fugitives from Deven’s command flee toward the lines of Schurz’s division, along the Plank road near Dowdall’s Tavern (middle)…see the Artist’s note… “and previous to the German’s running away.”
    24. 25. … a man don’t know what he can stand until he has to stand it. I lost everything only what I had on my back, only my belts and gun. There is 83 men gone from the Regt; Col. Wounded., Leuit. Col. Killed, 6 commission officers missing, our 1 st Luit is wounded, 2 sargents, 1 corporal and 10 privates are gone from Co. D. But I hate the Rebs worse now than ever. I have got to settle with them for what they got of me. Captain Lacey has resigned and he starts for home tomorrow….Selah G. Blakeman
    25. 26. Hard marching toward Gettysburg… <ul><li>June 27, 1863, Near Middletown, MD </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Brother, </li></ul><ul><li>..we were called up at 3 oclock (a.m.) ot some coffee to march and we started. We crost the river on the Pontoon bridge…We marched about 25 miles…it rained a little all night…the mud was about she deep and they marched us very fast. The people seemed to be glad to see us. They had out their stars and stripes and they aint afraid to talk Union. Henry is with us now, but he and 1 or 2 others is agoing into the invalid corps…Henry is ruptured…they marched us so fast that when we stopped for dinner there was only 8 privates in our Co and I was one of them and I fetched the state colors part of the day…..Love to all, Selah </li></ul>June 27, 1863, Near Middletown, MD Dear Mother Next morning we were called up at three o’clock…that day we marched twenty five miles…I had a pass from Dr. Hubbard so that if I could not keep up I could stop withough being blamed for orders were very strict about straggling. The people seem to be good Union almost unanimously…we saw flags to almost every house…women waving handkerchiefs and seeming very please to see our troops pass through. It seemed as different from the cold reception we met in Virginia and the action sof the soldiers are proportionately different. In Virginia everything we could lay our hands on was confiscated without delay. I am afraid to march very hard. I shall join the invalid Corp. James R. Middlebrook of Trumbull is troubled the same as I am and he is a fine man and if I go I shall have some company …Henry
    26. 27. This letter home from Charles W. Reed, a Mass artillery man and later well known artist includes a vivid sketch of how weary Federal infantry slogged their way towards Gettysburg with little sleep and little food . Upon reaching the battlefield men would go from column into battle line without rest. Reed whose battery followed these footsore troops north won the Medal of Honor for Gallantry at Gettysburg.
    27. 28. Gettysburg, July 1, 1863 – Barlow’s Knoll <ul><li>Near Warrenton Junction, VA, July 27, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>… .I hope I shall be able to go through to the end but it wont take many such times as we had up at Gettysburg to finish up the 17 th but Anson I hope that you will never have to be in such a place as that was to see your friends and mates shot down around you as I did there but I am thankfull that I excaped without getting hit myself but Anson come to have to charge right up to the Rebs as we did outside of the cittie it will make a fellow think prety fast….Sehah </li></ul>
    28. 29. … The way the bullets did rattle was curious….Henry, July 21, 1863 …. …I well remember the hurried march from Emmitsburg the morning of July 1 st , 1863, and the singular feelings that creep through a person when shot and shell begin to scream as they did when we reached Gettysburg…Henry, 1888
    29. 34. At about 3:30 General Gordon turned his Georgians loose, and a full brigade of Rebels came out of the wheat fields and crossed the creek….Von Gilsa’s three regiments were thrown into disarray and panic and these same unlucky “Dutchmen” were the first to “run for it” at Gettysburg as they had at Chancellorsville.
    30. 35. Jarvis Hospital, Baltimore, July 17, 1863 ….We were ordered toward the field and in five minutes shot and shell whistled over us in torrents but were too high to do much damage only wounding three or four men. We then took position to support some batteries and the way the Rebs did throw shells over was curious but by lying close to the ground they went over us.
    31. 36. Not many minutes had elapsed before our skirmishers began to fall back and we formed in line of battle and advanced to support the 1st Brigade then engaged but they broke and ran through our ranks like a flock of sheep. We then charged up to the edge of a line of woods through which the Rebs were coming hotter and commenced to fire.
    32. 37. … My gun missed fire twice and while getting out the third cap I was knocked over and being unable to get off to our rear was obliged to lie there while those unhurt after firing two or three volleys were obliged to fall back but they did it slowly firing as they went. As soon as the Rebs come up they started me and many others to the rear an d after a long time I reached a barn used as a hospital where a Reb Dr. Dressed my wound. I staid there till next day then was taken to the city in an ambulance …..it was a warm place the edge of those woods, the bullets flew as thick as hail stones ever did and men fell on every side of me by dozens. Poor Stephen fell within three feet of me on one side dead and Syl Rounds our tentmate on the other side wounded in the shoulder. Selah escaped through the whole three days without a scratch…..Henry
    33. 40. Trying to lift the body of Lt. Col. Fowler onto Adjutant Chatfield’s horse was impossible for Sgt. Maj. C. Frederick Betts of Norwalk, and he was reluctantly left behind. Betts escaped to the Almshouse by “scaling a fence in front of us and tearing across the next field towards the stone wall of the poorhouse.”
    34. 41. Carlisle Street used by the Federal Eleventh Corps in its retreat through town to rally at the bottom of Cemetery Hill
    35. 42. In the late afternoon of July 1, the remaining men of the 17 th Connecticut under Major Brady’s command fought their way to the sanctuary of Cemetery Hill. Here they redeployed under the direct supervision of General Howard. Here they would meet the Confederate Assault of the General Harry Hay’s Louisiana Tigers.
    36. 43. Stratford, April 30 th 1888 Letter to Comrade Warren …..From the windows of our prison we saw the Louisiana Tigers form and start on the charge that the 17th Regiment helped to repulse with such slaughter in the evening of the 2nd…. J. Henry Blakeman
    37. 44. The Confederates Attack Late Afternoon on July 2
    38. 45. Alfred Waud, special correspondent for Harpers Weekly sketches the attack on Cemetery Hill
    39. 48. The Attack is Repulsed
    40. 49. Col. Isaac E. Avery of the 6 th North Carolina was mortally wounded by Federal artillery fire as he led a brigade up the slope of Cemetery Hill. As he lost consciousness in the darkening night he scrawled a last, jumbled message to his subordinate—Major: Tell my father I died with my face to the Enemy.”
    41. 50. Copy of the first and last pages of J. Henry Blakeman’s July 4, 1863 letter.
    42. 51. Near Warrenton Junction, Va, July 27, 1863 Dear Brother, I did not see Stephen after he was shot but H(enry) said he was killed right out…. Selah (Stephen Crofut’s body would never be recovered.)
    43. 52. Jarvis U.S. General Hospital, Baltimore Md, July 17, 1863 Dear Sister, ……..last Monday we were brought here. Before we came here we saw pretty hard times, lying on the ground with only a shelter tent for five days. I was wet through and had not half enough to eat. I wore the same shirt that I was wounded in all bloody for nine days and half that time it was full of maggots and wore the same pants till I got here….The Rebs flanked me but I guess I shall be good for another dig at them yet…Henry July 21, 1863 Dear Mother, Tomorrow will make three weeks since the commencement of the big fight and I was unlucky enough to get hit though I do not complain at anyone and indeed I Cannot when I see hundreds around me in so much worse condition….on the contrary I feel thankful for the manner in which I escaped from the fate which overtook so many on that eventful day at Gettysburgh…Henry
    44. 53. July 12, 1865, shortly before the 17 th was mustered out at Hilton Head, SC, James R. Middlebrook of Trumbull, Company D, would write to his wife “Make up you(r) mind to travel some when we get Home. I think of going to that place long to be remembered—Gettysburg—”
    45. 54. And the veterans would return many times over the years bringing their families and friends to “that place long to be remembered –Gettysburg”
    46. 57. Bibliography <ul><li>Title Slide : J. Henry Blakeman & Stephen Crofut, courtesy of the Bridgeport Public Library, Warren Manuscript; Selah G. Blakeman, courtesy of Blakeman papers, Stratford Historical Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 2: Copies of Selah G. Blakeman’s correspondence, courtesy of Ann Wardman, donated to Stratford Historical Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 3 : Portrait of Governor Buckingham from W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Military and Civil History of Connecticut during the War of 1861-65, New York, 1868. Map of Connectict, from McNally’s System of Geography , Map No. 7, published 1860’s-1870’s? Proclamation published Bridgeport Evening Standard, August 21, 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 4 : Various clippings from the Bridgeport Evening Standard, August 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 5 : Post-war portrait of Col. Nobel in General’s Uniform from A History of Fairfield County, Connecticut, D. Hamilton Hurd, Compiler, Philadelphia, 1881. Bounty Notice from the Bridgeport Evening Standard, August 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 6 : Portrait of Elias Howe, Jr and his Bpt Factory from A History of Fairfield County, Connecticut, D. Hamilton Hurd, Compiler, Philadelphia, 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 7: J. Henry Blakeman & Stephen Crofut, courtesy of the Bridgeport Public Library, Warren Manuscript; Selah G. Blakeman, courtesy of Blakeman papers, Stratford Historical Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 8: J. Henry Blakeman, Warren Manuscript, Map of Stratford Connecticut, 1867 Beers Atlas of Fairfield County </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 9: Stephen Crofutt, Warren Manuscript. Ambrotype courtesy of Shelton Historical Society. Full length photograph, Derby Historical Society, Bradley Slide Collection. Map of Stratford Connecticut, 1867, Beers Atlas of Fairfield County. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 10: Sylvester Rounds silouhette, Shelton High School Civil War Center. Map of Huntington, 1867, Beers Atlas of Fairfield County. </li></ul>
    47. 58. <ul><li>Slide 11 : Selah Blakeman in uniform, courtesy of Stratford Historical Society. In civilian dress, courtesy of Ann Wardman. Map of Huntington, 1867, Beers Atlas of Fairfield County. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 12: Selah G. Blakeman enlistment paper from pension file #1337438, National Archives, Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 13 : Map of Fairfield County, A History of Fairfield County, Connecticut, D. Hamilton Hurd, Compiler, Philadelphia, 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 14: Unfinished U.S. Capitol Building, Library of Congress CALL NUMBER: LOT 12251, v. 2 <item> [P&P]Date4 March 1861. Civil War White House, Courtesy of The Gilder Lehrman Collection, New York, Reference Number: GLC 05111 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 15: Detail engraving of Col. Noble, from W.A. Croffut and John M. Morris, Military and Civil History of Connecticut during the War of 1861-65, New York, 1868. </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 16: Contemporary photos, Ivanoff; regimental & corps info pg. 190 Hines, Volunteer Sons of Connecticut; burned cars, Manassas Junction, Va. Soldiers beside damaged rolling stock of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad]. O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 17 : Aquia Creek Landing, Va. View of the Federal supply depot]. Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882, photographer; Belle Plain, Va. Army wagons and transports at the lower landing]. O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1864; Falmouth, Va. Group in front of post office tent at Army of the Potomac headquarters]. O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 18: Photographs from Niven, John, Connecticut For the Union, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 19: test S. G. Blakeman letter, courtesy Ann Wardman </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 20: Germanna Ford, Rappahannock River, Va. Artillery crossing pontoon bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer, 1864, Edwin Forbes sketch April 30, 1863, Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg. 55, Alexandria VA </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 21 : Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 57, pg 61, Alexandria VA </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 22: 1865 photograph of Dowdall’s Tavern looks northwest across the Plank Road , Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 80,81 61, Alexandria VA </li></ul>
    48. 59. Slide 23: Map of Jackson’s Flank Attack, Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 71 Alexandria VA Slide 24 : Alfred Waud’s May 2 sketch, Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 83 Alexandria VA Slide 25 : Photograph of Capt. Lacey, Courtesy of Bridgeport Public Library, Warren Manuscript, Photograph Album of Lt. Col. Chas Walters, & Lt. Col. Douglas Fowler, and CDV of Col. Willilam Noble,, Chancellorsville, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 86 & 87 Alexandria VA Slide 26: Background map: Maryland Civil War Trails, Gettysburg – Invasion and Retreat Slide 27 : Image of Reed letter, Gettysburg, Confederate High Tide, Time Life Books, 1985, pg. 33; Inset of Union troops marching through Middletown, Maryland Civil War Trails. Slides 28 & 29 : Photos by Ivanoff, 2008 Slide 30 : Gottfried, Bradley M. The Maps of Gettysburg, pg. 127; Coco, Gregory, A., A Vast Sea of Misery, History and Guide to Union an dConfederate Field Hospitals at Gettysburg, July 1-November 20, 1863. Almshouse, p.29; Barlow, Josiah Benner Barn, pg. 124. Benner Farmhouse, p.12 Slide 31: 1863 views of Benner Farm, Coco, p. 123, 124; photo Maj. Brady, Hamblin, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg,; Contemporary photos of J. Benner farm, 2008, Ivanoff.
    49. 60. Slides 32 & 33 : Images from , Gettysburg, the Confederate High Tide, Time Life Books, pgs 58 & 59,, photo of Barlow’s Knoll, Ivanoff, 2008. Slide 34: Hamblin, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg, pg. 23; photo of Rock Creek, Ivanoff 2008 Slides 35—37: J. Henry Blakeman letter of July 17, 1863, from Jarvis Hospital Baltimore, photos of Barlow’s Knoll, Ivanoff, 2008 Slide 38 : Portrait of Justis Silliman from Hamblen, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg,, reproduction of Silliman’s drawing of Barlow’s Knoll courtesy of Bridgeport Public Library, Warren Manuscript. Slide 39: Painting by James Walker, The Howard Wert Gettysburg Collection, Gettysburg The Confederate High Tide, Time Life Books, pgs 56 & 57 Slide 40: Betts account from Hamblen, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg,, pg., 24-25; Almshouse photo, Coco, Gregory, A Vast Sea of Misery, pg. 29 Slide 41: Photograph of Carlisle Street, Gettysburg, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books, pg 58, Major Brady,, Hamblen, Connecticut Yankees at Gettysburg,, text notes from Hamblin, pgs 24-31. Slide 42 : 17 th Connecticut monument at the base of Cemetery Hill, Ivanoff, 2008 Slide 43: The public school on East High Street in 1863, Coco, Gregory, A Vast Sea of Misery, pg. 27, The school building in 2008 photo by Ivanoff Slide 44: Map of the attack on Cemetery Hill, map 23.3, Gottfried, Bradley, M. The Maps of Gettysburg pg. 221 Slide 45: Gardiner’s photo of Alfred Waud and his sketch of the attack on Cemetery Hill, Symonds, Craig, L., American Heritage History of the Battle of Gettysburg,, Harper Collins, New York, 2001, pg. 186 Slide 46 & 47 : Ibid, pg 187 Slide 48: Map of the Confederate repulse on Cemetery, Gotfired, Maps of Gettysburg, pg. 225 Slide 49: Col. Isaac Avery and note: Gettysburg, Voices of the Civil War, Time Life Books , pg 102
    50. 61. Slide 50: Ambrotype of Stephen Crofut Courtesy of Shelton Historical Society; copy of J. Henry Blakeman’s July 4, 1863 letter, Lewis Leigh Collection, Book 40, U.S. Army Military History Institute Carlisle Barracks, PA Slide 51: Views of Gettysburg National Cemetery, marker for Connecticut Unknown, & Crofutt burial plot and stone at Putney Cemetery, photos by Ivanoff 2006 & 2007 Slide 52: Color Lithograph of Jarvis General Hospital, Baltimore, MD, by E. Sachse & Co., 1863; Enoch Pratt Free Library, Special Collections Department, The Cator Collection of Baltimore Views, print #44. Slide 53: CDV of Selah Blakeman, Courtesy Stratford Historical Society, Blakeman Discharge, copy from Pension file, Original in Stratford Historical Society Blakeman collection; photo of the 17 th Regiment Commemorative Veterans medal from the Warren Manuscript, Courtesy Bridgeport Public Library. Slide 54: Cabinet Card of Selah G. Blakeman in GAR Uniform, courtesy of Mrs. Phyllis Walsh, Shelton, CT; photos of Blakeman at the regimental monuments in Gettysburg from his photo album, courtesy of Ann Wardman. Slide 55 & 56: Photos of the regimental markers at Gettysburg 2007 & 2008 by Ivanoff Slide 62 : Selah’s niece Miss Harriett Blakeman in the 1970’s and letter from the Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Association, 1964, courtesy of Ann Wardman.
    51. 62. <ul><li>Miss Harriet B. Blakeman </li></ul>