La ciudad creativa y la ciudad del conocimiento: Milán y la economía cultural
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La ciudad creativa y la ciudad del conocimiento: Milán y la economía cultural

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Ponencia de Silvia Mugnano en las IV Jornadas Internacionales de Ciudades Creativas (Fundación Kreanta - CentroCentro)

Ponencia de Silvia Mugnano en las IV Jornadas Internacionales de Ciudades Creativas (Fundación Kreanta - CentroCentro)

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  • Strongly influenced by the Anglo-Saxon and Nordic Debate the culture in not anymore considered as a conservation of the Heritage and promotion of performing art at the contrary take the shape of “ economyc engine” (DCMS, 1997-2000) Two of the main step toward this trasformation has been in 1997 when Task Force UK Government Department of Culture, Media, Sport (DCMS) promote the term creative industry 1997 Task Force UK Government Department of Culture, Media, Sport (DCMS) promote the term creative industry Creative industry includes arts and culture, heritage, libraries, museums and archives, tourism, sport, entertainment and leisure. 2006 KEA report “ Cultural Economy in Europe ” Hart of the arts (Visual Arts, Performing arts, heritage) Cultural industry (Film and Video, TV and Radio, Video-Games, Music Editing) Creative industry and activities (Design, Architecture, Advertising) At Italian Level From Cultural to Creative industry The White book on Creativity Material Culture ( fashion, Industrial Design and artcraft, Food industry) Production information and Communication (Software, Editing, TV and Radio, Advertising , Cinema) Connected industry (MP3, Mobile..)
  • The passage from a industrial to a post industrial economy has created new productive sectors and new professions. In very recent years, we have seen the emerging of the creative industry and the knowledge economy. The creative-knowledge economy in 2001 in Italy employed more than 4.5 millions workers in 1.4 millions local units. The cultural knowledge industry constitutes about the 30 per cent of total employment. The first Region, in absolute number, is Lombardy, with more than 1 million workers, followed by Lazio with around 500,000 employees, nevertheless,
  • Milan is the Italian point of reference in finance, advertising and the international one for design, fashion. This does not only depend on the presence of big names (for fashion Armani, Prada etc), but is also due to the existence of a host of small and medium sized companies working in design. In certain sectors, Milan has an attractive power at international level, and regarding design, the ‘made in Milan’ brand seems to be even more important than ‘made in Italy’. So far, Milan’s productive and economic fabric is constantly changing, and the urban and social metamorphosis is the tangible side of this transformation. Milan’s economic past is today evident in the production and artisan culture, in the know-how of Milan, which is nowadays rejuvenated and emerges in the so-called creative and knowledge intensive industries which are the city’s new source of development. In Italy, the Milanese creative and knowledge intensive industry is in first place for absolute number of employees (553,339 employees), followed by Rome (407,769) and Turin (209,413). The knowledge and creative industry occupies 31% of the labour force in the Milan metropolitan area. The knowledge-based industry employs a slightly higher number of people (303,073) than the creative sector (250,896) . ). For several sector Milan is acknowledged as A place to be “ The entry ‘Recapito Milanese (Milanese address)’ means: you are represented in Milan… We invented this activity which keeps a showroom for the press and represents companies working in design or other artisan activities, companies which are small enough not to have enough money to have a base in Milan, but also sufficiently qualified to have relations with the press that deals with design, almost 99 per cent of which is in Milan’ ( President of a Creative-Neighbourhood-Association)
  • The situation of Milan Milan’s economic past is today evident in the production and artisan culture, in the know-how of Milan. Milan is the Italian point of reference in finance, advertising and the international one for design, fashion (‘made in Milan’) The knowledge and creative industry occupies 31% of the labour force The composition of the industry is half creative and half knowledge-based industry
  • As you can see from the picture, h ard factors (Manufacturing industry, infrastructure and the finance sector) appear to be still one of the reasons for the success of the creative and knowledge intensive industry in Milan. On the other hand, Milan is quite contradictory in terms of soft factors . The city’s cultural supply, although it can be considered as quite remarkable, is perceived by the interviewees as limited especially if compared with the international scenario (New York, London and Paris). The quality of life in general in Milan is said to be rather bad, with air pollution at highest peaks, traffic congestion throughout the day, and in general many negative aspects
  • Milan crisis is partially contingent on the lack of the political interventions. The new needs and emerging urban questions have not met a correct respond by the local politicians. The local government, instead of promoting new strategies, have attempted to postponed the answers by passing the hot issues from one legislature to the other. Although Milan has been a national cultural and innovative centre since the nineteenth century, this is more as a result of organic bottom-up enterprise development rather than direct policy intervention Indeed, the early development of Milan’s specialisation of small to medium sized industries, specialising in areas such as textiles, furniture, fashion and design, cannot be attributed to policy-making at the national or regional level. Milanese interesting experiences of bottom up neighbourhood strategies for promoting creative industry (Milanese creative quarters), and the interesting role of the Chamber of Commerce in fostering the debate on creative industry. This example shows that politics has played a “negative” role in the recent past of Milan. The city is paying for twenty years of institutional stagnation, and even if interviewees may glimpse some new, positive energies, public institutions have to deal with a long period of institutional disaffiliation and low trust prevalent among firms, managers and cultural operators. The slowness of procedures and the high level of bureaucracy have created a timing mismatch between the firms’ needs and the public administration’s response. For a long time, cultural operators have felt abandoned by the public institutions and in some instances they even feel that the latter oppose their positive initiatives. What it is possible to foresee for the near future in the opinion of people working in the creative and knowledge based economy is a continuous mismatch of the crucial elements that allow for an economic development of the city and a following loss of high position in the international scenario. Milan from city branding to neighborhood branding Milan no strategic plan Low degree of urban governance City branding just a Merchandising Bottom up strategies on neighborhood branding From industrial areas to creative quarters: micro urban branding From industrial pole to creative capital The development of the creative quarters The real estate –led gentrification of the creative quarters and the micro branding
  • First of all we need to draw boundaries around the notion of cultural quarters Brown and alt, 2000 has defined Cultural quarters previously deserted or run down areas that were targeted for new uses in the form of work, exhibition and performance space geared to local, emergent cultural producers Montgomery (2003) has defined cultural quarters by three main dimensions: 1) The economic dimension is mainly characterised by the a ctivities which are declined into diversity of primary and secondary land used, extent and variety of cultural venues and events, presence of evening economy, strength of small-firms economy including creative business The physical dimension is determined by the f orms and in specific to the relationship between building a space-.such as fine-grain urban morphology (Jacob, 1966), the variety ad adaptability of building stock, permeability of the streetscape legiability amount and quality of public space active frontage. 3) The last but not least dimension is related to the symbolic value of the quarter and in specific to the Meaning which is the sense of history and progress , area identity and imaginary , knowledgeability, design appreciation and style In the Tortona area intelligent high end real estate developers made their purchases and started creating communities of artists, of design, communications, fashion….’ (N7) “ This land has a certain value, but thanks to the temporary presence of contemporary art exhibition , its value has quintupled.(N1) “ We decided to locate the design week fair in this neighbourhood because this should had to become the design quarter” (N1)
  • First of all we need to draw boundaries around the notion of cultural quarters Brown and alt, 2000 has defined Cultural quarters previously deserted or run down areas that were targeted for new uses in the form of work, exhibition and performance space geared to local, emergent cultural producers Montgomery (2003) has defined cultural quarters by three main dimensions: 1) The economic dimension is mainly characterised by the a ctivities which are declined into diversity of primary and secondary land used, extent and variety of cultural venues and events, presence of evening economy, strength of small-firms economy including creative business The physical dimension is determined by the f orms and in specific to the relationship between building a space-.such as fine-grain urban morphology (Jacob, 1966), the variety ad adaptability of building stock, permeability of the streetscape legiability amount and quality of public space active frontage. 3) The last but not least dimension is related to the symbolic value of the quarter and in specific to the Meaning which is the sense of history and progress , area identity and imaginary , knowledgeability, design appreciation and style In the Tortona area intelligent high end real estate developers made their purchases and started creating communities of artists, of design, communications, fashion….’ (N7) “ This land has a certain value, but thanks to the temporary presence of contemporary art exhibition , its value has quintupled.(N1) “ We decided to locate the design week fair in this neighbourhood because this should had to become the design quarter” (N1)
  • Buildings, urban areas and open spaces are subject to cycles of high and low utilization, during which there are moments of transition, uncertainty and immobility. It is in this “time in between” of old and new use, that it is possible to experience temporary projects and activities
  • 14 Atelier selected by a public call, space for studios and laboratories with a “free” loan for 3 years (2011-13), Social capital social networks The risk of collaboation competition with only the building maintenance costs and expenses to support the start-up with experts.

La ciudad creativa y la ciudad del conocimiento: Milán y la economía cultural La ciudad creativa y la ciudad del conocimiento: Milán y la economía cultural Presentation Transcript

  • Milan: Creative and Knowledge city Creative quarters and local networks in action Silvia Mugnano Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale University of Milan Bicocca Milan - Italy
  • Content
    • Definition of creative industry in Italy
    • Creative industry in Milan compared to EU metropolitan regions and Italian context
    • Strengths and weaknesses of Milan
    • Creativity, social innovation, urban effervescence: few examples
  • European Definition (KEA report , 2006) Heart of the arts: Visual Arts, Performing arts, heritage Cultural industry: Film and Video, TV and Radio, Video-Games, Music Editing Creative industry and activities: Design, Architecture, Advertising Italy prospective Information and Communication: Software, Editing, TV and Radio, Advertising , Cinema Related industry MP3, Mobile Material Culture fashion, Industrial Design and artcraft, Food industry
    • In 2001 in Italy creative and knowledge industries employed more than 4.5 millions workers in 1.4 millions local units.
    • The first Region, in absolute number, is Lombardy, with more than 1 million workers,
    Employment creative industry In Italy and in Lombardy Source: ISTAT Censimento dell’industria e servizi - 2001
  • Workforce in the cultural industry in Milan (% on the total pf working population) Source: ISTAT Censimento dell’industria e servizi - 2001 Design lamp: Tolomeo (Artemide)
  • Employment Creative industry Milan compared to some European metropolitan regions
  • Talents: “Why are they here, in MIlan?”
    • Hard factors
    • Vibrant working environment
    • Widespread transport infrastructure
    • Educational offer as a magnet for people in the surrounding regions
    • Soft factors
    • International branding
    • The importance of social networks and relations
    • Geographic location
    • Active local actors (Chamber of Commerce)
  • Why do they leave?
    • No competitive in the cultural offer to EU capitals
    • Ultra conservative policies (for example towards no EU citizens)
    • Lack of the political interventions for creative industry but also quality of live
    • Low attentions for innovation and investments in innovations
    • Limited access to new generations to “the creative circle”
  • Creativity social innovation urban effervescence Zona Tortona-design week Made in Mage Elita Sunday Park- local network
  • Highlights
    • Area-based policy, a productive sector policy or social capital policy
    • Creativity and areas in transition ( former industrial areas)
    • Collaboration and conflicts in the local governance
  • Zona Tortona and the Design week
    • Creative quarter and design cluster
    • Tortona area:
    • Semi central area
    • Production stopped in late 80s
    • Workhouses and small
    • industries
    • High developed
  • Zona Tortona and the Design week
        • Medium size and strongly locally based real estate developers
        • Informal network regulated by the developers
        • Micro-territorial marketing/neighbourhood branding
  • Zona Tortona and the Design week
        • Temporary flagship projects
        • Special events targeted for the design sector : design Week
        • Street design week
  • “ Made in Mage” project The location Temporary use of a space in a former industrial area Breda area: Production stopped in 1995 Mq:1.443.315,00 m² The large part of the area still underused
  • “ Made in Mage” project Fashion incubator Open : early 2011 An incubator of fashion and sustainable design in former Magazzini Generali Falck (MA.GE) Supporting design and fashion design art craft Fostering the re-use of empty space Bridging new economy with industrial heritage
  • “ Made in Mage” project Activities and workers 14 Atelier selected by a public call space for studios and laboratories with a “free” loan for 3 years (2011-13), Social capital social networks The risk of collaboration competition
  • Elita network
    • Cultural association borne in Milan in 2005
    • Aim fostering the networking culture in the music and new media sector
    • Organize music events and meetings / conference on music industry
  • Elita network Elita Sunday Park
    • A monthly event
    • For a day Theater foyer turns into a meeting point (12.00 am -2.00 pm)
    • Combines music, self production design and food industry (local farm market and bio restaurants)
    • Low cost Exposition space
  • Conclusion
    • Mismatching between international imagine and the reality
    • The strong network and the difficult access to “new comers”
    • Good practices and weak local policies
    • The potential role of local enterpreneship
    • Can this model survive to the economic crisis?
    • Thank you
    • Muchas gracias
    • [email_address]