Exploring Statewide Implementation of CIT  Melissa Reuland Senior Research Consultant Council of State Governments Justice...
The Situation Today <ul><li>Law enforcement officers lack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information and skills to de-escalate cris...
What are Specialized Policing Responses (SPRs)? <ul><li>SPR programs include :   </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Intervention Tea...
Outcomes <ul><li>Reduced SWAT call outs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced arrest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced officer injuries ...
Statewide CIT Implementation <ul><li>BJA-funded project began in October 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><u...
Selection criteria <ul><li>Project staff selected three states for site visits based on the following criteria. The statew...
Presentation overview <ul><li>Describe statewide implementation efforts and their collaboration structure and partnerships...
State-level collaboration structure <ul><li>Lead organization is from one of the three main stakeholder groups: mental hea...
State-level staffing and funding <ul><li>Funding is obtained through state, local and federal grants. </li></ul><ul><li>St...
State-level goals <ul><li>To reach entire state. </li></ul>
Advantages of statewide efforts <ul><li>State governments are well-positioned to make resources and technical assistance a...
Disadvantages of statewide efforts <ul><li>It is possible to lose control over how programs are implemented, which may aff...
State presentations <ul><li>State representatives will detail their states’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lead organization;  </l...
Contact Information <ul><li>Melissa Reuland </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Research Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address]...
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Exploring Statewide Implementation of CIT

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Presented by: Melissa Reuland
Senior Research Consultant
Council of State Governments Justice Center

Mark Munetz, M.D.
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy

Louise Pyers
Connecticut Alliance to Benefit Law Enforcement (CABLE)

Detective Ron Bruno
Salt Lake City Police Department

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • Perhaps as a consequence of a lack of information and dependable alternatives for people in crisis, these situations continue to challenge police. The calls are complicated, time consuming, and can become volatile. As we know, on rare, but high-profile occasions, encounters can result in tragedy – an injury or death for the person with a mental illness, the officer, or others at the scene. In addition, the prevalence rate of severe mental disorder in jails in the US is quite high. The largest psychiatric inpatient facilities in the United States today are actually jails—Riker’s Island in New York City and the Los Angeles County Jail.
  • To address these problems, communities like yours formed partnerships to transform the police response so that it provides better crisis de-escalation and enhanced linkages to mental health treatment. PERF and the Council of State Governments Justice Center focus on “specialized law-enforcement-based approaches.” These approaches are “ specialized ” in that they enhance traditional police responses to this population. They are “ law enforcement-based ” because they require policing agencies to make a strong commitment to significant organizational changes. The two predominant police-based approaches are… READ SLIDE CSG and PERF produced the Essential Elements document to assist communities by identifying the elements these approaches share and offering different ways they can be achieved.
  • Research is now showing that these approaches are achieving some important goals. For example, … special tactical team call outs are often significantly reduced…This was an unanticipated outcome for these programs, but it is one that seems to suggest that the programs reduce the severity of encounters with police. arrest rates have declined… in Memphis and San Jose, officer injuries decreased after implementation of a CIT… … and, importantly, access to mental health service has increased
  • Exploring Statewide Implementation of CIT

    1. 1. Exploring Statewide Implementation of CIT Melissa Reuland Senior Research Consultant Council of State Governments Justice Center Mark Munetz, M.D. Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy Louise Pyers Connecticut Alliance to Benefit Law Enforcement (CABLE) Detective Ron Bruno Salt Lake City Police Department June 1, 2010
    2. 2. The Situation Today <ul><li>Law enforcement officers lack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information and skills to de-escalate crises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliable and efficient access to mental health services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calls for service involving people with mental illnesses are complex, time-consuming, and potentially dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>The largest psychiatric inpatient facilities in the United States today are actually jails—Rikers Island in New York City and the Los Angeles County Jail </li></ul>
    3. 3. What are Specialized Policing Responses (SPRs)? <ul><li>SPR programs include : </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Intervention Teams— A self-selected cadre of officers is trained to identify signs and symptoms of mental illness, de-escalate the situation and bring the person in crisis to an efficient, round-the clock treatment center. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-responder Teams— A specially-trained officer pairs with a mental health professional to respond to the scene of a crisis involving mental illness. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Outcomes <ul><li>Reduced SWAT call outs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced arrest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced officer injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Increased access to mental health services </li></ul>
    5. 5. Statewide CIT Implementation <ul><li>BJA-funded project began in October 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify states engaged in statewide approach (8 in full implementation mode and 5 in planning stages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select three states for on-site, in-depth data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct site visits and interview state-level planners and coordinators, and representatives from local jurisdictions </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Selection criteria <ul><li>Project staff selected three states for site visits based on the following criteria. The statewide effort must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive: Coordinators accomplish more than three activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced: State has been engaged in statewide model for more than 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective: At least 20% of law enforcement agencies have trained officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse: State lead agency is different (such as mental health, advocacy or law enforcement), geography varies and activities range, there is variation in programs at the local level and they are not dogmatic about training and model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing and able to participate in study. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Presentation overview <ul><li>Describe statewide implementation efforts and their collaboration structure and partnerships, staffing and resources, and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss advantages and disadvantages of statewide implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>State representatives will detail their states’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lead organization; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategies for recruiting jurisdictions throughout the state; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanisms to ensure localities adhere to the core elements; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and assistance offered to localities to sustain their programs. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. State-level collaboration structure <ul><li>Lead organization is from one of the three main stakeholder groups: mental health, law enforcement and advocacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional partners include a range of mental health and criminal justice agencies, as well as advocates, legislative members and citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet quarterly or as necessary to address problems and track progress. </li></ul>
    9. 9. State-level staffing and funding <ul><li>Funding is obtained through state, local and federal grants. </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing is often volunteer at the start. Once more funding is acquired, programs staff –at minimum -- a coordinator to oversee recruitment and training. </li></ul>
    10. 10. State-level goals <ul><li>To reach entire state. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Advantages of statewide efforts <ul><li>State governments are well-positioned to make resources and technical assistance available to local law enforcement to improve responses. </li></ul><ul><li>States allocate the vast majority of mental health resources. </li></ul><ul><li>State law authorizes police powers for emergency mental health evaluations and custody. </li></ul><ul><li>States are uniquely positioned to provide ongoing support to communities—not more state mandates, but incentives for innovative partnerships among law enforcement, the community, and the mental health system. </li></ul><ul><li>Statewide coordination can facilitate regional pooling of resources, which could particularly benefit rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>A statewide structure could help ensure that more than a smattering of jurisdictions will implement programs to improve responses to people with mental illnesses. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Disadvantages of statewide efforts <ul><li>It is possible to lose control over how programs are implemented, which may affect intended outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>They rely on persuading communities to activate programs across the state. This is in contrast to programs that are developed in response to local needs or challenges, which may affect sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>If they focus solely on CIT, they may not appeal to communities with different philosophies, resources or perceived problems, which may affect the number of communities that improve the police response to people with mental illnesses. </li></ul>
    13. 13. State presentations <ul><li>State representatives will detail their states’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lead organization; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategies for recruiting jurisdictions throughout the state; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanisms to ensure localities adhere to the core elements; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and assistance offered to localities to sustain their programs. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Contact Information <ul><li>Melissa Reuland </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Research Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.consensusproject.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.policeforum.org </li></ul><ul><li>Louise Pyers </li></ul><ul><li>Founder, Statewide CIT Program Coordinator and Executive Director </li></ul><ul><li>CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Mark R. Munetz, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Clark Morgan Endowed Chair of Psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Munetz <mmunetz@neoucom.edu> </li></ul><ul><li>Detective Ron Bruno </li></ul><ul><li>Statewide Cit Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Salt Lake City Police Department </li></ul><ul><li>ron.bruno@slcgov.com </li></ul>
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