When Harry Met Sally
Detecting Malingering On The Street <ul><li>Felicia Byars </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s Forensic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li...
What is Malingering? <ul><li>You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but ...
Acceptance of a Lie The whole truth and nothing but the truth so help me God… One of the “great sins” Spare a person pain ...
Types of Malingerer <ul><li>Traditional – to avoid responsibility/punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical – to place res...
Goals of Malingering <ul><li>Avoid responsibility/punishment/danger </li></ul><ul><li>Receive protection/compensation not ...
To Malinger…   or Not To Malinger <ul><li>Faking Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get out of trouble (NGRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Willful Deceit vs Altered Mental State <ul><li>Liar believes the lie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot/will not be exposed </li...
Malingering Styles <ul><li>Offensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created symptoms </li></ul...
<ul><li>How does “I don’t know” move from being a lie to malingering? </li></ul>Is it a lie or is it Malingering? Proposes...
Malingerers Tend To…. <ul><li>Repeat or answer questions slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat words exactly when asked to recou...
FBI Clues <ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives clear and articulate description of being confused </li></ul></ul><ul...
Over/Under Acting <ul><li>Think “made for television” </li></ul><ul><li>In a prison study… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more frig...
Absurd or Inconsistent Thoughts
Delusional “Norms” <ul><li>Often associated with hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of delusion correlates with s...
“ Norms” of Hallucination <ul><li>Hallucinations are usually associated with delusions (88%) * </li></ul><ul><li>Intermitt...
“ Norms” of Auditory Hallucination <ul><li>Clear, NOT vague </li></ul><ul><li>Can distinguish between men and women </li><...
“ Norms” of Visual Hallucinations <ul><li>Only occur between 24% to 30%, only reported about 4% of time by people with dia...
Command Hallucinations <ul><li>Usually present with noncommand hallucinations and delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual d...
“ Norms” of Olfactory Hallucinations <ul><li>They Stink! </li></ul>
I don’t remember…  <ul><li>Feeling of knowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How likely would you be to remember… </li></ul></ul><u...
Misc <ul><li>Faking “dumb” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the terms “probably”, “I don’t know”  </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed symptom ...
The Profile <ul><li>Non- Malingerer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom has a partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom planned c...
Let’s Practice <ul><li>Group Breakout… </li></ul>
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Detecting Malingering On The Street

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Detecting Malingering On The Street

  1. 1. When Harry Met Sally
  2. 2. Detecting Malingering On The Street <ul><li>Felicia Byars </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s Forensic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Adjunct Professor Holy Names University, Oakland CA </li></ul><ul><li>Patrol Officer, Menlo Park Police Department </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Malingering? <ul><li>You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time .” </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  4. 4. Acceptance of a Lie The whole truth and nothing but the truth so help me God… One of the “great sins” Spare a person pain or discomfort… Police can lie to get to the truth… The “I” disease…
  5. 5. Types of Malingerer <ul><li>Traditional – to avoid responsibility/punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical – to place responsibility for actions away from indindividual </li></ul><ul><li>Safety – company “fidges” results to enable product release </li></ul><ul><li>Health – pretends to be healthier than they really are </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority – to make ones self better in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Iatrogenic – blame symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>By proxy – adult <> child </li></ul>
  6. 6. Goals of Malingering <ul><li>Avoid responsibility/punishment/danger </li></ul><ul><li>Receive protection/compensation not otherwise available </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve retaliation against person/entity for real/perceived injury or illness </li></ul>NGRI Hospital vs Prison
  7. 7. To Malinger… or Not To Malinger <ul><li>Faking Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get out of trouble (NGRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$$$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faking Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent detention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Stigma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain a job </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Willful Deceit vs Altered Mental State <ul><li>Liar believes the lie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot/will not be exposed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not understand the lie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is internal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they (re)act? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Malingering Styles <ul><li>Offensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge provokes anger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove symptoms/problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to get away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge provokes fear </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>How does “I don’t know” move from being a lie to malingering? </li></ul>Is it a lie or is it Malingering? Proposes a false explanation for an event Seeks to be excused from any responsibility
  11. 11. Malingerers Tend To…. <ul><li>Repeat or answer questions slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat words exactly when asked to recount event </li></ul><ul><li>Show concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom remember things correctly/completely </li></ul><ul><li>Quick to admit their “problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to control the interview </li></ul>
  12. 12. FBI Clues <ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives clear and articulate description of being confused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Verbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical doesn’t match verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports hallucinations, while undistracted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison to Norms of psychotic behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over/Under acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absurd or inconsistent thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden onset of delusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confused description of hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eager to expose their symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered as excuse for blamelessness </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Over/Under Acting <ul><li>Think “made for television” </li></ul><ul><li>In a prison study… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more frightening and abusive, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more uncontrollable, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unbearably distressing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less predictable, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less context-dependent </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Absurd or Inconsistent Thoughts
  15. 15. Delusional “Norms” <ul><li>Often associated with hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of delusion correlates with sophistication of individual </li></ul><ul><li>Takes weeks to develop and longer to disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Individual exhibits corresponding paranoid behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Individual reluctant to discuss delusion </li></ul>
  16. 16. “ Norms” of Hallucination <ul><li>Hallucinations are usually associated with delusions (88%) * </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent rather than continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Can be interrupted by activity </li></ul><ul><li>56% of real psychotics agree hallucination could be due to imagination * </li></ul>*Lewinsohn  PM. 
  17. 17. “ Norms” of Auditory Hallucination <ul><li>Clear, NOT vague </li></ul><ul><li>Can distinguish between men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Real psychotics can identify </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex, race, age, and emotional state of the voice (sometimes the person) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The tone, volume, and rate of the voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most auditory hallucinations ask for an interaction or a response from the person </li></ul><ul><li>Usually originates outside the head (88%) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be malevolent or benevolent </li></ul>Goodwin  DW,  Anderson  P,  Rosenthal  R
  18. 18. “ Norms” of Visual Hallucinations <ul><li>Only occur between 24% to 30%, only reported about 4% of time by people with diagnosed psychosis </li></ul><ul><li>Normal sized people </li></ul><ul><li>Bright colors </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic hallucinations do not change when eyes are closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drug induced more readily seen when eyes closed/in dark </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Command Hallucinations <ul><li>Usually present with noncommand hallucinations and delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual does not always obey command, esp if dangerous </li></ul>
  20. 20. “ Norms” of Olfactory Hallucinations <ul><li>They Stink! </li></ul>
  21. 21. I don’t remember… <ul><li>Feeling of knowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How likely would you be to remember… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With more time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With hints? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With a recognition task? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect Memory Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is this word kn_ _ _? </li></ul></ul></ul>… it must be AMNESIA
  22. 22. Misc <ul><li>Faking “dumb” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the terms “probably”, “I don’t know” </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed symptom profile </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats question as answer </li></ul><ul><li>Gets angry when challenged </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Profile <ul><li>Non- Malingerer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom has a partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom planned crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malingerer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-psychotic alternative motive </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Let’s Practice <ul><li>Group Breakout… </li></ul>
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