1) an act by a member of a family or household against another member of the family or household that is intended to result in physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or sexual assault or that is a threat that reasonably places that member in fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or sexual assault, but does not include defensive measures to protect oneself
2) abuse by a member of a family or household toward a child of the family or household; or
3) dating violence
Section 71.003. Family: individuals related by consanguinity, or affinity, determined under sections 573.022 and 573.024, government code, individuals who are former spouses of each other, individuals who are the parents of the same child, without regard to marriage, and a foster child and a foster parent, without regard to whether those individuals reside together.
Assault P.C. 22.01: Person commits an offense if the person 1) intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly causes bodily injury to another, including the person’s spouse 2) intentionally or knowingly, threatens another with imminent bodily injury, including the person’s spouse or 3) intentionally or knowingly causes physical contact with another when the person knows or should reasonably believe that the other will regard the contact as offensive or provocative
New law recently passed in Texas that makes strangulation a felony offense. It used to be classified as a misdemeanor unless they passed out
View males as the antagonist (even when both were violent)
View the reporter as the victim (women are much more likely to report than men)
Exclusive focus on the result of the violence
Men tend to be removed from the home more than women because of childcare issues
Who are the most frequent offenders?
Women are at least as violent as men in intimate relationships, however…
“ women assailants will more likely throw something, slap, kick, bite, or punch their partner, or hit them with an object “
“ males will more likely beat up their partners, and choke or strangle them”
Dr. Gerald P. Koocher, American Psychology Association President
Domestic Violence is a Widespread Problem
According to the Bureau of Justice, 33% of all women killed in the United States are at the hands of a husband or boyfriend, and 4% of men murdered were by intimate partners.
Ninety-two percent of women who were physically abused by their partners did not discuss these incidents with their physicians; 57% did not discuss the incidents with anyone. Additionally, in four different studies of survivors of abuse, 70% to 81% of the patients studied reported that they would like their healthcare providers to ask them privately about intimate partner violence.
Panagiota V. Caralis & Regina Musialowski, Women's Experiences with Domestic Violence and Their Attitudes and Expectations Regarding Medical Care of Abuse Victims , 90 S. Med. J. 1075 (1997)
Pushing, shoving, grabbing, hair pulling, spanking, choking, holding against their will, forced sex
Yelling, calling names, insults, accusations of cheating, threatening to hurt victim/kids
Threatening suicide/homicide of self/spouse/kids; stalking; using money for drugs, financial control,
Isolation, jealousy, laughing at victim
Causes of Domestic Violence
Learned through observation
Learned in communities
Learned in culture or society
Learned through experience & reinforcement; there are few if any negative consequences
What Causes Domestic Violence? By TOBY D. GOLDSMITH, MD October 19, 2006 Domestic violence may start when one partner feels the need to control and dominate the other. Abusers may feel this need to control their partner because of low self-esteem, extreme jealousy, difficulties in regulating anger and other strong emotions, or when they feel inferior to the other partner in education and socioeconomic background. Some men with very traditional beliefs may think they have the right to control women, and that women aren’t equal to men. This domination then takes the form of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. Studies suggest that violent behavior often is caused by an interaction of situational and individual factors. That means that abusers learn violent behavior from their family, people in their community and other cultural influences as they grow up. They may have seen violence often or they may have been victims themselves. Children who witness or are the victims of violence may learn to believe that violence is a reasonable way to resolve conflict between people. Boys who learn that women are not to be valued or respected and who see violence directed against women are more likely to abuse women when they grow up. Girls who witness domestic violence in their families of origin are more likely to be victimized by their own husbands. Alcohol and other chemical substances may contribute to violent behavior. A drunk or high person will be less likely to control his or her violent impulses.
Jealousy and possessiveness
CONTROLLING of victim
Blames everyone else for his/her problems
Abuses drugs or alcohol
Pressures for sex
He/she is chronically depressed
History of bad relationship
Men should be in charge, women should be passive
Charming in public, but….
Power and Control Wheel
NON-THREATENING BEHAVIOR RESPECT TRUST AND SUPPORT HONESTY AND ACCOUNTABILITY RESPONSIBLE PARENTING ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP NEGOTIATION AND FAIRNESS SHARED RESPONSIBILITY EQUALITY NONVIOLENCE NONVIOLENCE
Violence in family of origin
Violence in public
Domestic violence in public
Deadly weapon (x5 risk of homicide)
Leaving the relationship (most dangerous time for a victim, esp first 2 months)
Victim is pregnant
Use of weapons
Tends to get more frequent and severe over time
Homicide or suicide threats
Use of alcohol or drugs
Recent separation in relationship
Effects on Victims
Shame & Guilt
Doubts her own sanity
Low self confidence
Trapped, powerless, exhausted
Psychological disorders – depression/anxiety
Reasons Victims Stay
Fear & intimidation
Lack of resources
Low self esteem
Misconceptions About Battering
Battering IS NOT Caused By Alcohol Or Drugs
Battering IS NOT Caused By The Relationship
Battering IS NOT Caused By The Victim
Battering IS NOT The Result Of A Batterer’s Being Out Of Control But Rather IS The Attempt Of The Batterer To Stay In Control
Domestic Violence and Children
Just over half of female victims of intimate violence live in households with children under 12.
It is estimated that between 3.3 million and 10 million children witness domestic violence annually and can have serious negative effects on children's development.
Signs of Domestic Violence in Children
Anxiety or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
“ Must have done something wrong”
Self-Blame by children: Guilt and worry
Younger children: behavioral issues (incl clingy and whiny)
Inability to concentrate
Eating difficulty, insomnia or nightmares
Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Many parents believe their children are not affected by the violence.
Just because the child is in another room or has gone to bed does not mean he/she cannot hear what is happening.
Children report waking up and sneaking out of their bedrooms to see what is happening.
Children are affected!
Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Internal & External
Guilt, fear, confusion
Verbal and Motor Skills
According to a 2000 study which interviewed the former and current partners of male batterers referred to batterer programs by the court:
41% of participants reported that the men committed a re-assault during the 30-month follow-up period.
Nearly 2/3 of the first time re-assaults occurred in the first 6 months.
About 20 percent of the men repeatedly re-assaulted their partners and account for most of the reported injuries.
Edward Gondolf, Reassault at 30-Months after Batterer Program Intake , 44 Int'l J. of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 111 (2000)
In an examination of 1,309 cases under a program mandate at the Bronx misdemeanor domestic violence court:
8% of the defendants were rearrested between the initial arrest and case disposition, 35% during the program mandate period, 31% during the one year following the end of the mandate and 44% during the two years following the mandate.
Overall, from the moment of index arrest to two years post release, 62 % of all defendants were rearrested.
Nora K. Puffett & Chandra Gavin, Ctr. for Ct. Innovation, Predictors of Program Outcome and Recidivism at the Bronx Misdemeanor Domestic Violence Court (2004)
Options for Victims of DV
Crisis response teams
Protective orders (86% success*)
Battered women’s shelter
Crime victim compensation
*Success means that violence stopped or was reduced as an effect of the protective order
Battered Person Syndrome
Chronic battering lowers self-esteem and causes depression
Causes loss of independent action that could prevent abuse (learned helplessness)
Don’t seek assistance, leave the relationship, or fight back
Is controversial, especially in the legal realm
Don’t forget about…
same-sex violence – some studies have found the rate to be higher than in heterosexual couples (39% vs. 22% in one study)
Patricia Tjaden & Nancy Thoennes, U.S. Dep't of Just., NCJ 181867, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey , at 30 (2000)
Carolyn Thomas, a 34-year-old former track star was shot in the face by an abusive ex-boyfriend who also killed her mother. She wears a mask-like bandage to protect her from infection and the stares of those who are ignorant of her experiences.
This is an undated photo of Carolyn Thomas before her face was destroyed in a shooting.
Carolyn Thomas must feed herself four times a day using a tube attached to her stomach.
This photo shows Janice Reeves, Carolyn Thomas' mother, who was shot dead by her daughter's boyfriend in 2003.
Carolyn Thomas reacts as prosecutor Crawford Long displays a .44 Magnum for her to identify during the trial of Terrence Kelly in Waco in April 2005. Terrence used the gun to shoot Thomas in the face.
Terrence Kelly leaves court April 15, 2005, in Waco. He was convicted of shooting Carolyn Thomas in the face and killing her mother in 2003. He is serving a life sentence.
With half her face shot off, it will take several surgeries to reconstruct her facial skull.
The first of several surgeries; the goal was to make sure Carolyn could breathe while preventing infection.
After having several skins grafts, where skin was removed from her back and legs, the jaw line was built and closed. An upper lip was also constructed.
During this process, a plaster mold is made of her face to build her a nose.
The area of the nose is built with a synthetic so as not to cause chaffing, making it easier for Carolyn to breathe.
Each day, she will have to glue the piece to her face to apply the synthetic nose.
Doctors constructed several noses attempting to match it to the original nose. Carolyn chose the one she felt most closely resembled her original nose.
Life Begins Anew!
She is the face of domestic violence. She travels the country sharing her story, teaching women, warning women, empowering women.