The relative importance of paternal
and maternal involvement as
predictors of adolescents’ home
internet use and usage
Dr....
Outline of the presentation
Introduction
Literature
Method
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Introduction
Within the family environment, parents are believed to be the media gatekeepers
of youth’s internet use and u...
Literature review
Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage
of adolescents
From the perspective of the family systems t...
Literature review
Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage
of adolescents
From the perspective of the family systems t...
Literature Review
Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage
of adolescents
Chinese and Korean mothers were more engaged...
Literature Review
Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and
usage of adolescents
This study focused on three important p...
Literature Review
Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and
usage of adolescents
Nikken and Jansz (2013) reported that p...
Literature Review
Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and
usage of adolescents
Parental warmth caused more use of the ...
Literature Review
Gender differences in parenting influence
Tucker, McHale, and Crouter (2003) examined fathers’ and mothe...
Literature Review
As a result of the above review, the following research question was posed:
 Research Question 1 (RQ1):...
Method
Sample and procedure
A convenient sample was collected from six secondary schools in Hong Kong.
Students completed ...
Method
Measures
Parental education was measured with two items. The two items asked the
highest education level of fathers...
Method
Measures
We used a parenting style scale that was developed and validated with parents
from Hong Kong and Shenzhen ...
Method
Analysis strategy
It is anticipated that the parenting variables of fathers and mothers could be
moderately to high...
Results
Table 1 presents the correlation matrix of all the variables involved in this study.
Whereas there existed signifi...
Results
  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1. INTU -                            
2. LRIU1 -.083* -                     ...
Results
The predictors did not significantly predicted the criterion internet use (F(12, 679)
= 1.093, p > .05).
The resul...
Results
Predictors Measures of predictor importance
All Males Females
Standardized
regression
Coefficient (β)
Importance
w...
Results
With the same criterion, further relative importance analyses were conducted for
males and females separately. For...
Results
Predictors Measures of predictor importance
All Males Females
Standardized
regression
coefficient (β)
Importance
w...
Results
For males, the most important predictor in explaining leisure-related internet
usage was maternal permission style...
Discussion
Irrespective of adolescent gender, maternal education level, parental monitoring
style, and parental worry styl...
Discussion
As far as leisure-related internet usage was concerned, maternal permission
style and paternal permission style...
Discussion
In general, Chinese families emphasise mothers’ responsibility and moral
obligation to nurture their children a...
Conclusion
This study investigated three crucial parenting variables that predicted youth
socialisation of internet use an...
Q & A Session
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you
very
much
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The Relative Importance of Paternal and Maternal Involvement as Predictors of Adolescents’ Home Internet Use and Usage

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Author
LAU, Wilfred W.F. (HKU); YUEN, Allan H.K. (HKU)
Abstract
This study examined three parenting variables (parental education, parental ICT literacy, and parenting style) predicting adolescents’ home internet use and usage using relative importance analysis. Design. Participants were 807 Secondary 1 (Grade 7) students who completed independent paper-based surveys in Hong Kong. Results. Irrespective of adolescent gender, maternal education, parental monitoring style, and parental worry style were the three most important predictors for learning-related internet usage. Male adolescents were highly influenced by maternal education and paternal parenting style whereas female adolescents were highly influenced by maternal parenting style and paternal education. For leisure-related internet usage, the three most important predictors were maternal permission style, paternal permission style, and paternal monitoring style. Maternal permission style and paternal permission style showed the highest importance for male adolescents. Maternal permission style, paternal ICT literacy, paternal monitoring style, and maternal worry style were the most important predictors for female adolescents. Conclusions. We discerned some generic parenting patterns and some specific parenting patterns with respect to adolescent gender. Mothers are relatively more important in the supervision of adolescents’ internet use and usage at home than are fathers.

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The Relative Importance of Paternal and Maternal Involvement as Predictors of Adolescents’ Home Internet Use and Usage

  1. 1. The relative importance of paternal and maternal involvement as predictors of adolescents’ home internet use and usage Dr. Wilfred W.F. Lau Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong 13 June 2014
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation Introduction Literature Method Results Discussion Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Within the family environment, parents are believed to be the media gatekeepers of youth’s internet use and usage. Parental mediation is one of the parenting practices used to interact with children about media use (Eastin, Greenberg, & Hofschire, 2006; Nathanson & Botta, 2003). Emphasis on parental involvement was still placed on the participation in the education matters and school life of children (DCSF, 2008; Harris & Goodall, 2007). This study intended to investigate beyond research about parental mediation and to explore parental involvement on youth’s internet use and usage. Although fathers and mothers play primary socialisation roles regarding internet use and usage at home, in some studies, they showed a moderate to high degree of congruence in parenting behaviours (Davidov & Grusec, 2006; Verhoeven, Junger, van Aken, Dekovic, & van Aken, 2007) but other studies indicate that their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours are rather different in certain facets of parenting (Adamsons & Buehler, 2007; Rhoades & O'Leary, 2007). It is thus imperative to understand the similarities and differences of fathering and mothering when it comes to youth’s internet use and usage.
  4. 4. Literature review Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents From the perspective of the family systems theory, children in a family constantly shaped and are shaped by other subsystems including parents, siblings, and the surrounding environmental context in a holistic manner (White & Klein, 2008). Parents as paramount socialisation agents in a family have a major influence on children’s physical, psychological, emotional, and social well-being. The differentiated roles played by fathers and mothers have undergone changes over the past two decades. Earlier studies showed that mothers were mostly portrayed as caregivers who provided warmth and nurturance whereas fathers usually played a more instrumental role in disciplining, financing, and protecting their offspring (Mackey, 1996; Stern, 1995). However, more recently, Phares, Fields, and Kamboukos (2009) found that mothers significantly spent more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Mothers were more responsible for adolescents’ discipline, daily care, and recreational activities than were fathers.
  5. 5. Literature review Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents From the perspective of the family systems theory, children in a family constantly shaped and are shaped by other subsystems including parents, siblings, and the surrounding environmental context in a holistic manner (White & Klein, 2008). Parents as paramount socialisation agents in a family have a major influence on children’s physical, psychological, emotional, and social well-being. The differentiated roles played by fathers and mothers have undergone changes over the past two decades. Earlier studies showed that mothers were mostly portrayed as caregivers who provided warmth and nurturance whereas fathers usually played a more instrumental role in disciplining, financing, and protecting their offspring (Mackey, 1996; Stern, 1995). However, more recently, Phares, Fields, and Kamboukos (2009) found that mothers significantly spent more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Mothers were more responsible for adolescents’ discipline, daily care, and recreational activities than were fathers.
  6. 6. Literature Review Parental roles in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents Chinese and Korean mothers were more engaged in the mediation and regulation of their children’s home ICT use compared with fathers under the influence of cultural conceptions and social expectations of motherhood and maternal responsibility in the two societies (Lim & Soon, 2010). Similar studies from other cultural contexts such as Australia (Singh, 2001), the US (Dholakia, 2006), and Israel (Ribak, 2001) also showed the dominant role of mothers in domestic ICT use and deployment to fulfil household obligations and duties. Therefore, we propose that the following hypothesis:  Hypothesis 1 (H1): Mothers are more influential in the supervision of children’s ICT use at home than are fathers.
  7. 7. Literature Review Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents This study focused on three important parenting variables that influence youth socialisation of internet use and usage at home: parental education, parental ICT literacy, and parenting style. Parental education was included as a parenting variable because it is conceptually related to cultural capital, which allows individuals to thrive in society (Bourdieu, 1977). Sun et al. (2005) showed a positive association between parental education level and home internet usage among adolescents. We therefore proposed the following hypothesis:  Hypothesis 2 (H2): Parental education level is positively associated with the level of internet use and usage at home.
  8. 8. Literature Review Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents Nikken and Jansz (2013) reported that parents who possessed more computer or internet skills were more likely to practice technical mediation on computers for online safety. Livingstone, Haddon, Görzig, and Ólafsson (2011) showed that children and parents had high agreement over parents’ use of technical measures to mediate their children’s internet use. From these findings, technical mediation is possibly associated with reduced internet use and usage, especially for highly ICT literate parents. On the other hand, Dincer (2012) found significant positive correlation between students’ and parents’ computer literacy. Appel (2012) illustrated that students’ computer literacy was related to more time spent on playing computer games. The more computer literate students were also frequent users of social media. These findings seem to infer that parental ICT literacy is linked with more internet use and usage among adolescents. In view of these inconclusive findings, we proposed the following hypothesis:  Hypothesis 3 (H3): Parental ICT literacy level is positively or negatively associated with the level of internet use and usage at home.
  9. 9. Literature Review Parenting influence in domestic ICT use and usage of adolescents Parental warmth caused more use of the internet for educational purposes and more positive internet behaviours (Lee & Chae, 2007). Lau and Yuen (in preparation) found that learning-related and leisure-related internet usages were positively related to parental warmth and parental control respectively. These formed our next two hypotheses:  Hypothesis 4 (H4): Parental warmth is positively associated with the level of learning-related internet usage at home.  Hypothesis 5 (H5): Parental control is positively associated with the level of leisure-related internet usage at home.
  10. 10. Literature Review Gender differences in parenting influence Tucker, McHale, and Crouter (2003) examined fathers’ and mothers’ differential treatment of their sons and daughters in five domains (privileges, chores, affection, discipline, and temporal involvement). There was only gender difference in parents’ differential temporal involvement. Mothers tended to spend significantly more time with first- and second-born girls whereas fathers tended to spend significantly more time with first- and second-born boys. The authors explained that “parents’ sex-typed involvement with their offspring may be linked to parents’ beliefs that they have more in common with or are more responsible for the socialization of their same-sex children. Offspring also may be more inclined to seek out their same-sex parents” (p. 87). We thus proposed the following hypotheses accordingly:  Hypothesis 6 (H6): Fathers are more involved in the supervision of their son’s ICT use and usage at home than are mothers.  Hypothesis 7 (H7): Mothers are more involved in the supervision of their daughter’s ICT use and usage at home than are fathers.
  11. 11. Literature Review As a result of the above review, the following research question was posed:  Research Question 1 (RQ1): What are the differences in paternal and maternal involvement in predicting adolescents’ home internet use and usage as expressed in terms of parental education, parental ICT literacy, and parenting style?
  12. 12. Method Sample and procedure A convenient sample was collected from six secondary schools in Hong Kong. Students completed a self-reported paper-based survey, which required about 10 minutes. The sample size was 807. There were 46.7% males and 46.3% females. Their ages ranged from 11 to 16 (mean = 12.81, SD = .908). Some students (6.9%) did not report their gender in the survey. Measures Internet use (INTU) was measured by a single item: “In the past two weeks, how many hours on average do you spend on computers / the internet at home every day?” The scale had range from 1 to 7 (1 = less than 1 hour, 2 = about 1 hour, 3 = about 2 hours, 4 = about 3 hours, 5 = about 4 hours, 6 = about 5 hours, 7 = more than 5 hours). Home internet usage was measured with respect to two dimensions, namely learning and leisure. The first variable called learning-related internet usage (LRIU1) contained 5 items while the second variable called leisure-related internet usage (LRIU2) contained 6 items. All the items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale (1: never to 5: always).
  13. 13. Method Measures Parental education was measured with two items. The two items asked the highest education level of fathers and mothers: 1 = completed primary school, 2 = completed secondary school, 3 = completed postsecondary college, 4 = completed university or above. Responses from the two items were collected in two variables, which were paternal education level (PEDU) and maternal education level (MEDU) respectively. Two items were developed to elicit perceived parental ICT literacy from adolescents’ perspective. The two items asked the ICT literacy of fathers and mothers: 1 = beginner, 2 = fair, 3 = good, 4 = very good, 5 = expert. The two corresponding variables for the item responses were paternal ICT literacy level (PLIT) and maternal ICT literacy level (MLIT) respectively.
  14. 14. Method Measures We used a parenting style scale that was developed and validated with parents from Hong Kong and Shenzhen (Lau & Yuen, 2013). The scale contains four subscales (encouragement, worry, monitoring, permission) and has demonstrated good reliability and validity. A 5-point Likert scale (1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree) was used for all the items in the instrument. For fathers, the four parenting style variables were paternal encouragement (PENC), paternal worry (PWOR), paternal monitoring (PMON), and paternal permission (PPER). For mothers, similar variables were created (maternal encouragement (MENC), maternal worry (MWOR), maternal monitoring (MMON), maternal permission (MPER)).
  15. 15. Method Analysis strategy It is anticipated that the parenting variables of fathers and mothers could be moderately to highly correlated. Other analytic approaches such as dominance analysis have been suggested to deal with the situation of multicollinearity so that the genuine importance pattern of a set of predictors can be restored (Azen & Budescu, 2003; Budescu, 1993). This study examined relative importance of the aforementioned parenting variables in predicting home internet use and usage of adolescents. Relative importance of a predictor is defined as its contribution to the overall model R2 after accounting for its unique and shared contributions with other predictors (Kraha, Turner, Nimon, Zientek, & Henson, 2012). Relative importance analysis adopts the variable transformation method to address the issue of multicollinearity among predictors (J.W. Johnson & LeBreton, 2004). In order to calculate estimates of relative importance (relative weight) in multiple linear regression, this study used an interactive online tool (http://relativeimportance.davidson.edu/multipleregression.html) provided by Tonidandel and LeBreton (2011).
  16. 16. Results Table 1 presents the correlation matrix of all the variables involved in this study. Whereas there existed significant but small positive correlations among the parenting style subscales for fathers and mothers respectively, the correlations between corresponding subscales of parenting style between fathers and mothers were very high and significant, ranging from .714 to .830. This justified the use of relative importance analysis in the current study. In the past two weeks at the time of survey, on average, students spent 2 to 3 hours on computers / the internet at home every day. They engaged in more leisure-related internet usage than learning-related internet usage. Fathers and mothers attained postsecondary education level. Fathers were more ICT literate compared with mothers. Fathers’ ICT literacy level was considered to be good while for mothers, their level was only fair. For both fathers and mothers, a clear pattern emerged in which the dominant parenting style was permission, which was followed by worry, monitoring, and encouragement.
  17. 17. Results   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. INTU -                             2. LRIU1 -.083* -                           3. LRIU2 .374** .245** -                         4. PEDU .004 -.097** -.069 -                       5. MEDU -.009 -.164** -.078* .633** -                     6. PLIT .006 -.008 -.029 .276** .198** -                   7. MLIT .008 -.033 -.009 .179** .237** .456** -                 8. PENC -.036 .144** -.015 .025 .019 .108** .097** -               9. PWOR .024 .178** .127** -.039 -.020 -.071 -.049 .119** -             10. PMON -.035 .186** .160** -.067 -.041 -.067 -.033 .115** .479** -           11. PPER .089* .093* .207** -.081* -.036 -.065 -.061 .281** .145** .079* -         12. MENC -.004 .140** -.024 -.030 .008 .025 .154** .714** .113** .076* .123** -       13. MWOR .024 .173** .149** -.067 -.069 -.038 -.080* .058 .830** .385** .116** .079* -     14. MMON -.042 .187** .156** -.061 -.086* -.038 -.047 .071 .367** .738** .119** .040 .486** -   15. MPER .060 .084* .232** -.119** -.073* -.119** -.068 .115** .109** .044 .740** .232** .133** .095* - Mean 3.432 2.704 2.951 3.121 2.923 2.974 2.401 2.710 3.229 3.148 3.501 2.647 3.315 3.314 3.459 SD 1.979 0.710 0.825 1.442 1.441 1.631 1.513 0.801 0.871 1.009 0.850 0.795 0.862 1.043 0.853 Table 1. Zero-order Correlations between Variables *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.
  18. 18. Results The predictors did not significantly predicted the criterion internet use (F(12, 679) = 1.093, p > .05). The results of the relative importance analysis for the influence of paternal and maternal parenting variables on learning-related internet usage are reported in Table 2. The predictors significantly predicted the criterion (F(12, 682) = 5.749, p < .001) and explained 9.187% of its variance. As the sum of the importance weights should be equal to the R2 of the model, predictors with higher importance weights contribute more to the R2 than those with lower importance weights. The rescaled importance weights are another measures obtained by dividing the importance weights by R2 . Using these measures, the most important predictor in explaining learning-related internet usage for the whole sample was maternal education level (19.854%), which was followed by paternal monitoring style (15.253%), maternal monitoring style (12.781%), paternal worry style (10.406%), and maternal worry style (10.363%).
  19. 19. Results Predictors Measures of predictor importance All Males Females Standardized regression Coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight Standardized regression coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight Standardized regression coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight PEDU 0.011 0.004 4.300 0.138 0.006 4.480 -0.121 0.009 15.213 MEDU -0.156 0.018 19.854 -0.268 0.034 24.822 -0.019 0.003 5.274 PLIT 0.064 0.003 2.869 0.022 0.001 0.382 0.099 0.007 11.618 MLIT -0.027 0.001 1.629 -0.018 0.002 1.577 -0.055 0.002 2.983 PENC 0.051 0.007 7.834 0.127 0.015 11.213 -0.035 0.003 4.392 PWOR 0.048 0.009 10.406 0.053 0.017 12.645 0.080 0.003 4.633 PMON 0.102 0.014 15.253 0.192 0.020 14.562 0.020 0.005 8.968 PPER 0.033 0.003 2.830 -0.045 0.003 2.331 0.098 0.003 5.235 MENC 0.077 0.009 9.969 0.021 0.009 6.728 0.142 0.011 17.819 MWOR 0.062 0.009 10.363 0.118 0.016 12.088 -0.044 0.002 2.837 MMON 0.036 0.012 12.781 -0.099 0.007 5.026 0.105 0.011 17.226 MPER 0.005 0.002 1.913 0.121 0.006 4.145 -0.118 0.002 3.802 Table 2. Relative Importance of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Variables on Learning-Related Internet Usage (LRIU1)
  20. 20. Results With the same criterion, further relative importance analyses were conducted for males and females separately. For males, the most important predictor in explaining learning-related internet usage was maternal education level (24.822%), which was followed by paternal monitoring style (14.562%), paternal worry style (12.645%), maternal worry style (12.088%), and paternal encouragement style (11.213%). For females, the most important predictor in explaining learning-related internet usage was maternal encouragement (17.819%), which was followed by maternal monitoring style (17.226%), paternal education level (15.213%), and paternal ICT literacy (11.618%). Similarly, the results of the relative importance analysis for the influence of paternal and maternal parenting variables on leisure-related internet usage are reported in Table 3. The predictors significantly predicted the criterion (F(12, 682) = 6.081, p < .001) and explained 9.667% of its variance. With reference to the rescaled importance weights, it is clear that the most important predictor in explaining leisure-related internet usage for the whole sample was maternal permission style (34.900%), which was followed by paternal permission style (21.291%), and paternal monitoring style (12.212%).
  21. 21. Results Predictors Measures of predictor importance All Males Females Standardized regression coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight Standardized regression coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight Standardized regression coefficient (β) Importance weight Rescaled importance weight PEDU 0.020 0.001 1.003 0.083 0.002 1.522 -0.029 0.002 1.767 MEDU -0.072 0.003 3.279 -0.130 0.008 7.829 -0.019 0.001 0.789 PLIT 0.052 0.002 1.627 -0.047 0.006 5.613 0.133 0.016 13.039 MLIT 0.020 0.000 0.365 0.020 0.001 0.515 0.023 0.002 1.495 PENC -0.006 0.002 1.897 -0.016 0.002 2.008 -0.007 0.003 2.403 PWOR -0.032 0.005 4.614 0.010 0.002 2.433 -0.095 0.006 4.863 PMON 0.144 0.012 12.212 0.087 0.008 8.099 0.188 0.015 11.955 PPER 0.052 0.021 21.291 0.107 0.029 28.816 -0.047 0.012 9.530 MENC -0.104 0.004 4.310 -0.092 0.004 3.766 -0.119 0.005 4.316 MWOR 0.110 0.007 7.301 0.012 0.002 2.201 0.204 0.013 10.510 MMON -0.020 0.007 7.201 0.036 0.006 6.302 -0.078 0.005 4.511 MPER 0.203 0.035 34.900 0.164 0.031 30.897 0.270 0.042 34.822 Table 3. Relative Importance of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Variables on Leisure-Related Internet Usage (LRIU2)
  22. 22. Results For males, the most important predictor in explaining leisure-related internet usage was maternal permission style (30.897%), which was followed by paternal permission style (28.816%). For females, the most important predictor in explaining leisure-related internet usage was maternal permission style (34.822%), which was followed by paternal ICT literacy (13.039 %), paternal monitoring style (11.955%), and maternal worry style (10.510%).
  23. 23. Discussion Irrespective of adolescent gender, maternal education level, parental monitoring style, and parental worry style were found to be the three most important predictors of learning-related internet usage in descending order of importance. For leisure-related internet usage, the three most important predictors in ranked order were maternal permission style, paternal permission style, and paternal monitoring style. H1 was supported. These findings highlight the relative important role of mothers in the supervision of children’s ICT use at home (Lim & Soon, 2010) and are consistent with other related studies conducted in different cultures (Dholakia, 2006; Ribak, 2001; Singh, 2001). With regard to learning-related internet usage, some gendered-based parenting influence seemed to affect usage. Male adolescents tended to be influenced more by maternal education and paternal parenting style. Female adolescents tended to be influenced more by maternal parenting style and paternal education. These provided some evidence to support H2, H4, H6, and H7.
  24. 24. Discussion As far as leisure-related internet usage was concerned, maternal permission style and paternal permission style showed the highest importance for male adolescents. Maternal permission style, paternal ICT literacy, paternal monitoring style, and maternal worry style were highly important predictors for female adolescents. H5 was supported. H3 was supported for female adolescents in which paternal ICT literacy level was positively associated with leisure-related internet usage. More importantly, it is imperative to understand the influence of cultural conceptions and social expectations of motherhood and maternal responsibility in the current context (Lim & Soon, 2010). Lim and Soon revealed that in Chinese and Korean societies, mothers participated more in the mediation and regulation of their children’s home ICT use than did fathers.
  25. 25. Discussion In general, Chinese families emphasise mothers’ responsibility and moral obligation to nurture their children as caregivers (Leung & Shek, 2012). Mothers are usually self-sacrificial and even forego their personal needs in order to satisfy their children’s desires. They are more concerned about the educational performance of their children. They realise that ICT use at home can enhance academic and social competence among children and yet express worry over their internet-related misbehaviours. Increasingly, mothers like fathers have to work outside the home to support family financial well-being. This socio-cultural context places mothers in Hong Kong in a very challenging position in contemporary family environment where technologies are heavily domesticated.
  26. 26. Conclusion This study investigated three crucial parenting variables that predicted youth socialisation of internet use and usage at home: parental education, parental ICT literacy, and parenting style. We further distinguished between paternal and maternal parenting styles to examine their differential effects on adolescents’ home internet use and usage. We discerned some generic parenting patterns and some specific parenting patterns with respect to adolescent gender. The onus for establishing a positive ICT use at home lies on the mutual endeavour of parents and children to appropriate, objectify, incorporate, and convert (Silverstone et al., 1992) technological artefacts into socio-cultural products for harmonious integration into household practices.
  27. 27. Q & A Session Thank you very much

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