Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo113/05/13New Literacies andTransformative Learning EnvironmentsOla Er...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo213/05/13Why literacy? It is the fundamental way of human knowledgec...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo313/05/13 Kutiman http://thru-you.com/#/intro/ Lasse Gjertsen: ww...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo413/05/13New media – new affordances “My girls are academically weak...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloOutline1. Changing literacies2. Media/digital literacy3. The School a...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo613/05/131. Changing literacies
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloCultural-historic approches to literacy An expressive element throug...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloNew Literacy Studies• Classical studies• Studying social practices (B...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo913/05/13Literacy as social praxis”Socially recognized ways of genera...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1013/05/13Barton & Hamilton (1998). Ecologicalperspective on literacy...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1113/05/13NEW literacies? New social practices that emerge due to te...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloDigital Youth: US - Europe EU Kids Online 60 % goes online every da...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1313/05/13ICT use at home ICT use at school- A majority of the studen...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloNetworking, content creation, remixing,sharing(Diakopoulos, 2006)1413...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1513/05/132. Media/digital literacy
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloFrom the margins to the core Within media studies in schools from th...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1713/05/13Basic skills Be able to open software, sort out and save in...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1813/05/13Dimensions of digital literacyDimension 1 Skills in using I...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1913/05/13Dimension 1: Skills in using ICT Computer driving liscence...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2013/05/13Dimension 2: ICT as a knowledge domain The history of tech...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2113/05/13Dimension 3: ICT and knowledgeconstruction within different...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2213/05/13Dimension 4: ICT and learning strategies,information litera...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2313/05/13Dimension 5: ICT and digitalbildung/citizenship ”Bildung t...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2413/05/133. The School and Transformative LearningEnvironments
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloDevelopments Access Implementation Use (differences in and out of ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTime and Space – within and acrosslearning environments On places an...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloLearning environments – boundary crossing What is a learning environ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2813/05/134. Examples
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloA) Online-offline learning environments:Space2cre8B) Connected learni...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo’Space2cre8‘(www.space2cre8.com)A social networking site, like Faceb...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3113/05/13’Space2cre8’ - Norway 29 students in one 8. grade class (1...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTwo muslim girlsGirl 1: KuynaFrom Kurdistan (Iraq). Attends Koran sch...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTwo muslim girlsGirl 2: YasminBorn and raised in Norway, family from ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTheme 1: New spaces – new possibilities School oriented (Yasmin): “...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3513/05/13Yasmin: School orientedYa: hello check out the IUP thing (i...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3613/05/13Kunya: Friendship orientedN: HiN: hiKu: hiKu: what time is ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTheme 2: Content creation Positionings and identity markers Represe...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloMaking a video, shared on Space2cre8 Kunya takes an active role Vid...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4013/05/13Findings Personal trajectories. Becomes a different kind o...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloB) ICT and literacy through ‘Learning Lives’ Not only looking at the...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloThe Learning Lives project3 Cohorts: age groups 5-6y, 15-16y and 18-...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloGirl West (ethnic-Norwegian)Monday:I got up around 6.30. I was awaken...
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloExample Video: ‘Love the way you lie, Hedda’ Project about Ibsen’s ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4513/05/13
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4613/05/135. Implications
Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloHow literacy practices challenge Assessment: What are we assessing a...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo’The Expanded Classroom’ New literacies and transformative learning ...
Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4913/05/13Thank you!
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New literacies and Transformative Learning Environments

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Professor Ola ERSTAD, Institute for Educational Research, University of Oslo, Norway

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New literacies and Transformative Learning Environments

  1. 1. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo113/05/13New Literacies andTransformative Learning EnvironmentsOla ErstadInstitute of Educational Research,University of Oslo, Norway
  2. 2. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo213/05/13Why literacy? It is the fundamental way of human knowledgecreation. It is an area where new cultural tools will have animpact.
  3. 3. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo313/05/13 Kutiman http://thru-you.com/#/intro/ Lasse Gjertsen: www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzqumbhfxRo
  4. 4. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo413/05/13New media – new affordances “My girls are academically weak because they both havedyslexia and during the years in primary school they havestruggled all the time with not being able to provethemselves in any subject oriented way. I think it wasincredibly positive for them to come here . . . to be able towork on computers and film and edit and such things.They have done a bit of that at home before, so they hadknowledge that the other students could get from them,and through that they got a higher status in the group. Sofor them it has been like . . . I don’t know . . . almost like anew life. It is very important that they gain ownership oftheir work. I think that is one of the keys to createengagement. For adults it is like this, and I do not thinkthis is different for children.” (Mother of 13 year old girls)
  5. 5. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloOutline1. Changing literacies2. Media/digital literacy3. The School and Transformative Learning Environments4. Examples5. Implications513/05/13
  6. 6. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo613/05/131. Changing literacies
  7. 7. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloCultural-historic approches to literacy An expressive element throughout human history.(Walter Ong; Orality-Literacy, Jerome Bruner; ‘theexternalization tenet’) Interrelationship between humans and mediational means.Example maritime navigation instruments (Roger Säljö) Developments of materials for writing and reading New technologies – new affordances (information access,communication, content creation, sharing)713/05/13
  8. 8. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloNew Literacy Studies• Classical studies• Studying social practices (Brice Heath, Scribner & Cole,Street)• Local literacies (David Barton & Mary Hamilton, 1998)• New London Group, ‘Multiliteracies’ (Cope & Kalantzis,2000)• New literacy studies (Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear & Leu, 2010)813/05/13
  9. 9. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo913/05/13Literacy as social praxis”Socially recognized ways of generating,communicating and negotiating meaningfulcontent through the medium of encoded textswithin contexts of participation in Discourses(or, as members of Discourses).”(Lankshear and Knobel, 2006)
  10. 10. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1013/05/13Barton & Hamilton (1998). Ecologicalperspective on literacySix propositions that frame their concept of literacy as a social practice,and their ethnographic study:(a) Literacy is best understood as a set of social practices; these can beinferred from events that are mediated by written texts;(b) there are different literacies associated with different domains of life;(c) literacy practices are patterned by social institutions and powerrelationships, and some literacies become more dominant, visible, andinfluential than others;(d) literacy practices are purposeful and embedded in broader social goalsand cultural practices;(e) literacy is historically situated; and(f) literacy practices change, and new ones are frequently acquiredthrough processes of informal learning and sense making.
  11. 11. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1113/05/13NEW literacies? New social practices that emerge due to technologicaldevelopments. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) What it means to read and write? (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005) Access to and interpreting information Ways of expressing oneself through symbolic systems Challenges schooling and traditional conceptions ofknowledge production.
  12. 12. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloDigital Youth: US - Europe EU Kids Online 60 % goes online every day (age 9-16) 76 % are watching video clips 62 % engage in instant messaging 83 % are playing games 59 % have a social networking profile PEW Internet and American Life Project (‘Super-users’) Cultural differences. Norway, less content creation than inthe US.1213/05/13
  13. 13. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1313/05/13ICT use at home ICT use at school- A majority of the students have betteraccess to computers at home than atschool.- Students use computers on moreadvanced tasks at home than at school.- Students use more time with thecomputer at home than at school.- Boys spend more time with thecomputer at home than girls.- The teachers use the computer for thesame purposes at home as at school.- Male teachers spend more time usingthe computer at home than femaleteachers.- Male and female teachers spend asmuch time with the computer at home forpreparing school work.- Many students get parents, siblings andfriends to help doing home work with thecomputer at home.- Computers are mostly used at school tosearch the Internet and text-basedservices by both students and teachers.- There are small differences betweengender in how computers are used , bothamong students and teachers.- The students use computers at schoolmostly in connection with project work.- Teachers mostly use computers atschool to prepare their teaching.- Computers are not much integrated insubject domains, all levels.- More than 50% of the students reportthat they use computers at school lessthan one hour per week integrated insubject activities.- The teachers spend more time withcomputers at school than students.From one survey (Erstad et al., 2005), with students age 14 and 17 (n=2330) andteachers (n=762),
  14. 14. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloNetworking, content creation, remixing,sharing(Diakopoulos, 2006)1413/05/13
  15. 15. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1513/05/132. Media/digital literacy
  16. 16. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloFrom the margins to the core Within media studies in schools from the 1980s Since end of 1990s one of the key aspects of 21stcenturycompetencies Written as one of eight key competencies by the EU(KeyCoNet project) In the national curriculum of Norway1613/05/13
  17. 17. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1713/05/13Basic skills Be able to open software, sort out and save information on thecomputer, and other simple skills in using the computer and softwareDownload Be able to download different information types from the InternetSearch Know about and how to get access to informationNavigate Be able to orient oneself in digital networks, learning strategies inusing the InternetClassify Be able to organize information according to a certain classificationscheme or genre.Integrate Be able to compare and put together different types of informationrelated to multomodal textsEvaluate Be able to check and evaluate if one has got the information oneseeks to get from searching the Internet. Be able to judge the quality,relevance, objectivity and usefulness of the information one hasfound. Critical evaluation of sources.Communicate Be bale to communicate information and express oneself throughdifferent mediational means.Cooperate Be able to take part in netbased interactions of learning, and takeadvantage of digital technology to cooperate and take party innetworksCreate Be able to produce and create different forms of information asmultimodal texts, make web pages, and so forth. Be able to developsomething new by using specific tools and software. Sharing.
  18. 18. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1813/05/13Dimensions of digital literacyDimension 1 Skills in using ICTDimension 2 ICT as a specific knowledge domainDimension 3 ICT integrated in different subject domainsDimension 4 ICT and strategies of learningDimension 5 Digital bildung / Citizenship
  19. 19. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo1913/05/13Dimension 1: Skills in using ICT Computer driving liscences Basic understanding of ICT Using computers and operative systems Word programming Spreadsheets Database Presentation and drawing programs Internet and e-mail Certificate of skills
  20. 20. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2013/05/13Dimension 2: ICT as a knowledge domain The history of technological development: Todays media have a prehistorythat most young people are not aware of. Media and power: Digital media are essential sources of power in oursociety. Who are controlling the access to information? Form and content: Modes of communication. Design. What iscommunicated? Media genres: How different media develop different genres. The use of different media: How children, youth and adults use differentmedia for different purposes, the meaning making process involved andsocial consequences.
  21. 21. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2113/05/13Dimension 3: ICT and knowledgeconstruction within different subjectsEven though you are not good at drawing you can show what you are good forwhen you use computers. That is good. (student, Møre & Romsdal)I believe Robo Lab makes it easier to understand how things work, and I believeit is easier to understand mathematics and physics when you see things ‘inthe natural life’. But I believe it is important the teacher is there with us.(student, Møre & Romsdal)In biology we got in and looked at diseases. We found a lot about new methodsof treatment and medicines. It came out after out book was written. Welearned a lot from it, but what we find on the Internet is not defined as part ofthe curriculum. (student, West-Agder)
  22. 22. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2213/05/13Dimension 4: ICT and learning strategies,information literacy Interviewer: Could you have worked the same way if you had not hadcomputers? Boy: Not at all. Interviewer: Why not? Boy: Because we learn much more on the Internet. Girl: Yes, more interesting. Because it is so boring to go to the library tofind a book and look through. It is easier and it is more fun. Interviewer : Yes. Do you think it is easier to find information on theInternet? Girl: Yes, I think so. Interviewer: But everything on the Internet is not the same quality. Do youknow when you discover the good pages and what is correct informationand so forth? Boy: If you search on Kvasir (browser), then it is mostly the things on thetop that are correct. The things below are just stupid things that just camealong.
  23. 23. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2313/05/13Dimension 5: ICT and digitalbildung/citizenship ”Bildung today can be described as interface. Interface is, asthe word states, a border. It is not first of all about the self orculture, but about the interface where they meet.Technocultural bildung should, as the classical understanding,be a basic idea about bildung for humanity, like the literatehuman being. The challenge is to transform the classicalconcept of bildung’s triade - the self, the world and thetransformation - to the interfaces of technology and humanityand for the subject as distributed and situated. Thetechnoculture is the culture of meeting spaces.” (Løvlie 2003) Being a literate person in a digital age! Reflection and action
  24. 24. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2413/05/133. The School and Transformative LearningEnvironments
  25. 25. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloDevelopments Access Implementation Use (differences in and out of school) Media literacies/competencies 21st Century Skills Policy. No more action plans. Embedded in the curriculum,but what now? A more holistic perspective needed.
  26. 26. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTime and Space – within and acrosslearning environments On places and spaces for learning (Bekerman, Burbules & Keller,2006; Gruenewald, 2003) On context (M. Cole, 2006; van Oers, 2009) Timescales (Lemke, 2000) New literacies ’Bridging out-of-school literacies with classroom practice’ (Hull & Schultz,2002) ’Spatializing literacy research and practice’ (Leander & Sheehy, 2004)2613/05/13
  27. 27. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloLearning environments – boundary crossing What is a learning environment/space? (People, activities,resources, content, outcomes) Online - Offline In and out of school Towards studying literacy and knowledge practices acrosscontexts
  28. 28. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo2813/05/134. Examples
  29. 29. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloA) Online-offline learning environments:Space2cre8B) Connected learning across contexts:Learning Lives2913/05/13
  30. 30. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo’Space2cre8‘(www.space2cre8.com)A social networking site, like Facebook. Made atUC Berkeley (Glynda Hull).S28 is a social networking site that connects 12 to18-year-old students in India, Norway, Australia,South Africa, UK and the US.
  31. 31. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3113/05/13’Space2cre8’ - Norway 29 students in one 8. grade class (13-14 years old) During one academic year. English lessons. The school is located in a suburban low income area ofOslo, high percentage of non-western immigrants, andmore than 40% of those living in the area are under the ageof 19. Classroom observations (fieldnotes,video observations, interaction analysis,’postings on S28’). Interviews.
  32. 32. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTwo muslim girlsGirl 1: KuynaFrom Kurdistan (Iraq). Attends Koran school in the afternoons andweekends, and wears a hijab at school. At school, Kuyna appears tobe a relatively quiet and withdrawn, but values being with friends.Uses her computer, at home, for a couple of hours per day, playinggames, chatting via MSN, and doing homework. Likes Kurdish musicand Arabic films. She does not use e-mail or Facebook profile, butchats with friends and family living in Iraq. She perceives S28 assafer compared to other commercial sites. She had 75 friends out ofa total of 162 members on S28.3213/05/13
  33. 33. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTwo muslim girlsGirl 2: YasminBorn and raised in Norway, family from Turkey. She neither wears ahijab nor goes to Koran school. An ambitious, active student andgets good grades. Interest in becoming an architect. Yasmin usesher computer for about two hours per day, uses MSN to chat withher friends and and visits Facebook and Biip.no frequently (one ofthe most popular Norwegian social networking sites). Her profilename in S28 is Yasminx3u-. She has added an “x” and a “3” to hername to symbolize a heart, and a “u” and a “–” (hyphen) becauseshe thinks it looks nice. She often changes her profile picturebecause she wants to use the most recent photo of herself.3313/05/13
  34. 34. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTheme 1: New spaces – new possibilities School oriented (Yasmin): “If it had marks I would have been working muchharder.” Friendship oriented (Kunya): “If I had Facebook, I don’t have, but if I had, and someoneadded me, and I didn’t know the person, then I wouldn’ttalk to it, but this here is like school x or what it is, likefrom school, I feel that, it is like better to talk” (Kunya)3413/05/13
  35. 35. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3513/05/13Yasmin: School orientedYa: hello check out the IUP thing (individual education plan)where you can see which grade you have in the differentsubjects and stuff, but only the subjects in where wehad L (teacher) for example in religion and stuffYa: She says what results we have got in tests.Ya: She says I am glaying [gligger] a 5 in written Norwegian:D:D:D:D:D.Ya: I am laying on, I ment.Om: Good.Ya: Check out you too.Om: I will og into my IUP thing (individual education plan) tocheck.Ya: Ok.Om: Just wait a little bit.Ya: Wait, I will check out Am`s.Ya: hahahahaOm: hahahahaOm: I am laying on 4+.Om: That`s because of not so good fantasy.Om: Where is Am laying?Om: Where is Amal laying?Om: Where are you in laying in natural science?Om: I`m laying on 5.Ya: Ahhaha.Ya: Am is laying in 2-3 in religionYa: And 3- in NorwegianYa: HahahahahahYa: LolOm: hahahaha
  36. 36. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo3613/05/13Kunya: Friendship orientedN: HiN: hiKu: hiKu: what time is it thereKu: ?N: hiN: its 9 in da morninKu: :ON: wat time is it there?Ku: its 18.20Ku: 18.30N: oN r u a boy or a girlKu: i am a girlN o...niceN how old r u?Ku: 13 how old are youKu: ??N 13, tooN where r u from?Ku: okKu: IraqN reallyKu: hehe yesN is it like really hectic there?N u kno, wit all da war and stuffN wats it like there?Ku: Im not actually from iraqN wel...then where r u from?Ku: I am from kurdistan but it is not a country butbut Kurdistan is in IraqN oKu: yesN so r u in kurdistan rite now?Ku: now i am in NorwayKu: i live in Norway
  37. 37. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloTheme 2: Content creation Positionings and identity markers Representing Youth and Identity by Making Movies The case of Kunya School project on ’Youth and Alcohol’3713/05/13
  38. 38. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloMaking a video, shared on Space2cre8 Kunya takes an active role Video; ’Have you forgotten? I am a muslim!’ First half filming one person chatting with a friend on’Space2cre8’ Second half about a girl who is pressured into drinkingalcohol and parents reactions Moral dilemmas about being a muslim girl. A ’true’ story fromher own community Created discussions within the network3813/05/13
  39. 39. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo
  40. 40. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4013/05/13Findings Personal trajectories. Becomes a different kind of resource fordifferent kinds of students. (School - Friendship) For some students the social networking site became a thirdspace (E. Moje) that provided them with opportunities to useresources from a wide range of practices. (Content creation aspotential for empowerment) As a school activity. A web of formal and informal activities(Vasbø, Silseth & Erstad, 2013)
  41. 41. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloB) ICT and literacy through ‘Learning Lives’ Not only looking at the technology per se. Breaking the ’classroom as container’ metaphor. Learning as’intersections‘. Expansive learning (Engeström, 2009). New conditions created bydigital technologies. Two dimensions: Vertical axis: Critical moments of transitions within the school as asystem Horisontal axis: Follow learners from school into the communityand their everyday practices
  42. 42. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloThe Learning Lives project3 Cohorts: age groups 5-6y, 15-16y and 18-19y.Informants: 20 children/youngsters and their families in eachcohort.Ethnographic approach, using different methods.(videotaped events and fieldnotes across settings, Interviews in(pre)-school, at home and at leisure time activities, online questionaire, dataproduced by the informants)From qualitative to a quantitative study
  43. 43. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloGirl West (ethnic-Norwegian)Monday:I got up around 6.30. I was awakened by the terrible sound from my mobile. The firstthing I did was to get dressed and make breakfast before I sat down with the breakfast infront of the PC. I then checked Facebook, even though I know that very few updates cameduring the night or that early in the morning, but it has become a habit. A bad habit! I wentinto by blog to update it.At school today, we visited the “Clinic for Health and Sexuality Education” with the class.At the clinic, I took a number of photos of my friends with my camera that I later mightuse for my blog or just as nice and funny memories. When I came back to school after themain recess at noon, I sat in the computer lab to find some information about the Cubacrisis for a test in social sciences tomorrow.When I arrived home from school, I uploaded the photos I took during the school day tomy PC and edited some of them with Photoshop. Since I have problems to leave thingsaside that I think are fun, I continued making some web designs in Photoshop, because it isone of my hobbies. In addition, I am a bit upset because my MSN does not work after acrash with Windows Vista and the newest MSN. Ahh, I should pull myself together… It isjust an awful small luxury problem! Later on, I sat down and read in the social sciencebook and wrote notes on the computer because of a test tomorrow. When I finished thenotes, I printed them out in order to read them again. At 18:00, I have extra math. At thisteacher’s, I get help with assignments I believe are difficult and to understand theconnection between different themes better. Before I went home after extra math, I boughtCostume, a magazine I read every month. This magazine I read in bed before I lie down tosleep. When I came home, I put on a TV series that I like a lot. It runs on MTV and iscalled The Hills, but I have several season packages (DVDs) at home, which I put on whenI am tired or do not have anything special to do. I have also downloaded some music to myiPod and it is charged now, tonight, because I like to listen to my iPod when I am going tosleep. Now I have some new music! Goodnight
  44. 44. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloExample Video: ‘Love the way you lie, Hedda’ Project about Ibsen’s play ‘Hedda Gabler’ Students in language education and Media andCommunication studies Drawing on different resources, beyond the immediatelearning environment of the classroom Teacher’s assessment, combined Norwegian teacher andMedia and Communication teacher4413/05/13
  45. 45. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4513/05/13
  46. 46. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4613/05/135. Implications
  47. 47. Institute of Educational Research, University of OsloHow literacy practices challenge Assessment: What are we assessing and how? Curriculum development: How does it cater for theinterrelationship between knowledge practices inside andoutside of school using digital technologies? Teacher education: Literacy practices across contexts issomething teachers deal with in the classroom, but whichteacher education does not prepare them for.4713/05/13
  48. 48. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo’The Expanded Classroom’ New literacies and transformative learning environments: Mobility created by digital media influences teachingand learning. We need to better understand how activities areconnected for learners to understand teaching andlearning with ICT. The classroom is not an isolated learning space. Teachers need better strategies on how to take advantageof the digital experiences of students.
  49. 49. Institute of Educational Research, University of Oslo4913/05/13Thank you!

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