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Instructors’ adoption and implementation of Moodle in higher education
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Instructors’ adoption and implementation of Moodle in higher education



5 March 2010 (Friday) | 17:00 - 17:20 | http://citers2010.cite.hku.hk/abstract/41 | LEI, Chunlin, HKU / Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade

5 March 2010 (Friday) | 17:00 - 17:20 | http://citers2010.cite.hku.hk/abstract/41 | LEI, Chunlin, HKU / Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade



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Instructors’ adoption and implementation of Moodle in higher education Instructors’ adoption and implementation of Moodle in higher education Presentation Transcript

  • Instructors’ Adoption and Implementation of Moodle in Higher Education
    LEI Chunlin*
    * Acknowledgements to Sharon Lin, Dr Lu & Dr Jan
  • Structure
    Background to the research
    Theoretical literature review
    Research question
    Research method
    Preliminary results
    Implications and limitations
  • Background to research *
    Course Management System (CMS) is widely used in higher education
    The University in our study has gone through different CMSs, Lotus Dominos, Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (IVLE) and Interactive Learning Network (ILN)
    Now, faculty shift to Moodle (Modular Object-oriented Dynamic Learning Environment)
    higher institutions’ reluctance towards change (West et al. 2007)
    tried Moodle with instructors in a particular Depart.
    Goal: understand the experiences of the instructors in the Division of IT Studies as they adopted and implemented Moodle in their teaching
  • Background to research
    Research studying adoption and diffusion of new technologies in higher educational contexts, (from the faculty’s perspectives), still narrow in scope
    Knowing the successes and challenges helps administrators adjust policies accordingly and minimize risk
    See that change is not brought about for the sake of change; change is taken place when research shows that it can improve learning outcome or efficiency of learning (adapted from Malikowski, 2008).
  • Literature review
    Jackson (1998) suggests three stages in innovative projects about which judgments can be made: intentions, implementation and outcomes
    Everett Rogers (2003) provides an Innovation Decision Modelfor understanding the decision and adoption of an innovation
    5 stages
    implementation and
  • Literature review
    Technology Adoption Model in explaining individual’s technology adoption process
    “perceived usefulness”
    and “perceived ease of use” (Davis, 1989)
    + more variables
    “technical support”
    and “attitude and acceptance of the technology”
    How technological innovation is being known, adopted, implemented, and confirmed or rejected
  • Research questions
    Understanding the instructors’ experiences as they adopt and implement Moodle in their teaching.
    What do they know about Moodle?
    What do they do with Moodle?
    What factors enhance / hamper their use of Moodle?
    What do they see the potentials and challenges of shift from ILN to Moodle in the Faculty?
  • Research method
    Participants: instructors teaching in ITS, n=10
    Procedure and data source:
    Semi-structured interview with technical manager
    questionnaire survey
    20 multiple choice/Likert scale questions
    2 open-ended questions
    sequenced by a process of “Knowledge – Decision/Adoption – Implementation/ Actual Use – Confirmation”
    The online Vanguard Vista™Survey System
    Valid: n=8
  • Preliminary results
    1. Knowledge about CMSs and Moodle
  • diversified experiences with CMSs or e-learning Systems
    Get to know Moodle not only through administrators (37.5%),
    but also friends (25%), self-interest (25%), or research project (12.5%)
    Expert Vs. novice users
    “ran a BBS in 1980s, utilized almost all of the Moodle functions in our survey list, (teaching content such as PPT, forums, chats, messaging, quizzes, grades and scales, assignments, glossaries, Wiki, blogs, surveys and choices, mindmap, brainstorm, non-standard activities)”
  • Preliminary results
    2. Decision-making/adoption of Moodle
  • a top-down decision
    Reasons for adoption
    management decision (75%)
    but also
    colleagues’ recommendation (87.5%)
    self- efficacy (50% seeing the beauty of Moodle)
    familiarity with CMSs helps to explain why it works
    (87.5%) Moodle is overall better than ILN
    half received 1~2 hrs training before using Moodle, other half had no training at all
    62.5% believe that training is “useful”/ “very useful”, others “little use”/ “useless”
    findings corresponded to the interview with technical manager
  • Preliminary results
    3. Implementation /actual use of Moodle
  • Time spent on Moodle
    37.5% >5 hrs per week; 25% 3~4 hrs; 12.5% 1~2 hrs; 25%<1 hr
    Moodle functions utilized
    Co-related with time, >5 hrs (n=3), used 14, 8, 7 functions
    <2 hrs (n=3), used 11, 6, 5 functions
    Most-used functions
    teaching content such as PPT(100%)
    assignment (87.5%) and forum (87.5%)
    survey and choices (62.5%), Wiki (62.5%)
    (87.5%) expect more functional features from Moodle
    Time spent on Moodle-discussion
    (n=5) Participated more or less, in the forum discussion
    (n=1) did not use the forum-discussion
    social constructivist pedagogy
  • Preliminary results
    To what extent do Moodle's functions satisfy your teaching needs?
    moderately satisfied
    fully satisfied
    4. Confirmation of Moodle
  • (87.5%) Moodle is “obviously advantageous” or “advantageous” over other CMSs
    high rate (100%) satisfaction over Moodle
    (100%) would like to “recommend” / “strongly recommend” Moodle to their colleagues/friends
    (87.5%) satisfied/fully satisfied teaching needs
    (87.5%) agreed /strongly agreed Moodle is user friendly & easy to use
    (75%) thought Moodle is technically stable
    (25%) reported few slight technical problems with Moodle
  • Preliminary results
    5. Potentials and challenges of Moodle
    • facilitating communication – the discussionMahara
    • user friendly – easy to manager, distribute, and present different types of materials. [building quiz question bank, online assignments or grading, better visualization, etc]
    • fulfilling the social constructivist pedagogy – emphasis on tasks, learning by doing, discussion, sharing & collaboration
    • compatibility with applications – ways to embed contents from different sources such as Youtube or Google Docs
    • shortening lecturing time to a large extent – only a small step to fully online session.
  • Challenges
    • too many embedded outside resources may take long time to search and someoperations seem unnecessarily laborious;
    • functions need to be modified by technicians to cater to the needs of specific modules;
    • users’ unfamiliarity with computer technology, for example, the tool system and the html;
    • lack of a development server to do version change;
    • hard to control outcome, for example, the Wiki environments on Moodle falling short both teacher’s and students’ expectations.
  • Conclusion and limitations
    Similarities in general uptake, satisfaction, and potential of Moodle
    Diversified expertise on IT lead to different attitudes to training, Moodle’s functional features, and perceptions on difficulty
  • Conclusion and limitations
    How can training play its role in the technology innovation acceptance process
    tradeoff in terms of how many functional features should be utilized
    the importance or impact of colleagues in the innovation adoption process
    Limitations: sample features; sample size;
    More in-depth interview with expert/novice users
    Incorporation of Students’ experiences
  • Q &A