Educational computer games: what are the students’ expectations?


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5 March 2010 (Friday) | 16:40 - 17:00 | | YONG, Su Ting, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus

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Educational computer games: what are the students’ expectations?

  1. 1. Educational Computer Games: <br />What are the Students’ Expectations?<br />Yong Su Ting<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Purpose of research<br />What is educational game?<br />Effective game design<br />Methods<br />Student feedback<br />Discussion<br />Conclusion<br />Future research<br />Outline of Presentation<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Educational game research:<br /><ul><li>Wishart (1990)
  4. 4. Amory, Naicker, Vincent and Adams (1999)
  5. 5. Holzinger, Pichler and Almer (2001)
  6. 6. Rosas, Nussbaum, Cumsille, Marianov, Correa, Flores, Grau, Lagos, Lopez, Lopez, Rodriguez and Salina (2002)
  7. 7. Mokka, Vaatanen, Heinila and Valkkynen (2003)
  8. 8. Natvig and Line (2004)
  9. 9. Chua (2004)
  10. 10. Cai, Lu, Fan, Indhumathi, Lim, Chan and Jiang (2006)
  11. 11. Ke and Grabowski (2007)
  12. 12. Ebner and Holzinger (2007)
  13. 13. Warren, Dondlinger, Stein and Barab (2009)
  14. 14. Eagle and Barnes (2009)
  15. 15. Chaffin, Doran, Hicks and Barnes (2009)
  16. 16. Papastergiou (2009)
  17. 17. McInerney (2010).</li></ul>The use of computer games in education is a fast becoming popular trend (Becker, 2007). <br />
  18. 18. Purpose of research<br />Identify important elements of effective educational games.<br />Determine students’ perceived importanceof these elements.<br />
  19. 19. What is educational game?<br />Educational computer games can be classified into 3 generations (Egenfeldt-Nielsen (2007). <br />1st generation: Edutainment - combination of educational and entertainment. <br />2nd generation: Built on cognitivism and constructivism. <br />3rd generation: Educational computer games use.  <br />
  20. 20. Educational Game Research<br />Educational simulation game to teach children what to do in case of a domestic fire (Wishart, 1990). <br />Educational computer game with a learning companion to teach mathematics (Holzinger, Pichler & Almer, 2001).<br />Gameboy design - educational games to teach basic language acquisition skills, reading comprehension, spelling and basic mathematics operations(Rosas et al., 2002). <br />A fitness computer game: 3D virtual environment & exercise bicycle (Mokka, Vaatanen, Heinila and Valkkynen, 2003).<br />A game to learn history (Natvig and Line, 2004).<br />A knowledge management (KM) simulation game (Chua, 2004).<br />Sport-genre game to learn protein structures (Cai, et al., 2006).<br />An online game : Structural Concrete Civil Engineering (Ebner and Holzinger, 2007).<br />Educational game to learn computer memory concepts (Papastergiou, 2009). <br />
  21. 21. Educational games have been proven to be motivational (Mokka, Vaatanen, Heinila & Valkkynen, 2003; Natvig & Line, 2004; Papastergiou, 2009; McInerney, 2010).<br />Understanding of Motivational Construct<br />Effective educational game development <br />
  22. 22. Effective game design<br />Game design process must consider motivation constructs and effective employment of motivation (Bixler, 2006). <br />Game Design<br />Motivation<br />Motivation is the most important component in effective learning (Gee, 2003; Presky, 2003; Denis & Jouvelot, 2005). <br />Effective Learning<br />If no motivation then it will be no game playing and no learning (Gee, 2003).<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Methods<br />Introduction to IT<br />Topics covered:<br />Computer, hardware, software, system unit, input devices, output devices, system software & IT application. <br />Lecture 1 (2 hours)<br /><ul><li>Game (1 hour)</li></ul>Lecture 2 (2 hours)<br /><ul><li>Game (1 hour)</li></ul>Lecture 3 (2 hours)<br /><ul><li>Game (1 hour)</li></ul>Lecture 4 (2 hours)<br /><ul><li>Game (1 hour)</li></ul>Students’ feedback<br />Thomson Course Technology at<br />
  25. 25. Online Resources for Discovering Computer 2008<br />
  26. 26. Wheel of Terms: Starting the Game<br />
  27. 27. Wheel of Terms: Guessing the Words<br />
  28. 28. Track and Field: Javelin events with multiple choices questions<br />
  29. 29. Track and Field: long jump events with true/false questions <br />
  30. 30. Track and Field: Hurdles events with short answer questions<br />
  31. 31. Track and Field: End of the game<br />
  32. 32. Data collection<br />
  33. 33. Edutainment : Combination of education (support learning & useful) and entertainment (interesting & fun) (Prensky, 2003; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, 2007; Yong, 2009). <br />Students’ feedback- 64 university students in 2009<br />Less expectation: Control & complexity. <br />
  34. 34. Educational game must be useful. <br />Control is the least important factor.<br />
  35. 35. Discussion<br />Students’ perceptions & expectations: <br />1st generation of educational game - Edutainment: <br />Education (useful) + Entertainment (fun)<br />Control – least important : <br />3rd generation of educational game - participation and control<br />
  36. 36. Conclusion<br />
  37. 37. Future research<br />
  38. 38. References<br />Amory, A., Naicker, K., Vincent, J. & Adams, C. (1999). The Use of Computer Games as an Educational Tool: Identification of Appropriate Game Types and Game Elements. British Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4), pg. 311-321.<br />Amr, K. (2007). Constructing Knowledge through Games: Essential factors for an effective educational game. In C. Montgomerie & J. Seale (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2007 (pp. 1601-1609). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.<br />Baker, A., Navarro, E.O. & Hoek, A.(2005). The experimental card game for teaching software engineering processes. The Journal of Systems and Software, 75 (2005), pg. 3-16.<br />Becker, K. (2007). Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers. British Journal of Education Technology, 38(3), pg. 478-488.<br />Bixler, B. (2006). Motivation and its Relationship to the Design of Educational Games. The 2006 NMC Summer Conference, June 7-10, 2006, Cleveland, Ohio.<br />Bottino, R.M., Ferlino, L., Ott, M. & Tavella, M. (2007). Developing Strategic and Reasoning Abilities with Computer Games at Primary School Level. Computers & Education, 49 (2007), pg. 1272-1286.<br />Cai, Y. Y., Lu, B. F., Fan, Z.W., Indhumathi, C., Lim, K.T., Chan, C. W., Jiang, Y., Li, L. (2006). Bio-edutainment: Learning life science through X gaming. Computer and Graphics, 30 (2006), pg. 3-9.<br />Chaffin, A. , Doran, K. , Hicks, D., Barnes, T. (2009). Experimental evaluation of teaching recursion in a video game. Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Video Games, August 4-6, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana.<br />Chua, Y.K. (2004). The Design and Implementation of a Simulation Game for Teaching Knowledge Management. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(11), pg. 1207-1216.<br />Denis, G. & Jouvelot, P. (2005). Motivation-Driven Educational Game Design: Applying Best Practices to Music Education, Proceeding of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, ACE 2005, June 15, Valencia, Spain.<br />Duchastel, P. (1997). A motivational framework for web-based instruction. In B. H. Khan (Ed.). Web-based Instruction (pp. 179-184). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc.<br />Eagle, M., Barnes, T. (2009). Experimental evaluation of an educational game for improved learning in introductory computing. ACM SIGCSE 2009, March 3-8, 2009, Chattanooga, TN.<br />Ebner, M. & Holzinger, A. (2007). Successful implementation of user-centred game based learning in higher education: An example from civil engineering. Computer and Education, 49 (2007), pg. 873-890.<br />Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2007). Third generation educational use of computer games. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), pg. 263-281.<br />Gee, J.P. (2003). What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 1(1).<br />Hazari, S. & Johnson, B. (2007). Perceptions of Business Students’ Feature Requirements in Educational Web Sites. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovation Education, 5(2), pg. 357-374.<br />Holzinger, A., Pichler, A. & Almer, W. (2001). Triangle: A multi-media test-bed for examining incidental learning, motivation and the Tamagotchi-Effect within a Game-Show like Computer Based Learning Module. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunication, 2001, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pg. 766 - 771.<br />Ke, F. F. & Grabowski, B. (2007). Gameplaying for maths learning: cooperative or not? British Journal of Education Technology, 38(2), pg. 249-259.<br />Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. Internet and Higher Education, 8 (2005), 13-24.<br />Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for designing instructional computer games. In Proceedings of 3rd ACM SIG SMALL symposium and the Wrst SIGPC symposium on small systems, September 18-19, 1980, Carlifornia, United States, pp. 162–169.<br />McInerney, C. (2010). Having Fun with Computer Programming and Games: Teacher and Student Experiences. Teaching Fundamentals Concepts of Informatics. Springer Berlin, 5941(2010), pg. 136-142.<br />Mokka, S., Vaatanen, A., Heinila, J. & Valkkynen, P. (2003). Fitness Computer Game with a Bodily User Interface. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 38, pg. 1 – 3.<br />Natvig, L. & Line, S. (2004). Age of Computers – Game-Based Teaching of Computer Fundamentals. ITiCSE, June 28-30, Leeds, United Kingdom, pg. 107-111.<br />Papastergiou, M. (2009).Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), pg. 1-12. <br />Prensky, M. (2003). Digital Game-based Learning. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 1(1).<br />Rosas, R., Nussbaum, M., Cumsille, P., Marianov, V., Correa, M., Flores, P., Grau, V., Lagos, F., Lopez, X., Lopez, V., Rodriguez, P., Salinas, M. (2002). Beyond Nintendo: design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students. Computer and Education, 40 (2003), pg. 71-94.<br />Virvou, M. & Katsionis, G. (2008). On the usability and likeability of virtual reality games for education: The case of VR-ENGAGE. Computer & Education, 5, 154-178.<br />Warren, S., Dondlinger, M.J., Stein, R. & Barab, S. (2009). Educational Game as Supplemental Learning Tool: Benefits, Challenges, and Tensions Arising from Use in an Elementary School Classroom. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 20(4), pg. 487-505. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.<br />Wishart, J. (1990). Cognitive Factors Related to User Involvement with Computers and their Effects upon Learning from an Educational Computer Game. 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