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Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors
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Effective Use of Facebook on Knowledge Transfer in a Professional Experience Internship: A Case-Based Approach to Analyze Influencing Factors

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CHAU, Ka Lee, Carrie (Ms) …

CHAU, Ka Lee, Carrie (Ms)
KAN, Chung Yi, Joanne
WONG, Cheuk Ming, Johnny
SIU, Felix L.C.
CHU, Samuel Kai Wah (The University of Hong Kong)
LAW, John

http://citers2013.cite.hku.hk/en/paper_620.htm

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  • MITE 6229 lecture notes Faculty of Education
  • MITE 6229 lecture notes Faculty of Education
  • A rubric is, basically, a guideline for student performance and evaluation. The term rubric comes from the Latin term rubrica that means “red earth”. It came to mean that anything in red ink provided an authoritative rule or direction. Records Management Chapter 1 May 15, 2013 D:\\Shared Documents\\MscLIM\\course - info behavior\\2008 Fall\\week 7 - IB\\MLIM6319-IB-2008-wk7-ch11.ppt
  • Records Management Chapter 1 © 2002 South-Western Educational Publishing
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    • 1. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGHKU Faculty of EducationEffectiveUseof FacebookonKnowledgeTransferinaProfessionalExperienceInternship:ACase-BasedApproachtoAnalyzeInfluencingFactors‘CRS 2013 CITE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM
    • 2. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGChau Ka Lee, Carrie (Student)Kan Chung Yi, Joanne (Student)Wong Cheuk Ming, Johnny (Student)Felix L.C. Siu (Research Supervisor)Samuel Kai Wah Chu (Associate Professor)John Law (Research assistant)Presenter: Dr. Felix SiuAuthors2 HKU Faculty of Education
    • 3. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG• This study aims to explore factors that contribute to the effective use ofFacebook for knowledge transfer during students’ professional experienceinternship through a case-based approach.• Out of the 17 factors investigated, 14 factors had strong impact of knowledgetransfer whereas only 3 factors had moderate impact.• It is concluded that the use of Facebook in this case study is effective forknowledge transfer.• It has been found that the technological aspect has the most significant impactto the effectiveness of knowledge transfer.Keywords: Facebook, effectiveness, knowledge transfer, students, professional experience, internshipAbstract3 HKU Faculty of Education
    • 4. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGCase-based approach• A particular discipline of students from the field of InformationManagement at a university in Hong Kong is selected for thisresearch to explore factors that affect the use of Facebook forknowledge transfer.• This group of students has interned for various organizations in the2011 summer for at least 6 weeks.– They used Facebook as a tool for communication and knowledgesharing– by setting private groups among themselves– to write reflective journals– provide comments to others during internship.4
    • 5. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGThe case background5
    • 6. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFactors affecting the effective use of Facebook onknowledge transfer in a professional experience internship6
    • 7. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGHuman AspectHuman aspect contains four factors that have influenceon the usage of Facebook for knowledge transfer:•Absorptive capacity:– It facilitates student’s application of absorbed knowledge, as a process ofknowledge transfer (Chai-Arayalert & Nakata, 2011; Martins & António, 2011;Hamel, 1991; Inkpen & Dinur, 1998; Lok et al., 2008),•Motivation:– It encourages and improves student’s confidence level in acquisition andsharing of knowledge (Martins & António, 2011)•Supervisors’ support:– Management support is an important criterion in knowledge transfer (Vera andCorssan, 2004). As apply to this study’s scenario, academic supervisors insteadof management have an effect on knowledge transfer.•Social tie:– The social and trust relationships among students do affect their knowledgetransfer by using Facebook (Zhou, Siu, & Wang, 2010 and Hansen, 1999).7
    • 8. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGPolicy AspectThe Policy aspect covers regulations and rules, as well aslearning strategy that set for formulating and clarifyingcommitments and responsibilities of each participant in theprocess of transferring knowledge.•Regulations and rules– Guide participants’ behaviors and their common practices, especially in thecontext of knowledge creation and distribution,– Support knowledge transfer in a more systemic way (Chai-Arayalert & Nakata,2011; McLaughlin, 2007).•Learning Strategy (scaffolding reflection)– Knowledge Management Process Framework specifies that the tacticalcomponent forms part of the learning strategy in the following sequence: get,use, learn and contribute. (Williams, 1999).8
    • 9. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGTechnology Aspect• Technology– Many studies concluded that technology is a significant factor whichfacilitates knowledge transfer. Chai-Arayalert and Nakata (2011)suggested two frameworks to analyze factors that affect knowledgetransfer.• The first framework is scoped by organizational containment analysis, which shows thattechnical layers involving communication channels is a fundamental factor affectingknowledge transfer.• The second framework, semiotic framework (the theory of signs), analyzed socio-technical aspects of the factors. Both help enabling knowledge transfer process from thetechnical aspect.• Ease of Knowledge Access– A successful knowledge transfer system should have high level ofknowledge reuse such that startup and maintenance cost of theknowledge repositories can be saved.– Ease of knowledge access is one of the significant predictors ofknowledge reuse.– The easier it is to access knowledge, the greater one’s motivation ofacquiring the knowledge will be. (Watson and Hewett, 2006)9
    • 10. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGTechnology Aspect10Table 2Semiotic frameworkTable 1Organizational containment analysis
    • 11. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGKnowledge AspectKnowledge can be classified into explicit and tacit in which the former isdefined as “knowledge of rationality” and the latter is defined as “knowledge ofexperience of the body” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995).•Knowledge aspect covers two factors that have effect on the effective use ofFacebook for knowledge transfer:– explicit knowledge transfer• It refers to the knowledge that can be easily shared between students liketheir knowledge acquired from workplace.– tacit knowledge transfer.• It refers to the embedded knowledge in students’ mind like their personalchanges during internship. It is believed that both kinds of knowledge haveimpact on the knowledge transfer process.11
    • 12. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGResearch GapEven though it is widely accepted that an array of factors affect the knowledgetransfer process, there is no extensive research on how these factors affectthe usage of Facebook in support of effective knowledge transfer amongstudents during their professional experience internship.To address the above research gaps, this study raises three key questions:1. What are the major factors influencing the usage of Facebook insupport of effective knowledge transfer, and how they areinterconnected?2. What is the relative impact of each factor?3. To what extent do these factors affect students’ knowledge transferprocess in a professional experience internship context?The study takes a case-based approach in studying the usage of Facebook by a groupof Bachelor students in a university and its impact on knowledge transfer during theirinternships.12
    • 13. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGData analysis• The questionnaire serves as the basis for investigating students’perspectives on the factors affecting effective use of Facebook forknowledge transfer during internship.• Data collected from the questionnaire is categorized and identifiedto match patterns on the usage of Facebook for knowledge transferand the investigated factors (Yin, 2003; Miles & Huberman, 1994).• Score of individual factors is calculated for measuring the level ofinfluence on knowledge transfer.• Content analysis from Facebook and focus group interview wereused to supplement quantitative analysis to produce solid andcomprehensive analysis.13
    • 14. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG14Table 2: Relative impact of factors affecting effective use of Facebook on knowledge transfer in a professional experience internship.
    • 15. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG15
    • 16. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and DiscussionBackground of the respondents•A questionnaire was administered to the subjects of this study. 21students (9 male and 12 female students) have responded to thequestionnaire. With regard to the background questions in thequestionnaire, the results concluded that students are veteran of usingFacebook. 71% of the students have been using Facebook beforeProfessional Experience for more than 3 years (Figure 1).Figure 1: Number of years that students using Facebook before internship• 48% of the students claimed that they accessed Facebook more than 10times per week (Figure 2).16 Figure 2: Frequency of using Facebook by students per week
    • 17. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and Discussion• Besides, the results show that students participated continuously and actively inwriting reflective journal during professional experience. 81% of the students wrotereflective journals on Facebook 1-2 times per week on average (Figure 3).• Moreover, 81% of the students responded to other students’ comments on Facebookpages regarding the internship 1-2 times per week on average (Figure 4).• The results show that majority of the students are willing to share knowledge inFacebook frequently and continuously.17
    • 18. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and DiscussionRelative Impact of FactorsHuman Aspecta. Moderate impact of absorptive capacityb. Strong impact of motivationc. Significant impact of supervisors’ supportd. The highest impact in human aspects: Social tiePolicy Aspecta.Medium influence of internship guidelinesb.b. High impact of scaffolding reflections18
    • 19. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and DiscussionRelative Impact of FactorsTechnology Aspecta. Strong influence of Facebook’s functionsa. News feedb. Photo albumc. Documentd. Commente. Tagf. Private groupg. Email notificationh. “Like” functiona.Overall functionsb.Over half of the students (Figure 5) agreed that the overall functions of Facebook positively affect their knowledgetransfer process. Students generally presented positive comments regarding the overall functions of Facebook infostering knowledge transfer.19Figure 5: Students’ viewpoint on Facebook’s overall functions that can positively affect knowledge transfer
    • 20. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and Discussion• Moreover, the following line chart (Figure 6) shows that most of theFacebook’s functions have higher impact on female students thanmale students.• However, it is found that the comment function has larger impact onmale students than female students.20
    • 21. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and Discussion21 Figure 6: Comparison between Female and Male’s average score on Facebook’s functions
    • 22. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and DiscussionRelative Impact of FactorsTechnology AspectB. High impact of ease of information and knowledge accessEase of information and knowledge access which is embraced by technology wasrated with a score of 77 out of 105It shows a high influence on knowledge transfer. Students summarized that use ofFacebook during internship do in fact improve the ease of information andknowledge access when they can access Facebook anytime anywhere. Thisenables knowledge transfer during internship where it would be impossible withoutFacebook in the past.22
    • 23. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGFindings and DiscussionRelative Impact of FactorsKnowledge Aspecta.High effect of explicit knowledgeThe effect of explicit knowledge is high because it scores 76 out of 105 (Table 2).Majority of the students agreed that explicit knowledge can facilitate knowledgetransfer. There are several examples of reflective journals which demonstrate theeffectiveness of explicit knowledge. A student applied some InformationManagement (IM) models such as Shannon-Weaver model of communication andrecord life cycle into his real working scenarios.b. Average impact of tacit knowledgeThe impact of tacit knowledge is satisfactory as it scores 70 out of 105 (Table 2).Many students thought that tacit knowledge is not transferred as effective as explicitknowledge. A student believed that effective transfer of tacit knowledge is reliableon the ability of persons. If the ability of a person is high, they can transform theirpersonal knowledge of job experiences into the reflective journals. Thus, the findingshows that the impact of tacit knowledge is not certain.23
    • 24. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGSummary on the relative impactof aspects• The overall impact of each aspect is summarized with a line chart (Figure 7) showingaverage score of each aspect.• It reveals that technology aspect gets the highest impact; and then policy and humanaspects rank the second highest; and knowledge aspect ranks the third.• The chart also shows that the relative impact of aspects from female and malestudents’ perspectives are different. The female think that human aspect has thehighest influence, followed by technology, human and knowledge aspects. On theother hand, the male think that technology aspect is the most important factor, thenknowledge, policy, human aspects are followed accordingly. Generally, femalestudents have higher impact of the four aspects on knowledge transfer than themale.24
    • 25. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG25Figure 7: Comparison between Female and Male’s average score on the four factor aspects
    • 26. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGSummary on the relative impactof aspects• Effectiveness of knowledge transfer• The overall result of the effective use ofFacebook for knowledge transfer during aprofessional experience internship ishighly satisfied. 67% of the students(Figure 8) agreed that Facebook issuitable for sharing information andknowledge in the internship.26
    • 27. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGThe suitability of Facebook for sharinginformation and knowledge during internship27Figure 8: Students’ standpoint on the suitability of Facebook for sharing information and knowledge during internship
    • 28. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGConclusionAnswers to Research QuestionsTo conclude, this study has answered the three research questions posedearlier.First, the study provided insights for the use of Facebook for knowledgetransfer. This study identified 17 factors affecting knowledge transfer fromHuman, Policy, Technology and Knowledge aspects. Among them, 14 factorshave strong impact of knowledge transfer whereas only 3 factors havemoderate impact. It is concluded that the use of Facebook in this case study iseffective for knowledge transfer.Second, the study also discovered the relative impacts for each factor onknowledge transfer during students’ internship.The top three factors that shows significant impact of knowledge transfer are:•Technology aspect – Facebook’s News Feed function (score: 81),•Human aspect – Social Tie (score: 79)•Technology aspects – Facebook’s Comment function (score: 78), PrivateGroup function (score: 78) and Like function (score: 78) (Figure 9).28
    • 29. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG29 Figure 9: Total Score of factors
    • 30. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGConclusionThird, the findings revealed how factors from each aspect affect knowledgetransfer in professional experience internship context.•Social tie got the highest impact in human aspects as Facebook could createa peer support network among students.•Scaffolding reflections has the highest impact among policy factors becauseguidance can assist students to formulate content for their reflective journals.•Facebook’s wall function has been recognized as the highest influenceamong technology factors because this function enables students to beupdated instantly and frequently on the latest development within theinternship activities.•Explicit knowledge transfer reached the highest impact among knowledgefactors as students can apply Information Management-related model intotheir working situations.•All in all, the findings of the study also proved that factors from the literatureare applicable to the professional experience internship context.30
    • 31. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGLimitations and FutureDirectionsIt is acknowledged that this study has several limitations.•Firstly, this study has identified that female students rated the concerned research topicmore highly than male students. It is suggested that gender differences be investigatedin future studies.•Secondly, cultural impact should be studied as well, since culture plays substantialinfluences on knowledge transfer behaviors (Bhagat, Kedia, Harveston, & Triandis,2002). This study focuses on a group of Bachelor students in the same discipline and atthe same university in Hong Kong. The Chinese social network has its distinctive traits.In order to obtain more comprehensive findings, future studies should be expanded tocover different cultural settings.•Thirdly, due to limited sample size and confined sample scope, more factors affectingthe effectiveness of Facebook on knowledge transfer are not able to be included in thetheoretical framework. In future research, more factors in different dimensions should beincluded, such as operational, cultural, social factors (Chow, 2011). Finally, the nature ofa case study is bound to some limitations.31
    • 32. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONGContribution of this Research• Based on the literature on factors affecting knowledge transfer, this studyhighlighted the interplay of these factors affecting the effective use ofFacebook on knowledge transfer, the relative impact of the factors and howthey affect knowledge transfer in professional experience internshipcontext.• Factors from technology, policy, human and knowledge aspects have atleast medium to high level of impact on students’ knowledge transferprocess. In particular, factors from the technology aspect had the highestimpact on students’ knowledge transfer process.• This study provides insights for universities to better utilize Facebook tosupport knowledge transfer in students’ internships. The theoreticalframework used in this study may serve as a basis for further research onthe use of Facebook for knowledge transfer.32
    • 33. THEUNIVERSITYOFHONG33References• Bhagat, R. S., Kedia, B. L., Harveston P. D., & Triandis, H. C. (2002). Cultural variations in the cross-border transfer of organizationalknowledge: an integrative framework. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 204-222.• Cain, J., & Policastri, A. (2011). Instructional Design and Assessment: Using Facebook as an Informal Learning Environment. AmericanJournal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(10), 207.• Chai-Arayalert, S., & Nakata, K. (2011). A Semiotic Approach to Analyse the Influencing Factors in Knowledge Transfer. Proceedings OfThe European Conference On Information Management & Evaluation, 103-111.• Chow, N.K. (2011). Factors Affecting Usage of Information Technology in Support of Knowledge Sharing: A Multiple Case Study ofService Organizations in Hong Kong. Journal of Global Information Management, 19(2), 45-66.• Chu, S.K.W., Kwan, A.C.M. & Warning, P. (2012a). Blogging for information management, learning, and social support during internship.Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(2), 168-178.• Chu, S.K.W., Chan, C.K.K., & Tiwari, A.F.Y. (2012b). Using blogs to support learning during internship. Computers & Education, 58(3),989-1000.• Facebook. (2012). About Facebook. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/facebook/info.• Featherstone, D., Munby, H., & Russell, T. (Eds.). (1997). Finding a voice while learning to teach. London: Falmer Press.• Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic ManagementJournal, 12, 83-103.• Hansen, M. T. (1999). The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits.Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), 82-111.• Hodkinson, P. and Hodkinson H. (2001). The Strengths and Limitations of Case Study Research. The Learning and skills developmentagency conference: Making an Impact on policy and practice.• Inkpen, A., & Dinur, A. (1998). Knowledge management process and international joint ventures. Organization Science, 9(4), 454-68.• Jensen, R. J., & Szulanski, G. (2007). Template Use and the Effectiveness of Knowledge Transfer. Management Science, 53(11), 1716-1730.• Liyanage, C., Elhag, T., Ballal, T. and Li, Q. (2009). Knowledge communication and translation–a knowledge transfer model. Journals ofKnowledge Management, 13(3), 118-131.• Lok, P., Rhodes, J., Hung, Y. Y., & Fang, S. C. (2008). An integrative model of organizational learning and social capital on effectiveknowledge transfer and perceived organizational performance. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20(4), 245-258.• Martins, J., & António, N. (2011). Overseas knowledge transfer. Industrial Management, 53(2), 26-30.• Mayer, D. (2002). An electronic lifeline: information and communication technologies in a teacher education internship. Asia-PacificJournal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 181-195.• McLaughlin, S. (2007). Identifying knowledge transfer barriers within a complex supply chain organization. (Doctoral thesis, University ofGlasgow).• Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis − An Expanded Sourcebook. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.• Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage. Academy of ManagementReview, 3, 242-66.• Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The Knowledge-creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation.New York: Oxford University Press.HKU Faculty of Education

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