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Intercultural Understanding in the New Mobile Learning Environment


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CHUN, Daniel J Y (CSALT - Faculty of Social Science, Lancaster University) …

CHUN, Daniel J Y (CSALT - Faculty of Social Science, Lancaster University)

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  • 1. CITE Research Symposium 2013Daniel Chun, Hong KongPhD Student, Lancaster University E-Research & TELTwitter @djychun Blog:
  • 2. Intercultural understanding in the newmobile learning environmentKeywordsIntercultural understanding, mobile learning, interculturalcompetence, transnational education, distance education,online learning
  • 3. Mobile learning and interculturalunderstanding
  • 4. Globalisation• Informatics Global Campus - a HE Provider inSingapore and offering UK education via online /mobile learning.• Think how your university will benefit from theextension of elearning with mobile technologiesto increase 3(E) = enrolment , engagement ,efficacy“Transnational, Transborder, Distance Education”
  • 5.
  • 6. Globalization in Education• Since 1990s, western universities or highereducational institutes had been starting todevelop these exportable programs and crossingthe cultural barrier (Mason, 1998).• Internationalization effort in higher education isnot unique (Leask, 2004; Mercando et al, 2004)and is observed in many Asian countries. Theterms used in this sector such as offshore,transnational, trans-border, distance learningare all very common.
  • 7. Need for HE to support local deliveryof distance education• Spronk (2004) called these countries (eg Canada,United States, United Kingdom , Australia, NewZealand) exporting education as “settler countries” -expanding and promoting their courses and programsin Asia - often as distance learning programs, orblended learning programs with the support of localtutors.• Leask (2004) Intercultural contact - one of the keydriver to increase intercultural learning opportunitiesand competence in transnational education andindividual higher education (HE) institute’s desire tointernationalize
  • 8. Intercultural Understanding• According to Leask (2004), these global educators willface many risk factors when comes to developing theunderstanding of intercultural practices like “how thelanguage and cultures influence their thoughts, values,actions and feelings”.• It is clear that when any learning takes place, it candiffer significantly from one country to another -Spronk (2004) describes this as “differ profoundly fromone culture to another” and attributes these digitallearner’s culture into “hierarchy, style, orientation andlanguage”.
  • 9. Intercultural Competencein Online Learning• One of the widely used research framework in studyingcross-cultural communications is from the originalwork by Hofstede (1986) who developed the fourdimensions of cultural differences –– Power Distance,– Individualism - Collectivism,– Uncertainty Avoidance and– Masculinity.• Liu et al (2010) recent paper titled “Cultural Differencesin Online Learning : International Student Perceptions”is one that adopts Hofstede’s model.
  • 10. Learning FlowerMichael Allen – Flower Model Daniel Chun, 28/2/2013MobileLearning
  • 11. Research Questions(1) Would adopting mobile learning helpeducational institutes to be more interculturallycompetent?(2) Why is intercultural understanding animportant issue in the new mobile learningenvironment ?
  • 12. Definitions of Mobile Learning• Mobile Learning was identified early on as anextension to e-learning that can be realized bythe use of mobile computing devices (Quinn,2000).• Traxler (2009) refers mobile learning as“mobile e-learning” and is not adjoining of thetwo buzz words “mobile” and “learning”.By Daniel Chun, 28/2/2013
  • 13. Current literature• Need for HE to expand overseas recruitment– Global Campus = Middlesex University had led a research effortback in 2004, which by coincidence is also called the GlobalCampus project - had received funding from the EuropeanCommission to study the use of m-learning in higher educationin Southeast Asian nations (Murphy, 2004).• MLEARN seems a perfect product- market fit– All of these enterprises are tapping the use of latest mobiletechnologies, learning management system and its applicationsto support its organizational goals in growing the studentenrolments (Clothey, 2010)– adoption of its degree-awarding curriculum programs whetherthese are local classroom and tutor supported , distancelearning (Spronk, 2004)
  • 14. • While many authors have written aboutintercultural issues, cultural diversity, culturalunderstanding in distance learning and e-learning programs, and a limited few actuallyhave extended beyond online learning tomobile learning and explore extra dimensionrelated to socio-cultural conditions (Pachler etal, 2010).
  • 15. Analysing the MLEARN projects• The two studies by Frohberg et al (2009) andWu et al (2012) provide an holistic view oftype of mobile learning projects thatresearchers and practitioners had beenfocusing on thus far - effectiveness, systemdesign, language learning initiatives - coveringeducation initiatives from primary educationto higher education and informal learning.
  • 16. Mobile Learning projects – a criticalanalysis of the state of the art(Frohberg et al, 2009)• covers 102 Mobile learning projects that were publishedbefore the end of 2007 out of the initial screening of 1468publications.• In this report, the selection is focused on six criteria –context, tools, control, communication, subject andobjective.• Although not directly related to cultural implications, thereport recognizes that learning is not an exclusivelyindividual process and the increased use of mobiletechnologies amongst learners can lead to more contact.• There is no reported studies on the intercultural and social-cultural implications in this report.
  • 17. Review of trends from mobilelearning studies: A meta-analysis (Wuet al, 2012)• provides a good synthesis of 164 studies between 2003-2010.• In this report, the authors had been able to categories thetype of research by methodology, educational context bymobile device, academic disciplines, level of mobile learners.• the report shows 92 studies in the higher education sectorrepresenting 52%. 58% of the studies evaluates oneffectiveness as the primary research aim and 32% focus onthe mobile learning system design, with 86% of the studiesshowing positive outcome.• There is no reported studies on the subject of interculturaland social-cultural implications in this report.
  • 18. Future Direction• Intercultural competence and understandingis important just like face-to-face, traditionaldistance learning, e-learning ;• Extending to mobile devices will be equallyimportant but not much empirical studieshave been carried out to study interculturalissues and social cultural implications• Recommendations
  • 19. Intercultural UnderstandingLandscapeAccessibility and MobilityInterculturalUnderstandingHighLowKnowledge gapRecommendeddirection throughextension of existingdesign guidelinesOnline LearningMobileLearningHighClassroom Learning& PedagogyIntercultural Understanding, Accessibility and Mobility Model
  • 20. Reference 1/2Mason, R. (1998). The Globalisation of Education. In Globalising Education:trends and applications. London and New York: RoutledgeMercado, S., Parboteeah, KP, & Zhao, Y.(2004). On-line course design anddelivery: crossnational considerations. Strategic Change, 13 (4), 183-192.Murphy, A. (2006). Mobile learning in a global context: a training analysis. In:Proceedings of the International Conference on Networking, InternationalConference on Systems and International Conference on MobileCommunications and Learning Technologies, Morne, Mauritius.Liu, X., Liu, S., Lee, S.-H, & Magjuka, R. J. (2010). Cultural differences in onlinelearning: International student perceptions. Journal of EducationalTechnology & Society, 13(3), 177-188
  • 21. Reference 2/2Spronk, B. (2004). Addressing cultural diversity through learner support. In J.Brindley, C. Walti & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Learner support in open,distance and online learning environments (pp. 169-177). Retrieved on Jul 30,2012 at, J (2010) Current state of Mobile Learning. A book chapter for “MobileLearning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training AU Press. Pp20-21Wang, H. (2006). Teaching Asian students online: what matters and why?PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 15:69-84Wu, W.H., Wu, Y.C.J., Chen, C.Y., Kao, H.Y., Lin, C.H., & Huang, S.H. (2012).Review of trends from mobile learning studies: A meta-analysis, Computers &Education, Volume 59, Issue 2, September 2012, Pages 817-827
  • 22. • Thank you• Questions and Answers• Comments– Twitter @djychun– Email