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The Application of Blogs and Facebook in Scaffolding the Internship Learning Process
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The Application of Blogs and Facebook in Scaffolding the Internship Learning Process


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LEE, Wing Yi Celina (Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong) …

LEE, Wing Yi Celina (Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong)
CHAN, Chun Ho Randolph
CHAN, Kim To
LEUNG, Chun Kit (Faculty of Education, The University of Cambridge)
CHU, Samuel Kai Wah (Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong)

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  • 1. The Application ofBlogs andFacebook inScaffolding theInternship LearningProcessCHAN, Randolph Chun HoFaculty of Education,The University of Hong Kong
  • 2. Outline Literature reviews Educational use of Blogging and Facebook Research methods Finding and Discussion Behavioral difference between blogs andFacebook Perception of using blogs/Facebook for learning Learning experience through blogs/Facebook
  • 3. Literature reviews Social media technologies have become widelyemployed in higher education (Maloney, 2007). Compared with conventional learning, socialmedia-supported learning encourages informationsharing between learners and facilitate theexchange of ideas outside the classroom (Barczyk &Duncan, 2011). Blogs and Facebook are two of the most commonlyused social media applications for educationalpurposes (Blood, 2002; Churchill, 2009; Selwyn, 2009).
  • 4. Blog A blog or “web log” is a web-basedapplication that allows users to publishcontent online (Cardus, 2006; Churchill,2007). The content of blog entries ranges frompersonal diaries, expressions of opinion, tosharing of knowledge and resources(Burgess, 2006; Carter, 2008).
  • 5. Blogging and Learning Blog environments have been found toencourage feedback by means ofcomments (Chu, Kwan, & Warning, 2012;Ellison & Wu, 2008). It helped facilitate knowledge sharingamong students, and built up a socialcontext for collaborative learning (Chu &Kennedy, 2011).
  • 6. Facebook Facebook has been considered as themost commonly used social networkingsite (Wiley & Sisson, 2006). It is an online social platform that allowsusers to connect and interact with their„friends‟.
  • 7. Facebook and Learning Facebook could enhance social integrationand promote positive learning outcomes as aresult of peer interaction (Selwyn, 2009;McEwan, 2011). It could support communications betweenlearners who face common dilemmas, byallowing them to connect with each otherthrough online networks (Selwyn, 2009).
  • 8. Research Gaps The educational use of the two socialmedia tools has been increasinglyrecognized, as evident in recent research. However, a well-structured comparisonbetween blog and Facebook inscaffolding students learning is scarce.
  • 9. Research Questions What are the students‟ perceptions of thelearning processes with the use of blogsand Facebook? How do blogs and Facebook differ inscaffolding students‟ cognitive, reflective,social-collaborative, and affectiveengagements during internship?
  • 10. RESEARCH METHODSMixed-method approach
  • 11. Participants The participants consist of two groups of students(n=73) from the Bachelor of InformationManagement (BScIM) program at the University ofHong Kong.Group 1: Blogs (e.g.Xanga, Blogger, etc.)•The first group ofparticipants (n=53)comprise of threecohorts of students whoenrolled in the years of2006 (n=16), 2007 (n=16)and 2008 (n=21).Group 2: Facebook•The second group ofparticipants (n=20) whowere admitted in theyear of 2010, usedFacebook when theyundertook theirinternship.
  • 12. Data collection The participants had to response to a set ofstructured and open-ended questions overthe phone. evaluate the effectiveness of blogs/Facebookas an online learning platform describe how they used blogs/Facebook forthe internship learning
  • 13. Data collection The blog entries, Facebook posts andcomments were extracted from the onlineblogging system and Facebook in the endof each internship period for qualitativecontent analysis.
  • 14. Blog and Facebook
  • 15. Qualitative coding framework•Positive emotions•Negative emotions•Affect and support•Providing questions•Providing feedback•Knowledge•Experience•Information sharing•Knowledgeconstruction•Problem solvingCognitive ReflectiveAffectiveSocial-collaborative
  • 16. FINDINGS & DISCUSSIONStudents‟ behavior, perception and experience ofusing blog/Facebook for internship learning
  • 17. Behavioral difference betweenblog and Facebook users - 1Blogging/posting behaviorsBlog users(n=53)Facebookusers(n=20)Sig. Mann–WhitneyMean (SD) Mean (SD)Writing one‟s own blog/post 3.21 (0.79) 2.70 (0.73) 0.02*Reading classmates‟blogs/posts3.04 (0.96) 2.85 (0.81) 0.38Notes: Participants answered according to a scale of 1-5: 1-„Once a monthor less‟, 2-„Once every two weeks‟, 3-„1-2 times a week‟, 4-„3-6 times a week‟,and 5-„Once every day or more‟.*statistically significant at p < 0.05.
  • 18. Behavioral difference betweenblog and Facebook users - 2Notes: Participants answered according to a scale of 1-5: 1-„Once a monthor less‟, 2-„Once every two weeks‟, 3-„1-2 times a week‟, 4-„3-6 times a week‟,and 5-„Once every day or more‟.* statistically significant at p < 0.05.Commenting behaviorsBlog users(n=53)Facebookusers(n=20)Sig. Mann–WhitneyMean (SD) Mean (SD)Receiving comments fromclassmates1.96 (0.83) 2.65 (0.81) 0.03*Receiving comments fromsupervisors1.08 (0.27) 2.10 (0.97) <0.01*
  • 19. Perception of using blogs/Facebook for learning - 10 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4Reading others’ blogs/posts duringinternship is usefulBlogging/Posting facilitatedinformation sharingBlogging/Posting facilitatedknowledge constructionBlogging/Posting is suitable forlearning from others’ internshipexperienceFacebookBlogNotes: Ratings are based on a 4-point Likert-type scale: 1-„Stronglydisagree‟, 2-„Disagree‟, 3-„Agree‟, and 4-„Strongly agree‟.
  • 20. Perception of using blogs/Facebook for learning - 2 The most common benefit claimed bystudents was the ability to learn somegeneral skills needed at workplace, e.g.interpersonal skills. Students revealed that social media wasalso helpful when they faced a job specificproblem as they could post their problemon the platform and their peers would sharepossible solutions to it.
  • 21. Perception of using blogs/Facebook for learning - 3 Students also utilized the online platforms toobtain information and learn about otherorganizations in terms of their peers‟ worknature, job responsibilities and workingenvironment.
  • 22. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook•Positive emotions•Negative emotions•Affect and support•Providing questions•Providing feedback•Knowledge•Experience•Information sharing•Knowledgeconstruction•Problem solvingCognitive ReflectiveAffectiveSocial-collaborative
  • 23. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - cognitiveBlog entries(Mean)Facebook posts(Mean)Cognitive 5.66 3.65Information sharing 1.7 1.4Knowledgeconstruction2.3 0.8Problem solving 1.66 1.45
  • 24. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - cognitive Retrievable and archivalfeatures of blogs (e.g.tags, blog archive)facilitate the discussionand co-construction ofknowledge. makes the blog contentmore easily accessibleto blog owners andreaders
  • 25. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - reflectiveBlog entries(Mean)Facebook posts(Mean)Reflective 5.24 25.35Knowledge 3.19 10.6Experience 2.06 14.75
  • 26. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - reflective Facebook users showed a high degree ofengagement in metacognitive process oflearning which involve the reflection ofuser‟s knowledge/experience. The wide popularity and user-friendlyinterface of Facebook allow it overtakeblogs in instant and quick experiencecapture.
  • 27. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook – collaborativeBlog entries(Mean)Facebook posts(Mean)Collaborative/social 0.51 6Posting questions 0.19 1.3Providing feedback 0.32 4.7
  • 28. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - collaborative Participants recognizedthat Facebook has moreadvanced group features. E.g. all messages postedonto the group wall wouldgenerate groupnotifications and greaterattention among the users. It enhances communications and interactionbetween individuals, thereby facilitating thesocial-collaborative process of learning.
  • 29. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - affectiveBlog entries(Mean)Facebook posts(Mean)Affective 4.96 9.15Positive emotions 2.42 3Negative emotions 1.57 0.6Affect and support 0.98 5.55
  • 30. Learning experience throughBlogs/Facebook - affective Facebook was associated with greatersocial and emotional support. Facebook users could read and respondto each other‟s postings by giving „Like‟s. “Like represents a kind of encouragement” “Like is the expression of concerns abouteach other’s status”
  • 31. Conclusion Students‟ perception of using blogs andFacebook during internship was found tobe generally positive. This research provides empirical evidencethat supports the significance of blog andFacebook in pedagogical scaffoldingduring internship.
  • 32. Conclusion Based on the functional differencebetween blogging and Facebook shownin this study, educators can consider theroles of the two social media tools inscaffolding students‟ learning so as tomaximize the pedagogical benefits of thesocial media platform.
  • 33. Thank you!