The connection between problem solving solution and problem solver’s knowledge base is like a “ black box ”, for both tutors and learners.
Obstacle for instruction
Mystery of this connection does little help to support learners in the development of professional expertise (Kinchin, 2008).
Designing appropriate tools (techniques) to externalize problem solver’s mental activities (i.e. open the “black box”). ( Hoffman & Lintern, 2006)
1.1 Problem statement Kinchin, I. M., Cabot, L. B., & Hay, D. B. (2008). Using concept mapping to locate the tacit dimension of clinical expertise: towards a theoretical framework to support critical reflection on teaching. Learning in Health & Social Care, 7(2), 93-104. Hoffman, K., Hosokawa, M., Blake, R., Jr., Headrick, L., & Johnson, G. (2006). Problem-based learning outcomes: ten years of experience at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine. Acad Med, 81(7), 617-625.
Investigate or analyze the cause or nature of a condition or problem (Webster Dictionary, 1977)
Use of incoming information to guide subsequent data acquisition and tends to foster more speculation in judgment (Morgan and Engel, 1969)
Heavily knowledge-dependent that expertise in problem solving develops in line with the evolution of the domain knowledge base (Groves, 2008)
2.1 Problem solving & knowledge construction(1) Morgan and G.L. Engel (1969). The Clinical Approach to the Patient, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia Groves, M. (2008). The diagnostic process in medical practice. New York: Nova Biomedical Books.
Through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences (Piaget, 1950)
Knowledge construction includes assembling of knowledge, knowledge being sorted out, refined, or reorganized (Seel, 2003)
Knowledge construction during problem solving (not during instruction) (Phye, 2001)
Reconstruction of old knowledge base plus the dynamic construction of new knowledge based on old reconstructed knowledge base
2.1 Problem solving & knowledge construction(2) Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Phye, G. D. (2001). Problem-solving instruction and problem-solving transfer: The correspondence issue. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 571-578. Seel, N. M. (2003). Model-Centered Learning and Instruction. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 1 , 59-85.
A model of successful learning: Adaptive experts are continually learning and updating their knowledge based on their experiences with novel problems and situational demands (Bransford et al., 1999; Schwatz et al., 2005).
From knowledge construction to problem solving
Knowledge base reconstruction is a primary antecedent for the construction of a solution in a problem-solving context (Phye, 2001; Norman, 2005; Schmidt, 2006).
Externalize the connection between problem solving and knowledge construction is utmost important in learning (Grave et al., 1996; Kinchin et al., 2008)
Working memory Long-term memory Incoming information Retrieve Store Knowledge construction Problem solving Argument mapping Concept mapping ? Knowledge base Solution Mental activity Physical activity 2.2 Problem solving expertise development(3)
Using dual-mapping(argument mapping & concept mapping) to improve problem solving performance and domain knowledge understanding
Information obtaining(action selection, action justification, information identification, ...); argument mapping; concept mapping
Integrating relevant information in the map will be useful
Describing connections through links, text, and icons
Structuring connections to make thinking process clear
Simple map interface via pre-defined filtering, or highlighting technique
Big picture to visualize the connections among the most relevant points
(T)rail as marked route
Tracing learning pathway
3.4 “ELICIT”principles to guide the design Okada, A. (2010). Eliciting Thinking Skills with Inquiry Maps inn CLE. In P. L. Torres & R. d. C. V. Marriott (Eds.), Handbook of research on collaborative learning using concept mapping. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. L. (1999). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. In A. Iran-Nejad & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of Research in Education. Washington DC: American Educational Research Association.
Ericsson, K. A. (2008). Deliberate Practice and Acquisition of Expert Performance: A General Overview. Academic Emergency
Kirschner, P. A. (2003). Visualizing argumentation : software tools for collaborative and educational sense-making. London: Springer.
Norman, G. R. (2005). Editorial - Beyond PBL. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 9, 257-260.
Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. (2006). The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them. Pensacola, FL: Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.
Patel, V. L., Yoskowitz, N. A., & Arocha, J. F. (2007). Towards effective evaluation and reform in medical education: a cognitive and learning sciences perspective. Adv Health Sci Educ.
Schmidt, H. J. (2006). Alternative approaches to concept mapping and implications for medical education: Commentary on reliability, validity and future research directions. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11(1), 69-76.
Spector, J. M. (2006). A methodology for assessing learning in complex and ill-structured task domains. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 43(2), 109-120.
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