IT Security for the Physical Security Professional
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  • 1. IT Security for the Physical Security Professional Dave Tyson, MBA, CPP, CISSP Angela Swan, CISSP November 18, 2005
  • 2. Speakers
    • Dave Tyson
      • CPP, CISSP
      • MBA
      • CSO for City of Van
      • National CIO Subcommittee for Info protection
      • 2006 Chair ASIS International IT Security Council
    • Angela Swan
      • CISSP
      • CUCBC Security
      • City of Van IT Security Manager
      • Supervised IT Security for HSBC Bank Canada
      • Network and security for the New West PD
  • 3. Agenda
    • Introductions
    • Overview of IT Security – debunk some myths and terminology
    • Technical stuff
    • Break
    • Enterprise Security
    • Lunch – Keynote Speaker
    • What you can do
    • Where you can help today
    • Some checklists and other resources
  • 4. Changing Threat Paradigm for Physical Security
    • Physical security had been chiefly responsible for fraud, theft, harassment issues in the workplace
    • New people in the organization responsible for security “stuff” that may not have specific security backgrounds
  • 5. The Future… Why should you care?
    • 850 Million end points on the Internet (2004)
    • 2.3 Billion Cell Phones
    • When the 3 rd generation network is fully deployed and all cell phones are internet devices, the internet will be triple the size with fewer protections
    • HSPD 12
  • 6. What does this mean on the risk side of the equation?
    • What gets worse?
    • Fraud
    • Harassment
    • Stalking
    • Identity theft
    • Phishing & Pharming
    • SPAM
    • Viruses
    • Delivery of Spyware, Trojan horses and Adware
    • What gets easier?
    • What it takes to perpetrate these activities
    • Committing the same crimes in a new way
  • 7. The Real Problem
    • The average Physical Security Professional knows very little about these issues at this time!
  • 8. Risks are Everywhere
    • Keystroke Loggers
    • Sharepoint
    • National Bank
    • IBM
    • Backup tape losses
    • Hundreds of computers unaccounted for in the federal government
  • 9. Federal Government
    • 2004 Report to parliament by from Privacy Commissioner details the loss of 330 Computers from agencies and departments such as:
      • RCMP
      • Canadian Space Agency
      • CCRA
      • DND
      • Corrections
      • Refugee Board
      • others
  • 10. Laptop Theft
    • More than 600,000 laptops reported stolen in 2004 – Safeware insurance
      • 720 Million Dollars in losses
      • 5.4 Billion Dollars in theft of proprietary information
    • Chances of having a laptop stolen are 1 in 10 – Gartner Group
    • 80% of all laptop thefts are internal and 73 % of companies do not have laptop specific policies - Gartner
    • 80% of companies surveyed acknowledged financial losses due to computer breaches – CSI/FBI Computer Crime Survey 2005
  • 11. Caveats
    • Technology can be complicated, so we may make some generalizations during the presentation to aid in learning
    • Ask questions as we go because we will build on knowledge learned as session goes on – 2 or 3 slides might be a bit painful, but ask lots of questions and you will get there!
  • 12. Basic Philosophy
    • Confidentiality of Data
    • Availability of Data
    • Integrity of Data
    • Security is a weakest link discipline – find the vulnerability by asking the correct questions and you can now close the hole
  • 13. Basic Philosophy Electronic Information Physical Information Confidentiality Access Control List / Profile Access Control List / Badge Personal Recognition Keys Authorization User ID / Password Picture ID Alarm Code Authentication Servers / Data Buildings / Assets Access Control IT Security World Physical Security World Security Concept
  • 14. Smoke & Mirrors
    • Information provides power
    • IT people generally have little interest in security or they “know all about it”
    • In general, security is not well built in to IT systems or is turned off by default for ease of use or setup
    • Risk assessment is not well done
  • 15. Debunking the Mystery
    • IT people generally know more than physical security people about IT Security? (Security mindset is what’s important)
    • The fields are not concerned with the same issues?
    • Access Control is Access Control?
    • Loss prevention is still the game: just the asset is different?
  • 16. Terminology as a Weapon
    • ISP
    • VPN
    • USB
    • VLAN
    • IP Packets
    • Network
    • Server
    • Be prepared for TLAs….
    It’s not as bad as it looks!!
  • 17. Concentric Circle Theory
    • Also called defense in depth
    • Physical Security Architecture
      • Physical Controls
      • Policy, Procedures, Standards
      • Emergency Response
      • Services
        • Safewalk
        • Investigations
  • 18. The Dilemma Security Cost Ease of use
  • 19. Computer and Network Basics
    • PC / Workstation User computer typically dedicated to a single person’s use
    • Laptop Effectively a mobile PC
    • Server A more powerful PC that does the jobs required by the network
    • Hard drive A storage device in your computer
  • 20. Computer and Network Basics
    • Computer is made up of hardware and software
    • String computers together by wires or wireless, you have a network
    • The internet, or Intranet, is really just a big network that people can go to
  • 21. Computer and Network Basics
    • Internet – computers you can communicate with outside your network
    • Intranet – computers you can communicate inside your network
  • 22. IT Architecture
    • Logical Controls
      • Firewall
        • Outside circle – first line of defense
      • Access Controls
    • Policy, Procedures, Standards
    • Emergency (Incident) Response
    • Services
      • E-mail
      • Web Surfing
  • 23. Everybody has a job to do!
    • Web Server
    • E-mail Server
    • Firewall
    • File Server
  • 24. Terminology and Concepts
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • E-mail
    • Web Surfing (HTTP)
    • Applications
    • Databases
    • Firewall
    • DMZ / Segmentation
  • 25. More Technical Stuff
    • Storage
    • Client server
        • Client
        • Server
    • Router
    • Cabling
      • Ethernet
      • Fibre Optic
    • Packets
    • Addressing
    • Modems
  • 26. Break Time
  • 27. Common ITS Attacks
    • Man in the middle
    • Brute Force
    • Spoofing
    • Denial of Service
    • Sniffer attacks
    • Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses
  • 28. Slammer
    • January 25, 2003
    • First victim 12:30am Eastern Standard Time
    • 12:45am huge sections of the Internet off line
    • Three hundred thousand cable modems in Portugal went dark, and South Korea fell right off the map: no cell phone or Internet service for 27 million people.
    • Slammer knocked out more than just the Internet. Emergency 911 dispatchers in Seattle resorted to paper. Continental Airlines, unable to process tickets, canceled flights from its Newark hub.
    • Total cost of the bailout: more than $1 billion.
    Source: www.wired.com
  • 29. Enterprise Security
    • Physical Security of IT Assets
    • Access Control
    • Network Security
    • Disaster Recovery
    • Encryption
    • Legal
    • Human Resources
    • Telecommunications
    • Spyware
    • Computer Crime
  • 30. Physical security of IT assets
    • Laptops
    • PDA
    • USB Storage
    • IPOD
    • Monitors
    • Servers
    • Cooling and Fire Suppression
  • 31. Access Control
    • Perimeter
    • AD – Directory Services
    • Application Access Control
    • DMZ
    • Segmentation
  • 32. Network Security
    • Patching
    • Excessive Services
    • Servers
    • Database Security
    • Modems
    • Wireless
    • Documentation
    • Disposal of Technology Assets
  • 33. Disaster Recovery
    • Network is mission critical for business resumption
      • Payments, salaries, purchasing
    • Phones (VOIP)
    • Security systems reliant on network?
    • Incident Response
      • Custody of evidence
      • Law enforcement Liaison
      • Review of alarm and access logs
  • 34. Encryption
    • File encryption
      • Do not confuse this with password protecting a file
    • E-mail encryption
      • If you do not know if it is encrypted, it isn’t
    • Digital certificate
    • Digital signature
    • Remote access
    • Wireless
      • War driving – for fun and profit
  • 35. Remote Access Security Enter your User ID: Enter your Password : Access Granted JSmith Iw2gstw! INTERNET File sharing server (KaZaa, BearShare, Napster) On-line video game server (Quake, Counterstrike, Everquest) Your Company Home User
  • 36. Wireless Home INTERNET
  • 37. Legal
    • Section 163 - Child Porn
    • Interception - Section 184 (1)
      • Everyone who, by means of any electro-magnetic, acoustic, mechanical or other device, willfully intercepts a private communication is guilty of an indictable offence…..
    • Theft of Telecommunications - Section 326 (1)b
      • Everyone commits theft who fraudulently…uses any telecommunications facility or obtains any telecommunication service
  • 38. Human Resources
    • Code of Ethics
    • Confidentiality Agreements
    • Background checks on vendors and ITS consultants
  • 39. Telecommunications
      • Telephone Fraud
        • Phone Wall
      • Wireless
        • 801.x WiFi
        • Bluetooth
        • RIM – Blackberry
        • Wireless Air-cards
        • Evil Twins
        • “ Netstumbler”
      • Voice of Internet Protocol (VOIP)
  • 40. Spyware
    • Broad definition could be: software that -
      • is installed on a user’s computer to collect information about the user or use of a computer without appropriate notice and consent
      • makes unauthorized use of users’ computers and Internet connections or
      • has faulty or weak user-privacy protections
    • Information collected or tracked can include click-stream data and user’s web browsing habits, online transaction information (such as credit card numbers), user names, passwords, etc.
    • Keystroke Loggers ( a.k.a. , Keyloggers or Snoopware)
      • Software that runs in background, recording all keystrokes of user
  • 41. Installation Methods of Spyware
    • Drive-by downloads
      • automatic download to computer, often without knowledge or consent
      • can be initiated by visiting a web site or viewing an HTML e-mail message
    • Bundling
      • installation takes place along with another application
        • e.g., some peer-to-peer file sharing applications and some screensavers
    • Deception
      • installation occurs when user clicks on a deceptive window
        • e.g., pop-up window that resembles request from reputable organization
  • 42. Negative Effects of Spyware
    • Loss of privacy, including potential for identity theft
    • Loss of control, including potential for:
      • redirect of “home” and “search” pages
      • increased number of advertisements
      • hijacking of browser or Internet connection
      • difficulty in removing unwanted software
    • Decreased desktop productivity
      • potential to slow down a user’s Internet connection
    • Potential to impact user’s ability to install applications
  • 43. Computer Crime
    • Dramatic increase in cyber crime
      • 20 minutes to 12 seconds in 1 year
    • Identity Theft
    • Access to confidential information
      • The only change is location of the asset
  • 44. LUNCH
  • 45. What you can do!
    • Security awareness
    • Wireless
    • Cybercrime reduction
    • Data centre security
    • Personnel security
    • Threat and Risk Assessment
  • 46. Security Awareness
    • Talk to users about risks of equipment, data, personal information, competitive info
      • Inadvertent disclosure
    • Repetition is the key – new employee orientation is still important
    • Evangelize incidents when they do occur
    • When servers go down find out why? This may be a source of information to support more security
  • 47. Wireless
    • Determine if a policy exists at your workplace on wireless – communicate the risks if not
    • Assist in identifying rogue wireless equipment
    • Support possible encryption solutions
  • 48. Cybercrime Reduction
    • Work together to look for signs of cyber crime – 2 departments are better than 1
    • Security awareness sessions should include spyware awareness and how this can effect cyber criminals ability to victimize
      • Firewalls
      • Antivirus
      • Anti spyware
      • Know what you download – read the Licensing agreement
  • 49. Data Centre Security
    • Review data centre environmental controls and procedures
      • HVAC
      • Power
      • Data Tape removal
    • Networking equipment
      • Cable Rooms
      • Network closets
  • 50. Personnel Security
    • System Administrators and DBA’s
      • Increased privledges and access create potential mission critical risks if employment relationship degrades – prepare differently
    • Background checks on all persons who will get elevated privledges
    • Techies have all kinds of information storage devices
  • 51. Threat and Risk Assessment
    • Add ITS items to building TRA
      • Open ports in public areas
      • Access to desktops by unauthorized persons
      • Wireless hotspots
      • Storage areas of IT assets
      • Physical security controls of IT areas
      • Fire suppression issues in data centres
      • Privacy impacts
  • 52. ITS Standards
    • ISO 17799
    • COBIT
    • NIST
    • Orange Book
  • 53. Top 20 ITS Vulnerabilities
    • Desktop Security
    • Password Choice
    • Password Sharing
    • Insecure User ID and Password
    • Excessively logged in machines
    • Wireless
    • USB Storage
    • Portable devices w/o passwords
    • Access control to equipment
    • No background checks on administrators
    • Patch Installation
    • Excessive Services
    • Stale user pool
    • Unauthorized privledges
    • Too many power users
    • Bad installations
    • In-secure coding
    • Plain text authentication
    • Remote access back doors
    • Logs not audited
  • 54. ISO 17799
  • 55. Break
  • 56. Where you can help – Today?
    • TRA
    • Cyber Investigations
    • Loss Prevention – Hardware
    • Confidentiality
    • Desktop Security
    • Security Awareness
  • 57. Security Awareness Checklist
    • Inappropriate Content
      • Education
      • Filtering Equipment
    • Web mail
      • MSN
      • Yahoo
    • Passwords
      • Selection
      • protection
    • Hardware
      • Laptops
      • Palm pilots
      • USB Storage devices
      • LCD, cell phones
    • Privileges
      • Termination or leave
      • Transfer departments
  • 58. Security Awareness Checklist
    • Good Practices
      • Locking workstation when away
      • Don’t share passwords or ID’s
      • Naming servers
    • Dangerous items
      • Keyloggers
      • Wireless access
      • Easy to remove storage devices
      • CD writers
  • 59. Spyware Checklist
    • Use defense mechanisms
    • Don’t allow free programs
    • Lock down desktop
      • Day-to-day tasks do not require Administrator privileges
    • Recognize deceptive software
    • Recognize signs of spyware in action
      • Slow performance
      • Browser hijacking
      • Pop ups
      • Clicking sounds or lights flashing when computer not in use
  • 60. Technical Checklist
    • Non std ports should be closed unless required to be open – Who/what is using these ports? i.e. port 51015 is open for no reason
    • Turn off default or unnecessary services
      • Echo
      • Chargen
      • Discard
      • HTTP
    • Move away from clear text authentication services
      • FTP ( should never communicate with the outside world directly using plain text authentication)
      • Telnet
    • (Use SSH or SFTP instead)
    • Make sure your running updated versions of software with current patches
    • Especially if you are running webservers i.e. apache
    Make friends first
  • 61. Technical Checklist
    • No unencrypted administrator passwords left on servers
    • Everything of value needs a password, especially admin accounts
    • No surfing the web with administration accounts
    • Reduce the opportunity for arbitrary code to be able to run
    • Registry should not be writable for non –admin users
  • 62. Technical Checklist
    • Avoid allowing anonymous connections
    • Turn off unnecessary web servers (Tivoli Storage web server, Apache, other)
    • SNMP community strings – should be disabled or set to private, make sure the version is patched or up to date
    • Passwords should not be “hard-coded” into applications
    • Wireless is simply dangerous!
  • 63. Website Resources
    • www.securityfocus.com
    • www.issa.org
    • www.isaca.org
    • www.sans.org
  • 64. Questions? Angela Swan [email_address] Dave Tyson [email_address]