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The slideshow covers several aspects of child development. Concepts include the Stages of Cognitive Development.

The slideshow covers several aspects of child development. Concepts include the Stages of Cognitive Development.

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  • 1. Module 3 ED 300 Educational psychology Mr. John Jenkins Spring 2007 Franklin Palacios Bruce Camacho Regina Doone
  • 2. Jean Piaget
    • * Swiss Psychologist who studied the learning behavior of children.
    • *Introduced the cognitive-developmental theory.
    • * Theory based on the assumption that people try to create knowledge through direct experience with objects, people, and ideas.
    • *Identified the 4 stages of cognitive development.
  • 3. Contributions…
    • Piaget’s developmental perspective convinced others in his field that children are active learners.
    • His theory encouraged the development of educational philosophies and programs that emphasize learning through direct contact with the environment.
    • The stages of cognitive development are associated with specific ages and serve as general guidelines and not as labels.
    • People use one level of thinking to solve on kind of problem and a different level to solve another.
  • 4. Schemes
    • * The basic building blocks of thinking.
    • * Mental systems or categories of perception and experience.
    • * People tend to organize thinking processes into psychological structures.
    • * System of understanding and interacting with the world.
  • 5. Sensorimotor Stage
    • Piaget’s first stage, during which infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands and other sensorimotor equipment.
    • Spans the first two years of life.
  • 6. Major Accomplishments
    • Object permanence
    • *The understanding that objects exists in the environment whether the baby perceives them or not.
    • Goal-directed actions
    • * Deliberate actions to achieve a goal
  • 7. Preoperational Stage
    • * The stage before a child masters logical mental operations .
    • *Use of symbols to represent action schemes
    • * Children imitate what they see.
    • *Found between the ages of 2 and 7 years old.
  • 8. Concrete-operational
    • * Stage in which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information
    • * “Hands-on thinking”
    • * Extends to about 7 to 11 years of age
    • * Activity : blocks to demonstrate “parts” of a “whole” and “One-half”
  • 9. Formal Operational
    • * Final stage In which adolescents develop the capacity for abstract, scientific thinking.
    • * Main characteristic of this stage is the use of logical thinking and understanding.
    • * Begins at around age 11 years old.
    • * Activity : Debates-tied into Social studies or Research activities-Science. Example: Possible alternative energy sources in the CNMI.
  • 10. What are Formal Operations?
    • Mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables.
    • Focus of thinking shifts from what “is” to what “might be”.
    • Hypo-deductive reasoning—a problem solving strategy that requires organized, scientific thinking to generate different possibilities for a given situation.
    • Adolescent egocentrism—assumptions that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, and concerns.
  • 11. Key Terms
    • Disequilibrium: In Piaget’s theory, the “out-of-balance” state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation.
    • Sensorimotor: Encompasses the use of the 5 senses and motor activity.
    • Operations: Actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions.
    • Preoperational: The stage before a child masters logical and mental operations.
    • Concrete Operations : Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations.
  • 12. Continued…
    • Concrete operations: Concrete tasks tied to concrete objects and situations.
    • Egocentric: Assuming the others experience the world the way you do.
  • 13. Guidelines …
    • Conservation:
  • 14. Hypothetical thinking
    • “ If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side.”
    • Take a look at the cards below and and tell me, which cards do I need to turn over to tell if this rule is actually true?