the reality of today’smanagersUncertainty AmbiguityNew Leadership requiredFast changing Digital impact Globalization
How can employee engagement be increased?How can teams achieve higher performance?How should managers deal with uncertainty?How do managers really motivate others to change?How can top employees be retained?What factors really drive customer satisfaction?How can management decision making be improved?issues for companies
is leadership working?21%41%38%Disengaged orDisenchantedFully EngagedEmployees not fully engaged in their workPartially EngagedSource: Towers Perrin Global Workforce Study (2007/08)Gallup: The cost of employee disengagement£32 billion in the UK • €100 billion in France • $370 billion in USA
positive psychologyPositivePsychologyClinicalPsychologyOk Good Great ExtraordinaryIllness DifficultyHuman PerformanceFixing Problems Optimizing PerformancePsychological Healing Psychological Fitness
from strong to extraordinaryPositive Psychology…Identifying the factors that drive greatness.…Training people to perform at their best.Positive Leadership…Positive psychology applied to managers and their teams.…Science of driving results, by optimizing behavior.
big leadership situationslow frequency, major impact“Closed the plant and movedproduction overseas”“Redesigned the customerrelations management system”“Developed the strategy that putus on the track to success”
moments of truthhigh frequency, with subtle and cumulative impact“Changed format of weeklymarketing meeting”“Got past emotions, chose influencetactic that convinced ___ to support thechange.”“Decided to bring an outsiderinto the design process”“Pushed the team to adoptpromotion campaign A, not B”
EmotionalSystem*mindwareWhiteboardControllerAttentionHard Drive* Gospik, Mohlin, et al ( 2011), PLoS Biology
say the wordsBlueGreenYellowRedYellowYellowGreenBlueRedGreenBlueRedGreenYellowBlueGreen
say the colors************************************************************************************************
say the colorsBlueGreenYellowRedYellowYellowGreenBlueRedGreenBlueRedGreenYellowBlueGreen
married and lookingStefan is looking at Ana...…but Ana is looking at George.Stefan is married, George is not.Q: Is a married personLooking atan unmarried person?Stanovich, Toplak & West (Winter, 2010), Rotman Magazine.
correct answer?! Is a married person looking at a unmarried person?10% 7%83%Yes No CantDetermine%RespondentsTypical GroupStefan(married)Ana(?)George(unmarried)
situation: the words we useHow long was the last movie you saw?short8090100110120"Long" "Short"Minutes(avg)Mode: 120Mode: 90
Emotional Systemmindwarethe basis of our thinkingWhiteboardControllerSpotlightHard DriveCognitive Limitations
Limitedcontrolover ourreflexive behaviorsjudgments about peoplereflexive reactionsemotions…+
reflexive behaviors33Defaults that worked in World 0.0 …don’t always work now.
reflexes and riskGiven €1000Get€500 more, for sure.Get€1000 or €0 (50/50%)Given €2000Give up €500 for sure.Give up €1000 or €0 (50/50%)ABAB
reflexes and risk94%6%Sure Thing Risky Bet%Participants28%72%Sure Thing Risky Bet%ParticipantsGetting More Giving Up
wired for negativesimple finding, worth a Nobel Prize36GainLossPleasure+500-500Painmoving referenceNegatives hurt2-3x as muchas positives please.Employee Feedback?Source: Kahneman & Tversky (1979), Econometrica.
Costsmoment of truthCostsBenefitsBENEFITS• Often delayed• Often less certain• Often harder to “simulate”• Often less quantifiableCOSTS• Often immediate• Often certain• Often easy to “simulate”• Often easy to quantify2-3x(psychological multiplier)Your ProposalTrend
impact on behavior123learn to identify moments of truthgreater awareness provides foundation for doing better.better understand reflexive behaviorsdesign teams, work processes to maximize use of strengths.tune and train mindwaremindfulness, self-regulation, practical exercises.4 shift from reflexive to effective behaviorsleveraging science of habit formation and change.
strengthsbraverycreativitycaution curiosityfairness gratitudefuture-mindednessteamworkauthenticityhumilityopen-mindednesskindness energyperseveranceappreciation of excellenceforgiveness humorlearningperspective commandself-regulation social-intelligencepurpose
return on developmentwhat research is showingPerformanceDevelopment EffortWeaknessTrajectoryStrengthTrajectory
change in emphasisStrengths• Identify (there are tools)• Develop• Maximize use• Don’t over-useWeaknesses• Identify• Accept• Develop to minimum requiredLearn to usestrengths…… to workaroundweaknesses.
examplesWho: Toyotas North American Parts CentreFact: 400 employees went through strengths-based interventions: 1-year later,per-person-productivity at the warehouse increased by 6% (normal variation1%)Connelly, 2002Who: Wachovia BankFact: Increase in performance of 13% with a group of employees who theypositively engaged in the purpose of the Bank vs. a control group who wasn’tpositively motivated.Harter & Schmidt, 2002Who: Zappos.comFact: Implemented positive management approaches , became “Top 25companies to work for” (Fortune) , reached $1b sales target, acquired by AmazonFinancial Times,2011
impactEmployees engaged, positiveFact: Productivity 31% greater.Fact: Sales 37% higher.Fact: Take 56% fewer sick days.Companies focusing on strengthsFact: Stores scoring higher on EE satisfaction add $21/sq.ft in earningsthan other stores.Fact: 75% engaged employees believe can improve cost/quality/Servicevs. only 25% for disengaged employees .Fact: Companies in “Best Companies to Work For”, profits 315%.
power of strengthsthey produce well-being, and performancefeel more positivebecome more engageddevelop deeper relationshipsexperience greater meaningfeel more accomplishedPERMAachieve extraordinary results
win-winPsychological well-beingof employeesFinancial well-beingof the company
across levelsTransforming LeadershipIndividualsTeamsWorkplace
positive leadershiprecognize moments of truthbetter understand behaviortrain mindwareshift to more effective behaviorsfocus on positive developmentarchitect teams, functions, organization… to allow people to perform at their peak.
positive executive education§ Behavioral Decision Making§ Managing Ambiguity & Uncertainty§ Developing Individual Strengths§ Positive Methods for High Performing Teams§ Positive Approaches to Innovation & Creativity§ Psychology of Leadership & Change§ …others.Translating science……into practical training for managers.