Cultural heritag...
                                        When science meets Art and Heritage

                CIRAM, Innovation and ...
                                                    Characterization of the materials

       The aim of these studi...
             HD digital X-Ray radiography fully transportable

    CIRAM owns a last generation equipment, composed ...
                                                                                         Few examples

X-Ray radi...
                            Digital and fully transportable imaging

    To complete the X-Ray radiography, CIRAM pr...
                                                        Safe marking CIRAM Track

Why marking works of art?
                                                                             A network of skills

    CIRAM team is ...
                                                                                    Few references


     Dating problematics and archaeological materials

            INRAP Grand Sud-Ouest, Grand-Ouest

Dating problematics

2007   ROQUE C., VARTANIAN E., quot;Chronologie des cultures               GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., ...

                 Centre d’Innovation et de Recherche
                 pour l’Analyse et le Marquage

When science...
CIRAM  Scientific Analysis For Cultural Heritage  May 20009
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CIRAM Scientific Analysis For Cultural Heritage May 20009


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CIRAM Scientific Analysis For Cultural Heritage May 20009

  1. 1. CHARACTERIZATION PRESERVATION EXPERTISE Cultural heritage Historic monuments CIRAM Analysis september 2007
  2. 2. CIRAM When science meets Art and Heritage CIRAM, Innovation and Research Center for Analysis and Marking, offers you its scientific and technical skills in numerous analytical areas. Characterization of the X-Ray radiography and Safe marking materials imaging in situ CIRAM offers you a real scientific accompaniment. More than an ordinary service provider, CIRAM promises to be a quality partner and an experienced adviser. The CIRAM quality charter includes: The immediate taking in charge of your request, The proposition of an analysis in adequacy to the problematics posed, A rigorous and carefully thought out analytical reasoning, based, particularly, on a detailed knowledge of the methods used, of the optimum implementation conditions, of the limits, An adapted technology, ensuring a result scientifically rigorous, A critical synthesis of the data obtained, Study delays reduced. . We have the means and the will to be a real scientific partner, attentive to your problematics. We accompany you in all the steps of the analytic process, from the sampling to the interpretation of the results. 1
  3. 3. CIRAM Characterization of the materials The aim of these studies is to identify the composition and the deterioration of the materials, to reveal previous modification steps and to propose a technical assistance to their restoration. CIRAM’s skills cover a wide spectra of mineral, metallic, organic materials analysis techniques. The analysis Painting Stratigraphical study, characterization of the supports, of the painting grounds, of the colouring materials, of the minerals and of the binders. Preservation level, pentiments, underlying drawings. The means Optical microscopy and SEM-EDX (energy dispersion X-Ray), PIXE, Raman Spectrometry, FTIR Spectrometry, Chromatography, Micro chemical tests, Ultra Violet and Infrared spectra imaging and HD digital X-Ray radiography fully transportable. Stone The analysis Mineralogical study, characterization of the deteriorations and of the previous treatments, microbiological study. The means Optical microscopy and SEM-EDX, Raman spectrometry, X-Rays diffraction, Soluble salts, DNA sequencing. Metal The analysis Composition of the alloys and identification of the corrosion processes, development and localisation of the deteriorations. The means Metallographic microscopy and SEM-EDX, PIXE, HD digital X-Ray radiography fully transportable. Glass, enamel and The analysis earthenware Elementary composition of the vitreous matrix, of the colourings and of the deterioration products. Preservation level. The means Optical microscopy and SEM-EDX, PIXE, Raman Spectrometry, HD digital X-Ray radiography fully transportable. CIRAM is the only private laboratory proposing a studies panel so wide (PIXE in extracted bundle for example), to answer as well as possible to the diversity of your problematics. Most part of our studies are realised in two weeks. 2
  4. 4. CIRAM Studies examples The pigments and the minerals a/ b/ 1645 52000 c/ 48000 548 44000 Study of a wall painting by optical 40000 1356 1096 36000 microscopy (a/), SEM (b/) and EDX 32000 analysis (c/). The blue microparticles 28000 Counts correspond to vitreous phases of 24000 806 smalt kind (crushed glass coloured in 20000 586 16000 blue by the cobalt) associated to 258 12000 289 microparticles of white lead. 8000 4000 0 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Wavenumber (cm-1) Stratigraphy of a wall painting and characterization of an ultramarine blue pigment by Raman spectrometry. The organic binders Stratigraphic view of Intensité (u.a.) chemical test with quot;bleu de FTIR spectra of an quot;animal Nilquot;. This product indicates gluequot; protein binder . lipid binder when Analysis find a skin rabbit the layer is blue. glue. 400 900 1400 1900 2400 2900 3400 3900 nombre d'onde (cm-1) Others examples a/ b/ The electron and optical microscopies (SEM) permit to study a big number of different materials. Textiles (a/), metal (b/), ceramic, rocks, mortars… Some prices Complete statigraphic study (optical microscopy + SEM): 500 € HT by sampling Analysis of the binder: 200 € HT to 360 € HT by sampling 3
  5. 5. CIRAM HD digital X-Ray radiography fully transportable CIRAM owns a last generation equipment, composed of a high-powered generator and a digital HD acquisition system fully transportable, which allows in situ intervention and getting X- ray images in real time. These characteristics permit to bring immediate and pertinent answers to the questions posed. Digital X-Ray radiography We can realise negatives of X-Ray equipment used in situ, for radiography on: example, to identify metallic archaeological vestiges and to Paintings observe their preservation level. restoration, surpaint, pentiment… Terra cota Filling-up, reconstruction, putting up… Metal Making techniques, corrosion… Digital plate of acquisition of the Wood, bone, ivory radiography identification, crack, restoration,… Impetus X- Rays Stone generator restoration, crack, putting up… (270 KV) Arms observation of the mechanisms… and more generally on any kind of Computer system of control and materials, the only limit of acquisition of the radiographies intervention being linked to the density and the thickness to go through. Radiographical studies in real time in situ The instant X-rays analysis offers the possibility of adapting to real-time analytical procedure. It also permits to acquire the most relevant images with the most appropriate experimental parameters. Our material is easily transportable, so we can intervene wherever you need. This quick analysis capacity is an important asset, because it provides an immediate reaction between the reading of the X-ray negatives and the questions raised by the comments. It allows an optimal interaction with the person who can guide the study at its discretion. 4
  6. 6. CIRAM Few examples X-Ray radiography image of the opening mechanism of a barrel of iron sealed X-Ray radiography and normal images of the right leg of a sketch in plaster of Auguste Rodin. The X-ray reveals a metal frame with vertical pipe through the heel and back in the leg. X-Ray radiography and normal images of a 20th century painting. We can see a painting underlying totally different which includes, in particular, a cow in the lower right. (arrows indicate the direction) Intervention on quote From 350 € HT in our offices and from 700 € HT in situ Tapering charges according to the dimensions and/or to the number of objects 5
  7. 7. CIRAM Digital and fully transportable imaging To complete the X-Ray radiography, CIRAM proposes also a wide spectra of digital imaging in situ, including: Image in raking light Image in ultra violet fluorescence (UV) Infrared Reflectography (IR) Thus, the analysis methodology developed by CIRAM is in keeping with a complete process that permits to characterize pictorial works of art in the most pertinent way. Infrared reflectography. Oil painting - detail, 17th century © CIRAM – 2007 Natural light Raking light Ultra Violet Fluorescence Oil painting - detail, 17th century – © Fine arts museum, Pau – 2007 An integrated methodology Our works are the object of a critical synthesis report gathering the whole photographic documentation and the results of complementary analysis. Associated to our methods of digital imaging, we propose also a complete range of characterization (PIXE, Raman…) and of dating (Radiocarbon14, dendrochronology…) of the materials. All our imaging techniques are implemented in situ. Intervention on quote 6
  8. 8. CIRAM Safe marking CIRAM Track Why marking works of art? quot;We can consider that only 2 to 5 % of the 7000 objects stolen each year are returned to their owner, for lack of proof.quot; Source : Assemblée Nationale, Rapport N°3533, Pierre Lequiller, 16 janvier 2002 The two main causes are the lack of information (precise description of the good) and the absence of act of property. In this context, the « trace-marking » of a work of art constitutes a real protection. Thus, by ensuring the traceability of an objet, CIRAM TRACK® permits its durable identification, easily assimilated to an act of property, increases your heritage security, is dissuasive against the falsification and facilitates the restitution in case of loss or robbery. How does CIRAM Track® work? 5 levels of « trace-marking » possible 5 essential criteria a labelling visible and coded, dissuasive and easy to Unfalsifiable to avoid the copy detect The code contains information relative to the work of art marked Inalterable to ensure the durability in an ink invisible with the eyes the time only visible with a suitable lighting a marking with physicochemical properties Single to ensure the restitution deposited in the mass and whose second reading requires in situ use of a portable equipment Visible to be dissuasive an electronic element established in the mass associated to a single identification number detectable by a specific equipment Invisible to securitize discretly a magnetic element established in the mass with single characteristics, measurable by a suitable equipment Low-level security Maximum security 1 2 3 4 5 Number of elements used for marking To complete physical marking, each file associated to the object contains: A card of police force recognized by the services of police force, French gendarmerie and customs with format “Interpol”, A certificate of marking, characteristic of the elements used and allowing the localization of their establishment. This documentation permits an autonomy of the « trace-marking » facing CIRAM. ® Safe marking CIRAM Track From 50 € T.T.C 7
  9. 9. CIRAM A network of skills CIRAM team is a privileged contact, ready and responsive, able to answer most of your analysis and dating problematics. In that aim, we have developed partnerships with recognized specialists to put in place an efficient network of skills , in various study domains : The dating of wood by dendrochronology, The study of wood species, The textiles analysis, The geophysical prospecting, … CIRAM’s will is to propose a wide range of quality analytical services, in optimized delays. An innovating reasoning In addition, CIRAM develops research and development programs for the protection and the analysis in situ on works of art and archaeological artefacts. Effects of these research, two services particularly innovating are now proposed by our laboratory: Safe marking of works of art and heritage objects (CIRAM Track®), The dating of heated up minerals and of sediments exposed to the light by luminescence optically stimulated: OSL system transportable (currently developing). Nos partenaires dans l’innovation 8
  10. 10. CIRAM Few references Atelier Marc Philippe, Fondettes Tribunal, Assize court - Toulouse (31), Decor of fake woods Notre Dame des Missions Church– Epinay sur Seine (93), Front of 1931 Saint Gilles Church, Pligeaux (22), Polychromies on woods Atelier Jacqueline Laroche, Lesparre-Médoc Chapel of the lighthouse of Cordouan (33), wall th th paintings of the XVII - XIX centuries. Saint-Michel de Rieufret Church (33), wall painting of th the XVII century Technical assistance to the restoration of Immeuble des Dames de la Foi, Périgueux (24), wall th sculptures, mural or easel paintings… painting of the XIV century Musée du Louvre, Département Art Islamique Atelier régional de restauration de Characterisation of adhesive for the fixing of ceramic Kerguehennec, Bignan tiles Recumbent statue of Gilles de Bretagne in Saint Brieuc (22) Musée Rodin Saint Jacques de Douarnenez Church (29), Study by X-Ray radiography of plaster sketches by Polychromy of the vault of the Choir Rodin. Saint Patern church of Vannes (56), altarpieces of the th XVIII century Musée du Petit Palais Study by X-Ray radiography, TL and SEM of a terra Atelier Chevalier Conservation, Paris cota sculpture Study of glue on carpet and tapestry Musée Historique de la ville de Strasbourg Study of a sampling of textile coming from a canvas, to determine the nature of the fibres Study by X-Ray radiography of the relief map of the city of Strasbourg (circa 1727) Emmanuelle Cadet, Restauratrice, Saint Ouen Study by X-Ray radiography of a barrel of iron sealed: Hôtel de Sully – Paris (75), Mural paintings underlining of the opening mechanism Conseil Général de la Dordogne, Conservation Musée Arthur Rimbaud, Charleville Mézières du Patrimoine Characterisation of the organic residues of glass bottles having belonged to Arthur Rimbaud Bourdeilles castle(24), bases of altarpieces presumed th of the XIV century Musée des Beaux Arts de Pau Amélie Methivier, Restauratrice, Paris Study by X-Ray radiography, Ultra Violet and raking Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon (21), Polychromy of a light of an oil painting attributed to Simone Cantarini ème (XVIIth century) Madonna and child, XIV siècle Éditions Louis Faton et Dominique Alsina, expert Michel Prieur, Restaurateur, Tours Analysis of eleven easel paintings of Louise Moillon, Wall paintings of altarpieces of a church in Vendée th XVII century Julien Assoun, Restaurateur, Paris Direction Régionale des Affaires Maritimes Study of the soluble salts and of coatings of the Saint- d'Aquitaine Georges Church, Paris Hôtel de la Marine - Bordeaux (33), Polychromies on wood Atelier In Extenso, Mr Diaz Padregal, Paris Ternand Church (69), Toxicological study of the Atelier Brice Moulinier, Blois structures of the crypt. Abbey of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe (86), mural th th paintings of the XI – XIII centuries and restoration of Atelier Le Goël, Le Bieuzy th the XIX century Research of fungus developments on a vault wood- st th Blois castle, François I area (41), Mural paintings of paneled of the XVIII century, Locquirec Church(29) th Félix Duban, XIX century 9
  11. 11. CIRAM Dating problematics and archaeological materials INRAP Grand Sud-Ouest, Grand-Ouest Conseil Général du Finistère, Service départemental d'Archéologie Conseil Général de Charente-Maritime, Service départemental d'Archéologie Service Archéologique municipal de la ville de Marseille Maison René Ginouvès, CNRS - UMR 8096 quot;Archéologie des Amériquesquot;, Nanterre Scientific expertise of the works of art Pharaonic Egypt, Classical Antiquity, Chinese dynasties, Cultures of South-East Asia, African civilisations, Medieval Islam, Europeans Haut Moyen Age and Renaissance, … Our scientific publications Characterisation problematics BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., NEY C., RAMMAH M., PANNEQUIN B., CILIA PLATAMONE E., DAOULATLI A., 2007 BOBIN O., MOULINIER B., quot;Etude et analyse de GAYRAUD R.P., “The role of copper and silver in the ème ème peintures murales des XI - XIII siècles et colouration of metallic lustre decoration (Tunisia – ème repeints du XIX siècle, Abbaye de Saint-Savin 9th century, Mesopotamia – 10th century, Sicily – sur Gartempe (86).quot;, Cahiers techniques de 16th century). A first approach“, Color Research l’ARAAFU, sous presse. and Application, 28, 5, 352-359. 2005 BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., CHABANNE D., NEY C., 2001 BOBIN O., Céramique glaçurée archéologique à ème SELLIER E., “Mise en évidence de la nanotexture décor de lustre métallique – IX siècle après J.C., des constituants de décors de lustre métallique sur Mosquée Sidi Oqba de Kairouan – Tunisie. des céramiques glaçurées de l'espace Caractérisation, provenance et archéotechnologies. méditerranéen“, Actes de la table ronde quot;Glaçures Thèse de doctorat en Physique des et lustre métalliquequot;, CUEBC, CNRS, Université Archéomatériaux, Université Bordeaux 3. Bordeaux 3, Ravello 11-12 octobre 1998, 31-38. BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., MIANE J.L., FABRE J.F., BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., CHABANNE D., NEY C., GUETTE A., LABRUGERE C., LAHAYE M., “The LABRUGERE C., LAHAYE M., GUETTE A., “Localisation metallic lustre of glazed ceramics: interpretation of et distribution par spectrométrie Auger des the in-scattered-light optical properties. One th constituants colloïdaux des décors de lustre theoretical approach“, Proceeding of the 6 métallique de céramiques glaçurées“, Actes de la European Meeting on Ancient ceramics, Fribourg 3- table ronde quot;Glaçures et lustre métalliquequot;, CUEBC, 6 October 2001, 19-24. CNRS, Université Bordeaux 3, Ravello 11-12 octobre 1998, 39-45. 1999 BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., CHABANNE D., NEY C., CILIA PLATAMONE E., “Données physiques pour une 2003 BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., NEY C., RAMMAH M., nouvelle définition du décor de lustre métallique à DAOULATLI A., PANNEQUIN B., GAYRAUD R.P., partir de céramiques glaçurées mises au jour à “Where did the lustre tiles of Sidi Oqba mosque Syracuse“, Actes du Colloques International quot;De la (836-863 AD) of Kairouan come from?“, céramique à l'Histoirequot;, Perpignan 23-25 novembre Archaeometry, 45,4, 569-577. 1999, sous presse. BOBIN O., SCHVOERER M., MIANE J.L., FABRE J.F., “Coloured metallic shine associated to lustre decoration of the glazed ceramics: a theoretical analysis of the optical properties“, Journal of Non- Crystalline Solids, 332, 28-34. 10
  12. 12. Dating problematics 2007 ROQUE C., VARTANIAN E., quot;Chronologie des cultures GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., ROQUE C., SCHVOERER amérindiennes de Guyane. Contribution de la M., BECHTEL F., quot;Luminescence dating of burnt datation par thermoluminescence : une mise en garde materials: effects of preheat treatment on OSL and contre des pratiques abusives.quot; A paraître. consequences for dating procedures.quot; Radiation Measurements, 33, 4, 439-444. 2004 ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., VIEILLEVIGNE E., BECHTEL F., “Changes in luminescence properties VARTANIAN E., ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., BECHTEL F., induced by thermal treatments; a case study at Sipán quot;Datation de structures de fours néolithiques du tell and Trujillo Moche sites (Peru).quot; Radiation de Dikili Tash (Grèce) : comparaison TL – OSL. Measurements, 38, 119-126. Apport de l'OSL pour les matériaux chauffés ?quot; Datation, Actes des XXI° Rencontres ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., DUTTINE M., VARTANIAN E., Internationales d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes, CHAPOULIE R., BECHTEL F., quot;Dependence of 19-21 Oct. 2000, éd. APDCA, 233-248. luminescence characteristics of irradiated quartz with the thermal treatment and consequences for TL- VARTANIAN E., GUIBERT P., BECHTEL F., SCHVOERER datingquot;. Geochronometria, in Journal on Methods and M., ALBORE-LIVADIE C., quot;Contribution de la Applications of Absolute Chronology, 23, 1-8. thermoluminescence à la chronologie de la culture du Gaudo : datation de céramiques du site de la GUIBERT P., ROQUE C., VARTANIAN E., BECHTEL F., Trinita, Piano di Sorrento, Italiequot;, L’Anthropologie, SCHVOERER M., quot;Datation par luminescence : une 421-434. évaluation de la représentativité des résultats de datation et de leurs incertitudes.quot; Les Hominidés 2000 GUIBERT P., ROQUE C., quot;La datation par et leurs environnements – Histoire et Interactions, Thermoluminescencequot;. Archéométrie, Dossier Colloque de Poitiers, 18-20 septembre 2000, sous d'Archéologie, 253, 16-23. presse. VARTANIAN E., GUIBERT P., ROQUE C., BECHTEL F., 2002 ROQUE C., VARTANIAN E., GUIBERT P., SCHVOERER SCHVOERER M., quot;Changes in OSL properties of M., LEVINE D., ALVA W., JUNGNER H., quot;Recherche quartz by preheating: an interpretation.quot; Radiation chronologique sur la culture Mochica du Pérou : Measurements, 32, 647-652. datation de la tombe du Prêtre de Sipán par 1999 VARTANIAN E., Datation des archéomatériaux par thermoluminescence (TL) et par radiocarbone.quot; luminescence stimulée thermiquement et Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 88, 227- optiquement : TL et OSL de silicates ou de 243. carbonates. Thèse de doctorat en Physique des ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., BECHTEL F., Archéomatériaux, Université Bordeaux 3. TREUIL R., DARCQUE P., KOUKOULI-CHRYSSANTHAKI VARTANIAN E., GUIBERT P., NEY C., BECHTEL F., H., MALAMIDOU D., quot;The chronology of the neolithic SCHVOERER M., GUILAINE J., CREMONESI G., sequence at Dikili Tash, Macedonia, Greece: TL- quot;Chronologie de la néolithisation en Italie du sud- dating of domestic ovens.quot; Archaeometry, 44, 4, 625- est. Nouvelles datations grâce à la 645. thermoluminescence (TL) sur le site de Matera- 2001 ROQUE C., Datation en Archéologie. Des recherches Trasano.quot;, L'Anthropologie, 103, 2, 289-305. méthodologiques en TL et en OSL… aux référentiels 1997 BECHTEL F., GUIBERT P., SCHVOERER M., chronologiques du Solutréen (France), du Néolithique VARTANIAN E., FAÏN J., MIALLIER D., MONTRET M., (Grèce) et de la culture préhispanique Moche PILLEYRE Th., SANZELLE S., BAHAIN J.J., FALGUERES (Pérou). Thèse de doctorat en Physique des C., TRIPIER J., POUPEAU G., MERCIER N. et Archéomatériaux, Université Bordeaux 3. VALLADAS H., quot;Evaluation de l'incertitude de mesure ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., BECHTEL F., de la dose annuelle en datation par luminescence Schvoerer M., quot;Thermoluminescence-dating of (TL, OSL) et par RPE : une expérience calcite: study of heated limestone fragments from d'intercomparaison à la Grotte XVI, Cénac et Saint- Upper Paleolithic layers at Combe-Saunière, Julien, Dordognequot;, Revue d'Archéométrie, 21, 21- Dordogne, France.quot; Quaternary Science Reviews, 20, 27. 935-938. FAÏN J., MIALLIER D., MONTRET M., PILLEYRE Th., ROQUE C., GUIBERT P., VARTANIAN E., BECHTEL F., SANZELLE S., SOUMANA S., BECHTEL F., GUIBERT P., SCHVOERER M., OBERLIN C., EVIN J., MERCIER N., SCHVOERER M., VARTANIAN E., MERCIER N., VALLADAS H., TEXIER J.P., RIGAUD J.Ph., DELPECH F., VALLADAS H., BAHAIN J.J., FALGUERES C., TRIPIER CLEYET MERLE J.J., TURQ A., quot;Une expérience de J., JORON J.L., quot;Intercomparaisons dosimétriques croisement de datations TL/C14 pour la séquence dans le cadre de la datation par TL et par RPE, solutréenne de Laugerie-Haute, Dordogne.quot; Datation, Partie 2 : Milieux naturels témoins de la région de Actes des XXI° Rencontres Internationales Clermont-Ferrand (Puy de Dôme), Revue d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes, 19-21 Oct. d'Archéométrie, 21, 29-34. 2000, éd. APDCA, 217-232. GUIBERT P., ROQUE C., VARTANIAN E., BECHTEL F., quot;Datation par thermoluminescence : un aperçu sur les matériaux et quelques progrès récents.quot; Datation, Actes des XXI° Rencontres Internationales d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes, 19-21 Oct. 2000, éd. APDCA, 31-47. 11
  13. 13. Notes 12
  14. 14. CIRAM Centre d’Innovation et de Recherche pour l’Analyse et le Marquage When science meets Art and Heritage ....................................................................... 1 Characterization of the materials ................................................................................ 2 HD digital X-Ray Radiography fully transportable....................................................... 4 Digital and transportable imaging ............................................................................... 6 Safe marking CIRAM Track ........................................................................................ 7 A network of skills....................................................................................................... 8 An innovating reasoning ............................................................................................. 8 Few references........................................................................................................... 9 To know more about the CIRAM services or to ask for an appointment: Visit our web site: Contact us: 05 56 23 45 35 or 05 57 34 21 18 Send an e-mail: Fax a document : 05 56 23 45 35 Write us: ENSCPB 16, Avenue Pey-Berland – 33600 PESSAC