VENTILATORS AND RESPIRATORS
INTRODUCTION:-Mechanical ventilation is often a life-saving intervention to mechanically assist or replace
spontaneous breathing .This may involve a machine called a ventilator. It can be used as a short term measure, for
example during an operation or critical illness (often in the setting of an intensive care unit). It may be used at home or
in a nursing or rehabilitation institution if patients have chronic illnesses that require long-term ventilatory assistance.
DEFINITION:- A mechanical ventilator is a positive or negative pressure breathing device that can maintain
ventilation and oxygen delivery for a prolonged time.
A mechanical ventilator is a machine that generates a controlled flow of gas into patient’s airway. Oxygen and
air are received from cylinders or wall outlets and gas pressure is reduced and blended according to the
prescribed inspired oxygen tension accumulated in receptacle in the machine and delivered to the patient
using one of available modes for ventilation.
INDICATIONS:1) Decrease in oxygenation
2) Increase in arterial carbon dioxide levels
3) Persistent acidosis
4) Thoracic and abdominal surgery
5) Drug overdose
6) Neuromuscular disorders
7) Inhalation injury
9) Multiple trauma
10) Multiple system failure
11) Shock and coma
CLASSIFICATION OF VENTILATORS:Mechanical ventilators are classified according to the method by which they support ventilation.The two
general categories are:A) Negative pressure ventilators
B) Positive pressure ventilators
The most common category in use today is the positive pressure ventilators.
A) Negative pressure ventilators:- Negative pressure ventilators exert a negative pressure on external chest.
Decreasing the intrathoracic pressure during inspiration allows the air to flow into the lungs, filling its volume.
Physiologically, this type of assisted ventilation is similar to spontaneous ventilation.It is used mainly in chronic
respiratory failure associated with neuromuscular conditions such as poliomyelitis, muscular dystrophy,
amyotropic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. It is inappropriatefor he patients whose condition is
unstable or complex or who require frequent ventilator changes. Negative pressure ventilators are simple to
use and do not require intubation of the airway; consequently they are especially adaptable for home use.
There are several types of negative pressure ventilators:
1.Iron lung (Drinker respirator tank):- The iron lung is a negative pressure chamber used for ventilation. It was
used extensively during polio epidemics in the past and currently is used by few polio survivors and patients
with neuromuscular disorders.
IRON LUNG (INVENTED IN 1929 BY PHILIP DRINKER)
2. Body wrap (pneumo wrap) and chest cuirass (tortoise shell):- Both of these portable devices require a rigid
cage or shell to create a negative pressure chamber around thorax and abdomen. Because of problems with
proper fit and system leaks, these types of ventilators are used only with carefully selected patients.
B) Positive pressure ventilators:- Positive pressure ventilators inflate the lungs by exerting positive pressure
on the airway, forcing the alveoli to expand during inspiration. Expiration occurs passively. Endotracheal
intubation or tracheostomy is necessary in most cases. These ventilators are mostly used in hospital setting
and are increasingly used at home for the patients with primary lung disease. The various types of positive
pressure ventilators are as follows:-
1. Pressure cycled ventilators:- When pressure cycled ventilators are on, it delivers a flow of air (inspiration)
until it reaches a preset pressure and cycle off and expiration occurs passively. Its major limitation is that
volume of oxygen or air may vary as patient’s airway resistance or compliances changes.As a result, the tidal
volume delivered may be inconsistent, possibly compromising ventilation. Consequently, in adults pressure
cycled ventilators are intended only for short term use.
2. Time cycled ventilators:- Time cycled ventilators terminate or control inspiration after a preset time. The
volume of air the patient receives is regulated by the length of inspiration and flow rate of air. Most
ventilators have a rate control that determines the respiratory rate but pure time cycling is rarely usedfor
adults. These ventilators are used in newborns and infants.
3. Volume cycled vebtilators:- Volume cycled ventilators are by far the most commonly used ventilators
today. With this type of ventilator, the volume of air delivered with each inspiration is preset. Once this prest
volume is delivered to the patient, the ventilator cycles off and exhalation occurs passively. From breath to
breath, the volume of air delivered by the ventilator is relatively constant, ensuring consistent, adequate
breaths despite varying airway pressures.
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation:- Positive pressure ventilation can be given via face masks that
cover the nose and mouth, nasal masks or other oral or nasal pillow. NIPPV eliminates the need for
endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy and decreases the risk of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia.
The most comfortable mode for patient is pressure controlled ventilation with pressure support. This eases
the work of breathing and enhances gas exchange. The ventilator can be set with a minimum back up rates for
the patients with apnea.
Patients are consideredcandidates for noninvasive ventilation if they have:-acute or chronic respiratory failure
- acute pulmonary edema
-chronic heart failure
-sleep related breathing disorders.
-head or facial trauma
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP):- CPAP provides positive pressure to the airways throughout
respiratory cycle. Although, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation with a cuffed endotracheal
tube or tracheostomy tube to open the alveoli, it is also used with a leakproof mask to keep alveoli open,
thereby preventing respiratory failure. CPAP is the most effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea,
because positive pressure acts as a splint, keeping the upper airway and trachea and airway open during sleep.
To use CPAP, the patient must be breathing independently.
Bilevel positive pressure airway (bi- PAP):- bi-PAP ventilation offers independent control of inspiratory and
expiratory pressures while providing pressure support ventilation. It delivers two levels of positive airway
pressure provided via a nasal or oral mask or mouthpiece with tight seal and portable ventilator. Each
inspiration can be initiated either by the patient or by the machine if it is programmed with a back up rate. The
back up rate ensures that the patient will receive a set number of breaths per minute. Bi-PAP is most often is
used for patients who require ventilator assistance at night such as those with severe COPD or sleep apnea.
Ventilatory modes refers to how breaths are delivered to the patient. The most commonly used modes are
assist control, Intermittent mandatory ventilation, Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure
support ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation.
1.Assist-control ventilation:- It provides full ventilator support by delivering a preset tidal volume and
respiratory rate. If the patient initiates a breath between between the machine’s breath, the ventilator
delivers at the preset volume. The cycle does not adapt to the patient’s spontaneous efforts; every breath is
2. Intermittent mandatory ventilation:- It provides a combination of mechanically assisted breaths and
spontaneous breaths.Therefore, the patient can increase the respiratory rate but each spontaneous breath is
limited to the tidal volume the patient generates. Mechanical breaths are delivered at preset intervals and a
preselected tidal volume regardless of patients efforts. IMV allows the patient to use their own muscles of
ventilation to help prevent muscle atrophy. It lowers mean airway pressure which can assist in preventing
3. Synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV):- It delivers a preset tidal volume and no. of
breaths per minute. Between ventilator delivered breaths, the patient can breath spontaneously with no
assistance from ventilator on those extra breaths. As a patient’s ability to breath spontaneously
increases, the preset number of ventilator breaths is decreased and patient does more of the work of
breathing. IMV and SIMV can be used to provide full or partial ventilator support. Nursing interventions for
patient receiving IMV or SIMV include monitoring progress by recording respiratory rate, minute volume,
spontaneous and machine generated tidal volume, FiO2 and arterial blood gas levels.
4. Pressure support ventilation (PSV):- It assists SIMV by applying pressure plateau to the airway throughout
the patient triggered inspiration to decrease resistance within the tracheal tube and ventilator tubings.
Pressure support is decreased gradually as patient’s strength increases. An SIMV back up rate may be added
for extra support. The nurse must closely observe the patient’s respiratory rate and tidal volumes on initiation
of PSV. It may be necessary to adjust the pressure support to avoid tachypnea or large tidal volume.
5. Airway pressure release ventilation (ARPV):- It produces tidal ventilation by release of airway pressure
from an elevated baseline airway pressure to stimulate expiration. ARPV is a time triggered , pressure limited,
time cycled mode of mechanical ventilation that allows unrestricted, spontaneous breathing throughout the
ventilator cycle. It also allows alveolar gas to be expelled through lungs natural recoil.
6. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV):- It is a relatively new mode of support providing partial ventilatory
support in which the ventilator generates pressure in proportion to patient’s inspiratory efforts. With every
breath, the ventilator synchronises with the patient’s ventilator efforts. The more inspiratory efforts patient
generates, the more pressure ventilator generates, amplifying the patient’s effort; the depth and frequency of
breaths are controlled by the patient.
ADJUSTING THE VENTILATOR
The ventilator is adjusted so that the patient is comfortable and breaths “in sync” with machine. Minimal
alteration of the normal cardiovascular and pulmonary dynamics is desired. If volume ventilator is adjusted
appropriately the patients arterial blood gas values will be satisfactory and there will little or no cardiovascular
VENTRICULAR CONTROLS AND SETTING
1.TIDAL VOLUME:- The volume of air that the client receives with each breath. (10-15ml/kg)
2. RATE:- Number of ventilator breaths delivered per minue.
3. FRACTION OF INSPIRED OXYGEN:- The oxygen concentration delivered to the client, which is determined by
the client’s condition and ABGs. (80-100mmHg)
4. SIGHS:a) sighs are volumes of air that are 1.5 to 2 times the set tidal volume, delivered 6 to 10 times per hour.
b) sighs may be used to prevent atelectasis.
5. PEAK AIRWAY INSPIRATORY PRESSURE:a) peak inspiratory airway pressure is the pressure needed by the ventilator to deliver a stetidalvolume at a
b) Monitoring peak airway inspiratory pressure reflects changes in compliance of the lungs and resistance in
the ventilator or client.
6. CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE
a) Continuous positive airway pressure is application of positive airway pressure throughout the entire
respiratory cycle for spontaneously breathing clients.
b) Continuous positive airway pressure keeps the alveoli open during inspiration and prevents alveolar
c) Continuous positive airway pressure is used primarily as a weaning modality.
d) During continuous positive airway pressure, no ventilator breaths are delivered, but the ventilator delivers
oxygen and provides monitoring and alarm system.
e) The respiratory pattern is determined by client’s efforts.
7. POSITIVE END EXPIRATORY PRESSURE [PEEP]
a) positive pressure is exerted during the expiratory phase of ventilation.
b) Positive end expiratory pressure improves oxygenation by enhancing gas exchange and preventing
c) The need for PEEP indicates a severe gas exchange disturbance.
d) higher amounts of PEEP (more than 15) increase the chance of complications such as barotraumas tension
8. PRESSURE SUPPORT
a) Pressure support is application of positive pressure on inspiration.
b) It eases the workload of breathing.
c) It may be used in combination with PEEP as a weaning method.
d) As the warning process ensures, the amount of pressure applied to inspiration is gradually decreased.
ASSESSING THE EQUIPMENT
Ventilator needs to be assessed to make sure that it is functioning properly and that the settings are
appropriate. Even though the nurse may not be primarily may not be primarily responsible for adjusting the
settings of ventilator or measuring ventilator parameters, the nurse is responsible for the patient and
therefore needs to evaluate how the ventilator affects the patient’s overall status.
When monitoring the ventilator, the nurse notes the following:-
Type of ventilator
Tidal volume and rate settings
Inspiratory pressure reached and pressure limit. ( normal is 15-20cm H2O; this increases if there is
increased airway resistance or decreased compliance.)
Sensitivity ( a 2cm H2O Inspiratory force should trigger the ventilator)
Inspiratory to expiratory ratio ( 1:3)
Minute volume ( tidal volume × respiratory rate, usually 6-8l/min)
Sigh settings ( usually set at 1.5 times the tidal volume and ranging from 1-3 hours)
Water in the tubing, disconnection or kinking of the tubing.
Humidification and temperature
PEEP and pressure support level, if applicable ( PEEP is usually set at 5-15cm H2O)
CAUSES OF ALARMS
High pressure alarm:1.Increased secretions are in the airway.
2.Wheezing or bronchospasm causes decreased airway size.
3. The endotracheal tube is displaced.
4. The endotracheal tube is obstructed as a result of water or kink in the tubing.
5. Client coughs, gags, or bites on the endotracheal tube.
6. Client is anxious or fights the ventilator.
Low pressure alarm:1. Disconnection or leak in the ventilator or in the client’s airway cuff occurs.
2. The client stops spontaneous breathing.
PROBLEMS WITH MECHANICAL VENTILATION
Because of the seriousness of the patient’s condition and highly complex and technical nature of mechanical, a
number of problems or complications can occur. Ventilators problems are as follows:1. Increase in peak airway pressure
- Coughing or plugged airway tube
- suction airway for secretions, empty
condensation fluid from circuit.
- patient “bucking” ventilator
- Adjust sensitivity
- decreasing lung compliance
- Manually ventilate the patient, assess for
Hypoxia or bronchospasm, check arterial
Blood gas values, sedate if necessary.
- Tubing kinking
- checktubings; reposition client; insert oral
Airway if necessary.
- Manually ventilate the client, notify physician.
- Atelectasis or bronchospasm
- clear secretions
2. Decrease in pressure or loss of volume
- Increase in compliance
- leak in ventilator or tubing; cuff on tube/
Humidifier not tight
- Check entire ventilation circuit for patency.
1. Hypotension caused by application of positive pressure which increases intrathoracic pressure and inhibits
blood return to the heart.
2. Respiratory complications such as pnemothorax or subcutaneous emphysema as a result of positive
3. Gastrointestinal alterations such as stress ulcers.
4. Malnutrition if nutrition is not maintained.
6. Muscular deconditioning.
7. Ventilator dependence or inability to wean.
The process of going from ventilator dependence to spontaneous breathing.
1. SIMV:a. The client breathes between the preset breaths per minute rate of the ventilator.
b. The SIMV rate is decreased gradually until the client is breathing on his or her own without the use of the
2. T- piece
a) The client is taken off the ventilator and the ventilator is replaced with a Tpiece or continuous positive
airway pressure which delivers humidified oxygen.
b) The client is taken off the ventilator for short periods initially and allowed to breathe spontaneously.
c) Weaning progresses as the client is able to tolerate progressively longer periods off the ventilator.
3. Pressure support
a) Pressure support is a predetermined pressure on the ventilator to assist the client in respiratory effort.
b) As weaning continues the amount of pressure is decreased gradually.
c) With pressure support, pressure may be maintained while the preset breaths per minute of the ventilator
gradually are decreased.
Before initiating mechanical ventilation, it is important that the health care team be aware of advance
directives and consult with client and family because many clients do not wish to be mechanically ventilated.
Some clients will accept mechanical ventilation if it is a temporary measure but not if it might be a permanent
Until recently, ventilators were used only in intensive care units. Now, ventilators are seenon medical surgical
units, nursing homes and even in client’s homes. It is important that a team approach be used when caring for
mechanically ventilated client. The social worker; respiratory therapist; physical, occupational, and speech
therapists; dietitian; nurse and physician all work together to provide the comprehensive care needed by the
patient. Te nurse is responsible for monitoring theclient,ensuring that ventilator settings are maintained as
prescribed providing initial response to alarms, keeping tubing free from water accumulation and keeping the
client’s airway free from secretions. In addition, the nurse keeps a manual resuscitation bag at bedside for
Clients who are mechanically ventilated are unable to talk and can become very uncomfortable and anxious
with no easy way to communicate. So following are the tips for caring for mechanically ventilated clients:-
Introduce yourself to the client each time you enter the room. Make sure he or she can see you.
Explain everything you are about to do.
Check ventilator settings regularly.
Give sedatives or antianxiety drugs as ordered.
Reassure the client that anxiety is normal and that relaxing will help the ventilator the ventilator to
work with him or her.
Assess for comfort and reposition at regular intervals. Be careful not to pull on the ventilator tubings.
Suction quickly and smoothly.
Provide good oral care, moistening the lips with cool wash cloth and water based lubricant.
Use restraints as a last resort.
Take time to communicate with the client. Talk to him or her and provide a magic slate or pen and
paper for the client to talk to you. Make sure the call light is within reach at all times.
Answer client’s call light and ventilator alarms promptly.
Nursing care of the mechanically ventilated patient requires expert technical and interpersonal skill. The
specific interventions used by the nurse are determined by the underlying disease process and patient’s
Two general nursing interventions that are important in the care of the mechanically ventilated patient are
pulmonary auscultation and interpretation of arterial blood gas measurements. The nurse is often first to note
changes in the physical assessment findings or significant trends in blood gases that signal the development of
a serious problem. The various nursing interventions are given below:Enhancing gas exchange:Nursing interventions to promote optimal gas exchange include judicious administration of analgesic agents to
relieve pain without suppressing the respiratory drive and frequent repositioning to diminish the pulmonary
effects of immobility. The nurse also monitors for adequate fluid balance by assessing for the presence of
peripheral edema, calculating daily intake and output and monitoring daily weights.
Promoting effective airway clearance:-
Continuous positive pressure ventilation increases the production of secretions regardless of the patient’s
underlying condition. The nurse assesses for the presence of secretions by lung auscultation at least 2-4 hours.
Measures to clear airway include suctioning, CPT, frequent position changes and increased motility as soon as
possible. Humidification of the airway via ventilator is maintained to help liquefy secretions so that they are
easily removed. Bronchodilators are administered to dilate the bronchioles.
Preventing trauma and infection:Maintaining the endotracheal or tracheostomy tube is an essential part of airway management. The nurse
positions the ventilator so that there is minimal pulling or distortion of the tube in the trachea, reducing the
risk of trauma to the trachea. Cuff pressure is monitored every 6-8hours maintain the pressure at less than
25mm Hg. Tracheostomy care is performed at least 8 hours and more frequently if needed. The nurse also
administers oral hygiene frequently because oral cavity is a primary source of contamination of the lungs in
intubated patient. The nurse positions the patient with the head elevated above stomach to prevent
Promoting optimal level of mobility:Being connected to a ventilator limits the patient’s mobility. The nurse helps the patient whose condition has
become stable to get out of the bed and move to a chair as soon as possible. If the patient is not able to get
out of bed the nurse encourages performance of active range of motion exercises him to perform active range
of motion exercises every 6-8hours. If the patient can not perform these exercises, the nurse performs passive
range of motion exercises every 8 hours to prevent contracture and venous stasis.
Promoting optimal communication:It is important to develop alternative methods communication for the patient who is receiving mechanical
ventilation. The nurse assesses the patient’s communication abilities to evaluate for limitations.
Promoting coping ability:Dependence on a ventilator is frightening to both the patient and family. Encouraging the family to verbalize
their feelings about ventilator, the patient’s condition and environment in general is beneficial. Explaining
procedures every time they are performed helps to reduce anxiety.
Promoting home and community based care:Increasingly, patients are being cared for in extended care facilities or at home while receiving mechanical
ventilation with a tracheostomy tube or receiving oxygen therapy. Patients receiving home ventilator care
usually have a chronic neuromuscular condition or COPD. Providing the opportunity for ventilator dependent
patients to return home to live with their families in familiar surroundings can be a positive experience. The
ultimate goal of home ventilator therapy is to enhance the patient’s quality of life not simply to support or
a) A nasal cannula is used at flow rate of 1 to 6l/min providing approximate oxygen concentrations of 24% to
b) Flow rate higher than 6l/min do not significantly increase oxygenation because the anatomical reserve or
dead space is full.
c) A nasal cannula is used for the client with chronic airflow limitation and for long term oxygen use.
d) A client who is hypoxemic and also has chronic hypercarbia requires low levels of oxygen delivery at 1 to
2l/min; a low arterial oxygen level is the client’s primary drive for breathing.
e) Effective oxygen concentration can be delivered to nose breathers and mouth breathers with the use of
Interventions:a) Place the nasal prongs into the nostrils with the opening facing the client.
b) Add humidification as prescribed when a flow rate is higher than 2l/min as prescribed.
c) Check the water level and change the humidifier as needed.
d) Assess the client for changes in respiratory rate or depth.
e) Assess the mucosa because high flow rates have a drying effect and increase mucosal irritation.
f) Assess skin integrity because the oxygen tubing can irritate the skin.
g) Provide water soluble jelly to the nares as needed.
SIMPLE FACE MASK
a) A face mask is used to deliver oxygen concentration of 40% to 60% for short term oxygen therapy or to
deliver oxygen in an emergency.
b) A minimal flow rate of 5l/min is needed to prevent the rebreathing of exhaled air.
Interventions:a) Be sure the mask fits securely over the nose and mouth because a poorly fitting mask reduces the fraction
of inspired oxygen delivered.
b) Assess skin and provide skin care to the area covered by mask because pressure and moisture under the
mask may cause skin breakdown.
c) Monitor the client closely for risk of aspiration because the mask limits the client’s ability to clear the
mouth especially when vomiting occurs.
d) Provide emotional support to derease anxiety in the client who feels claustrophobic.
e) Consult with the physician regarding switching the client from mask to a nasal cannula during eating.
PARTIAL REBREATHER MASK
a) A partial rebreather mask consists of a mask with a reservoir bag that provides an oxygen concentration of
70% to 90%flow rates of 6 to 15l/min
b) The client rebreathes one third of the exhaled tidal volume which is high in oxygen thus providing a high
Interventions:a) Make sure that the reservoir does not twist or kink which results in a deflated bag.
b) Adjust the flow rate to keep the reservoir bag inflated two thirds full during inspiration because deflation
results in decreased oxygen delivered and rebreathing of exhaled air..
a) A nonrebreather mask provides a higher concentration of the low flow system and can deliver FiO2 greater
than 90% depending on the client’s ventilator pattern.
b) It is most frequently used with the clients with deteriorating respiratory status who might require
c) It has one way valve between the mask and the reservoir and two valves over the exhalation port.
d) The valve the client to draw the entire quantity of oxygen from the reservoir bag.
e) The flaps prevent the room air to enter through the exhalation ports.
f) During exhalation the air leaves these exhalation ports while one way valve prevents exhaled air from
entering the reservoir bag.
2. FiO2 delivered:- 60% TO 100% fIO2 at a liter flow that maintains the bag two third full.
3.Interventions:a) Remove mucus or saliva from the mask.
b) Assess the client closely.
c) Ensure the valves and the flaps are intact and functional during each breath.
d) Valves should close during inspiration and open during exhalation.
e) Suffocation can occur if reservoir bag kinks or if oxygen source disconnects.
a) A face tent fits over the client’s chin with top extending half way across the face.
b) The oxygen concentration varies; but the face tent is useful instead of tight fitting mask for the clients with
facial burns or trauma.
It is used for the clients who need high humidity after extubation or upper airway surgery or clients who have
TRECHEOSTOMY COLLAR OR T – PIECE
a) A tracheostomy collar can be used to deliver high humidity and desired oxygen to the clients with a
b) A special adapter called T piece can be used to deliver any desired Fio2 to the client with tracheostomy
laryngectomy or endotracheal tube.
Interventions:1. Change delivery system to a nasal cannula during mealtime
2. Assess that aerosol mist escapes from the vents of the delivery system during inspiration or expiration
3. Empty condensation from the tubing to prevent the client from being lavaged with water and to promote
adequate floe rate
4. Ensure that sufficient water is in the canister and change the aerosol water container as needed.
5. Keep the exhalation port on the T piece open and uncovered.
6. Position the T piece so that it does not pull on the tracheostomy or endotracheal tube and cause erosion of
skin at tracheostomy insertion site
7. Make sure the humidifier creates enough mist; mist should be seen during inspiration and expiration.
a) A venturi mask provides high flow oxygen delivery sysyem.
b) B) Operation of the venture mask based on a mechanism that pulls in a specific proportional amount of
room air for each liter of oxygen.
c) An adpter is located between the bottom of the mask and oxygen source the adapter contains holes of
different sizes that allows specific amounys of air mix with the oxygen
d) The adapter allows selection of the amount ot oxygen desired.
2. Fio2 delivered: 24% to 55% with flow rates of 4- 10l/min
Interventions:a) Momitor client closely to ensure an accurate flow for specific FiO2
b) Keep the orifice for venture adapter open and uncovered to ensure adequate oxygen delivery
c) Ensure that mask fits snugly and that tubings is free of kinks because FiO2 is altered if kinking occurs or
mask fits poorly
d) Assess the client for dry mucus membranes;humidity or aerosol can be added to the system.
Health care team roles
Oxygen is considered a drug and in this context is administered by a licensed nurse or respiratory therapist in
the medical setting. Once oxygen therapy has been initiated, non-professional staff may assist in caring for the
patient using oxygen therapy, including removing and replacing the mask or cannula for skin care, meals or
brief ambulation to the bathroom. Nonprofessional staff must be instructed to remember to turn the oxygen
flow back on after removal. They may also be trained to check oxygen apparatus such as, checking tubing
connections, replacing the oximeter probe, filling the humidity bottles and cleaning or wiping humidity out of
the oxygen mask. This should be performed under the direct supervision of the licensed nurse and the nurse
or respiratory therapist will continually assess the patient's respiratory status and oxygen levels. When a
patient is going home with oxygen, the licensed nurse or respiratory therapist will educate the patient and the
patient's caregivers about the safe use of oxygen in the home. Patients using oxygen in the home should have
initial and follow-up visits by a home care nurse or respiratory technician to check the patient's status and
equipment function in the home. Patients receiving oxygen in the home should be scheduled for regular visits
to the physician for follow-up assessment, including pulse oximetry and other therapy.
Today we have discussed about :- mechanical ventilation
-its definition and types
- modes of ventilation
- ventilator settings and assessment
- problems with mechanical ventilation
- Nursing management of the patient with mechanical ventilation
- Various types of respirators such as nasal cannula, simple face mask, partial rebreather mask, non rebreather
mask, venturi mask, aerosol mask, face tent tracheostomy collar or T- piece.
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