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Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs
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Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs

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M. Bonierbale, E. Mihovilovich, W. Amoros, J. Landeo and M. Orrillo …

M. Bonierbale, E. Mihovilovich, W. Amoros, J. Landeo and M. Orrillo

Sustaining and Projecting Genetic Diversity for Potatoes Adapted To Changing Environments
14th Australasian Plant Breeding and 11th SABRAO Conference, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 10-14 August 2009

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  • 1. Sustaining and projecting genetic diversity: Potatoes adapted to changing needs Merideth Bonierbale International Potato Center
  • 2. Strengths of Potato for Food Security Staple source of minerals, vitamins and high quality protein Source of cash from fresh and processing markets High harvest index and high yield per unit time, land and water Versatile in cropping systems
  • 3. Production Dynamics in Developing Countries  Potato area has grown because: Commercially-oriented farmers are responding to increased demand from growing markets and urban centers. Subsistence farmers are responding to ever-shrinking farm sizes.
  • 4. Key role in moderating the impacts of global price crisis  Availability of a variety and quantity of locally produced foods moderates impact of global price rises  Root and tuber crops are not completely commercialized providing options at the household level
  • 5. Ecosystem/ Sector Constraints Small Farms Hillside Agriculture Dispersed Production
  • 6. Productivity constraints Multiple overlapping seasons High year-round disease pressure
  • 7. Breeding Goals 1. Develop durable resistance to predominant diseases 2. Reliable yields with less water and under warmer temperatures 3. Improve nutritional and market traits
  • 8. Assets: Raw and Improved Germplasm Adapted to Tropical Agro-ecologies LowlandLowland tropics andtropics and Virus ResistantVirus Resistant (LTVR)(LTVR) PopulationPopulation 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 3 5 7 Days after inoculation Lesionradius(mm) y = a+bx b=LGR= 5.7 y = a+bx b=LGR= 3.6 HighlandHighland tropicstropics Late BlightLate Blight Resistant (B3)Resistant (B3) PopulationPopulation acl Tbr blb dmsNeo tbr Tbrphu dms Adg phu Adg Neo tbr
  • 9. Proximity to Diverse Topical EnvironmentsProximity to Diverse Topical Environments LA MOLINA Cool lowland, 300 m; 11° S, winter & spring NAZCA Hot arid lowland, 300 m, 14° S, spring-summer TACNA Hot arid lowland, 200 m; 18° S, spring-summer MAJES Warm arid lowland; 900 m; 16° S spring-summe HUANCAYO Cool highland; 3300 m; 12° S OXAPAMPA: warm, humid highland; 2000 m; 11° S SAN RAMON Hot, humid high jungle; 900 m; 11° S sprong
  • 10.  Population Breeding for Tropical Highlands
  • 11. B1 Population Andigena 4x Andigena 4x S. bulbocastanum 2x S acaule 4x Phureja 2x S. demissum 6x Tuberosum 4x Tuberosum 4x Andigena 4x B3 Population 0 5 10 15 20 25 668 -887 888 -1106 1107 -13251326 -15441545 -17631764 -19821983 -22012202 -2420 B3C0B3C0 B3C3B3C3 Two Advanced Populations Resistant to Late Blight Disease AUDPC
  • 12. Phenotypic Stability of Quantitative Resistance  AMMI  (RCBD; 2 Locations; 4 Years)  AUDPC  0  500  1000  1500  2000  2500  3000  -40 -30  -20  -10  10  20 PCA1  G1  G10  G11  G12  G13  G14  G15  Kory G2  G3  G4 G6  G7  G8  G9  E1c  E1x  E2c  E2x  E3c  E3x  E4c  E4x  Amarilis  Yungay  PCA1 = 68.7 %  *** G > GxE > E; CV = 14.9%  0
  • 13. Distribution and Evaluation in Tropical Highlands of Africa
  • 14. Release andRelease and Marketing inMarketing in ChinaChina
  • 15. EST sequence GenBank ID Clone ID and request form GenBank IDs for best hits Molecular Support for Characterizing Resistance III IV VI IX III VII VIII XI XII V X tbr Meyer et al., 1998 ber Ewing et al., 2000 tbr Leonards-Schippers et al., 1994 tbr, ktz, vrn, tar, stn Collins et al., 1999 tbr, chc, ktz, stn, vrn Oberhagemann et al., 1999 tbr Ghislain et al., 2000 phu Ghislain et al., 2000 blb Naess et al., 2000 mcd Sandbrink et al., 2000
  • 16. Building a genetic map in a haploid progeny from Population B3 303946.7 IVP35 4x 2x 301071.3 X 703308 Resistant haploid (2x) Susceptible 2x cv. B3C1PH (n = 91) F1 progeny of heterozygous male & female parents
  • 17. Localizing QTL for Resistance Consistent Major Effect on chr IX in 4 / 5 Environments 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Number of clones 158-610 611 - 1063 1064 - 1516 1517 - 1969 1970 - 2422 2423 - 2875 2876 - 3328 3329 - 3781 AUDPC Comas 2005-06 Frequency AUDPC Oxapampa 2005 Oxapampa 2006 Comas 2005 Comas 2006 Oxapampa 2008 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 S084r STMJK24 S078f S231 S083r S089 STMGQ39 S193S026 S007 S001f S216r LOD 90.1 % 82.8 % 80.3 % 77.5 % 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Number of clones 71 - 458 459 - 846 847 - 1234 1235 - 1622 1623 - 2010 2011 - 2398 2399 - 2786 2787 - 3174 AUDPC Oxapampa 2006-07 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Number of clones 123 - 458 459 - 794 795 - 1130 1131 - 1466 1467 - 1802 1803 - 2138 2139 - 2474 2475 - 2810 AUDPC Oxapampa 2005-06 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Number of clones 284 - 499 500 - 715 716 - 931 932 - 1147 1148 - 1363 1364 - 1579 1580 - 1795 1796 - 2011 AUDPC Comas 2006-07
  • 18. QTL untapped when major gene is defeated 0 1 2 3 4 S032fr S185 STMIR63 S224fr S047frS006fr S181 S121r S224a 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 S084r STMJK24 S078f S231 S083r S089 STMGQ39 S193S026 S007 S001f S216r Comas 2005 Comas 2006 Chr XII Chr IX 1Rpi-vtn1 2Rpi-phu1 Rpi-moc1 1 Smilde et al. (2005) 2 Jliwka · et al, (2006) 3 Foster et al, (2009)  16%  90%
  • 19. -27600 -27500 -27400 -27300 -27200 -27100 -27000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 LnP(D) B1C5 45% B1C5 28% B1C0 Structure of Population B1 for association mapping 74 bred clones from C5 + 30 founders, 61 SSR Number of Subpopulations (K)
  • 20. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 B1C0 B1C0 B1C5-A B1C5-A B1C5-B B1C5-B Population AUDPC Presence Absence B1C0 B1C5 STG-0006.174 33% 0% STG-0006.170 19% 32% STG-0006.179 48% 67% Frequency Marker alleles Chromosome II *** R2 =13%  SSR allele STG-0006.170 associated with resístanse (reduced AUDPC Marker-trait association in Population B1
  • 21. Solanum Piurana 5 spp. + 1 ‘outgroup’ Species Series Ploidy(EBN) sensu Spooner S. cajamarquense S. acroglosum S. piurae S. paucissectum S. chiquidenum S. chomatophilum Species Broadening the base of resistance
  • 22. Identification of new resistance sources in wild specie germplasm Evaluation in 2 endemic locations over 2 years Acc. SCL 5050 OCH 14187 OCH11640 OCHS15210
  • 23. stn x cjm phu x chq Endemic late blight pressure Oxapampa + Monobamba Introgression to cultivated species  (2x-2x and 4x-24 crosses)
  • 24. Lbr-40 Atzimba Monserrate Yungay Chata Blanca  AUDPC Assessment of fertility and resistance of new 2x hybrids  Phu x chq  N’175 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 506047.1 506047.2 506047.3 506116.4 CIP Code Percentage Colored Non-colored 2n pollen 2x bred clones x S. piurae
  • 25. A B C D E F A B C D E F Confirming hybrisity of resistant selections from inter-clade crosses and embryo rescue cv Group Goniocalyx  S. chiquidenum
  • 26.  Population Breeding for Adaptation to Subtropical Lowlands
  • 27. Depressing effect of viruses in the tropics
  • 28. 1970’s 80’s 90’s 2000 Adaptation Heat Yield Earliness LT’s LT-1, LT-2, LT-7…. Adg Neo-Tbr PVX PVY Yield Y, X, DX, TXY Costanera Tacna Ma.Bonita PVY PVX PLRV Earliness Tbr Europe,USA LAC LR93, C91, C92, C93, 397 Reiche Unica Tbr USA PVY, PLRV Earliness, Heat Long Days Drought Quality LD Phu Adg Lowland Tropics and Virus Resistant Population (LTVR) REICHE UNICA C91-612 CIP 388611.22 C92-140 CIP 392797.22 Tbrdms 388611.22 392730.2 392745.7 392797.22 393708.31
  • 29. σ2 FE TSI sd sd σ2A 190.7 72.7 264.4 98.1 σ2D 121.1 52.7 103.4 37.4 σ2AxL 18.0 14.2 13.0 8.7 σ2DxL 40.1 41.1 3.5 23.2 σ2e 60.7 6.2 42.6 4.3 σ2P 351.0 383.1 h2 0.54 0.20 0.69 0.26 σ2D/σ2A 0.64 0.39 Better screening methods improve heritability estimates (PLRV resistance) 25 viruliferous aphids Tuber Sprout Inoculation (TSI) Spreaders Natural Field Exposure (FE)
  • 30. CLONE: 388615.22 REICHE CLONE: 392797.22 UNICA CLONE: 388615.22 C91.640 CLONE: 397073.16CLONE: 397077.16CLONE: 399101.1 Main features of elite clones from LTVR •Virus resistant (PVY, PVX, PLRV) •Mid-early tuber production •Tolerance to warm arid conditions •Chipping quality •Good tuber appearance •Cooking and organoleptic quality
  • 31. Progenitor Attribute PLRV resistance         Earliness         Ntuber no.      Tuber size      Yield          LR93.050 88.052 C93.139 C93.154 LR93.160 92.187 C90.266 C93.156 C91.612 92.062 C92.140 C91.640 Parental value: GCA for virus resistance and agronomic attributes
  • 32. Descentralized Selection and Breeding Vietnam Myanmar Philippines Indonesia Lao • Clonal assessment • Farmers and consumers’ preferences • Combination of Traits
  • 33. Search for germpllasm sources of higher levels of heritable resistance to PLRV
  • 34. Three sources of PLRV resistance identifiedThree sources of PLRV resistance identified in Solanum tuberosum ssp andigenain Solanum tuberosum ssp andigena collectioncollection 2.5 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Titia ( tbr )A lpha ( tbr ) A tlantic ( tbr ) Granola ( tbr )Spunta ( tbr ) A chirana ( tbr ) LO P-868 ( adg ) H U A -332 ( adg ) O CH -7643 ( adg ) ZIM -440 ( adg ) H JT -5535( adg ) Exceptionally high Combining Ability High level of resistance in 3 Andigena clones OCH7643 HUA332 LOP868 DW.84.1457(C) VID11 PPPDGV94 AchiranaINTA (C) CUP-199 OCH-8225 UNSAM51 PPP1627 HJA1489 OCH11195 CCC4726 PPPSA2103 HMX1686 FlorBlanca(C) Perricholi(C) 0 20 40 60 80 100 %infectedplants 25 aphids/plant 50 aphids/plant HR R S
  • 35. Major gene for high levels of resistance confirmed and mapped on 2 homologs of Chr V Rladg Rladg Rladg Velásquez et al . 2007 Tetraploid Map AFLP; SSR
  • 36. Combining LTVR and B3 populations Population B3 Population LTVR acl dem blb tbr tbr phuadg Neo- tbr Neo- tbr demtbr phu tbr adg Late blight + Virus Resistance? Yield gain through Heterosis ? Adaptation to lowland tropics Resistance to viruses Field resistance to late blight Adaptation to highland tropics
  • 37. Cluster analysis of a sample of progenitors from B3 and LTVR populations 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 393242.50 391004.18 392639.31 392639.8 393280.64 392637.27 392650.49 392657.8 393074.86 C97.158 C97.270 WA.077 C93.154 C97.214 LR93.309 C90.266 LR93.050 92.187 Subgroup 1 Subgroup 2 Subgroup 3 Subgroup 4 Jaccard similarity coefficient B3 LTVR
  • 38. H% Highland Tropics (Amarilis-Huánuco) Heterosis and yield performance H% -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Tuber number -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Tuber number 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 3 4 5 6 7 Marketable tuber number LTVR B3 LTVRB3 Legend Lowland Tropics (La Molina- Lima)
  • 39. Enhancing Adaptation to HotEnhancing Adaptation to Hot EnvironmentsEnvironments 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar (Midmore, 1992) AirTemperatureºC Max Day Tº Max Night Tº - Flexibility in cropping systems - Demographic & climate change
  • 40. Early generation selection for heat tolerance Tuberization pattern I II III IV B3*B3 TBR*B3 TBR*LTVR LTVR*LTVR LTVR-B3 SIn = BPn(3)+TSn(2)+TUn(2)+Spn+Knn+Chn+Crn Normal tuberization Physiological disorders Warm temperature screening
  • 41. 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 DEC JAN FEB MAR TemperatureºC No adapted material Adapted material Shorter cycle tuber production under warmer conditions
  • 42.  Nutritional and Health Value
  • 43. Micronutrients Vit “C” & “B” complex Minerals Fiber Macronutrients Water Carbohydrates Proteín Secondary Metabolites Attraction / Protection Plant Responses to Environment Functional Properties in the Diet Carotenoids PhenolicCompounds
  • 44.  Leading cause of maternal mortality  Impairs mental development and learning  Limits capacity to perform physical labor  Stunting  Susceptibility to infections Iron and Zinc Deficiencies Implications for human health & development
  • 45. Genetic Diversity Aymara 3900 masl Inyaya 3700 masl Pahualtupo 4200 masl Native Andean Landraces Advanced and Elite Clones Modern Varieties Controlled-cross Progenies >900 Genotypes
  • 46. 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Natives (n=286) Improved (n=315) Zn(mg/100gFW) 0.20 0.58 0.13 0.84 0 10 20 30 40 Natives (n=626) Improved (n=315) VitC(mg/100gFW) 4.2 33.2 4.2 33.2 Iron Zinc Vit C Ranges of Micronutrient Contents in Landrace & Improved Potato Germplasm 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Natives (n=286) Improved (n=315) Fe(mg/100gFW) 0.28 0.75 0.23 0.64 0.75 fw 30 dw 0.84 fw 33 dw  (mg/100g)  (mg/kg)
  • 47. Cromatogram of a variety with high total carotenoids Cromatogram of a variety with high ß-carotene n Carotenoid Profile of Native Potatoess AU 0.00 0.05 0.10 Minutes 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 ZeaxanthinZeaxanthinAnteraxanthinAnteraxanthin 703566 AU 0.000 0.010 0.020 Minutes 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 ßß--carotenecaroteneLuteinLuteinViolaxanthinViolaxanthin 705800
  • 48. grup Phencomp(mg/100g,FW) StnPhuGonChaAdg 250 200 150 100 50 0 700234 703741 702395 703985 MidiumMidium Concentration of phenolic compounds in native potatoes (n=282) LowLow 705280 70273 6 703844 704393 HighHigh 703264 701997 704143 702453 703264 701997 704143 702453 705280 702736 703844 704393 703985702395700234 703741
  • 49. Iron bioavailability in native potatoes (in Vitro Caco 2 cells) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 704393 703168 705543 702464 700234 700787 701997 703274 703488 Caco2cellsferritinformation (ngferritin/protein)
  • 50. CROSSES Popln 1 Stn, Gon, Phu Popln 2 Adg x Adg Poplm 3 Advanced. x Adg NCD-I (24 families) Heritabilityestimates L x T (24 families) parental Value Selection (240 clones) Pre-breeding scheme: Micronutrients and 2° Metabolites (Base Populations) Selection (47 clones) Evaluation & Selection (20 clones) Evaluation & Selection (50 clones) 2005 2006 2007 2008
  • 51. 303832 303826 303841 703421 Stn 702815 Stn 703291 Phu 703825 Gon 704393 Gon X Group 1 703168 Gon 703831 Gon 703352 Gon 701165 Phu 703825 Gon X Group II 303842 303845 303846 303828 303835 Genetic Stocks for nutritional and health value
  • 52. Midparent_Ascorbic acid (mg/100g,FW) offspring_Ascorbicacid(mg/100g,FW) 19181716151413121110 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 S 1.63281 R-Sq 53.2% R-Sq(adj) 46.6% Regression 95% CI Y = 4.77 + 0.70 X Midparent_Fe (mg/100g,FW) Offspring_Fe(mg/100g,FW) 0.440.430.420.410.400.390.380.37 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.40 S 0.0298906 R-Sq 33.9% R-Sq(adj) 25.6% Regression 95% CI Y = 0.18 + 0.70 X Midparent_Zn (mg/100g,FW) Offspring_Zn(mg/100g,FW) 0.4000.3750.3500.3250.3000.2750.250 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 S 0.0081189 R-Sq 93.0% R-Sq(adj) 91.9% Regression 95% CI Y = 0.18 + 0.42 X Mid-parent offspring regression Heritability of Iron, Zinc and Vit. C concentrations Iron Zinc Vitamin C
  • 53. Genetic gains from selection for high Iron and Zinc concentration (2X) Zn(mg/100g,FW) 0.90 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.38 0.30 0.20 0.00 0.90 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.00 Mean=0.38+0.08 N=28 Mean=0.50+0.07 N=16 0 1 2Selection Cycle Fe(mg/100g,FW) 1.20 0.90 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.500.49 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.00 1.20 0.88 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.60 0.56 0.48 0.40 0.32 0.00 Mean =0.60+0.13 N=16 Mean =0.49 +0.07 N=28 2005 2007 Cycle 0 28 progenitors (native cultivars Stn, Gon, phu) a NCDI – 16 families Cycle 1 16 progenitors high Fe and Zn NCDII - 32 families
  • 54. 4. Sustainably use genetic diversity for resilient and nutritious farming and food systems
  • 55. • W Amoros • L. Porta; • G. Burgos • E. Mihovilovich • E. Salas • J. Landeo • M. Gastelo • L. Rivera • M, Orrillo • S. Munive

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