Challenges, Progress & State-of-art in Breeding for Iron/Zinc

1,436 views
1,336 views

Published on

Merideth Bonierbale - First Global Conference on BiofortificationNovember 9-11, 2010, Washington, DC, USA

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,436
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
44
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Challenges, Progress & State-of-art in Breeding for Iron/Zinc

  1. 1. Challenges, Progress & State-of- art in Breeding for Iron/Zinc First Global Conference on Biofortification November 9-11, 2010, Washington, DC Merideth Bonierbale International Potato Center Wolfgang Pfeiffer HarvestPlus HarvestPlus Crop Leaders
  2. 2. 3.5 billion people in the developing world are Fe deficient Women and children are most affected Micronutrient Deficiencies ”Hidden Hunger” http://www.micronutrient.org Prevalence of IDA among children <5 years old• Maternal mortality • Impaired mental development & capacity for labor • Growth failure • Susceptibility to infections
  3. 3. Outline • Genetic Variation in Crop Gene pools • Setting Breeding Targets • Genetic Gains Achieved • Molecular and Biotechnologies • Product Delivery • Research Needs
  4. 4. Genetic Variation in Crop Gene pools: Varieties, Landraces, Breeding Populations, Wild Relatives
  5. 5. Qualitative (HPLC) Semi- Quantitative NIRS XRF Bench-top Hand-held Colorimetric Image-Analyzer Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy X-Ray Year 20102005 Samples day-1 1000 500 $US Cost sample-1 0.25 1.00 (0.5 - 3.0) • High-throughput • Fast & economical • No contamination > 30 5-10
  6. 6. e.g. Worldwide NIRS Quality Network for Sweetpotato (and other crops)
  7. 7. Progress: Fe Variation Discovered in Germplasm of 8 Staple Crops (ppm DW) Wheat Sweetpotato Rice_unpolish Rice_polish Potato_Native Potato_Adv Maize Cassava 6050403020100 Wheat Sweetpotato Rice_unpolish Rice_polish Potato_Native Potato_Adv Maize Cassava 1501401301201101009080706050403020100 Beans Pearl millet
  8. 8. Wheat Sweetpotato Rice_unpolish Rice_polish Potato_Native Potato_Adv Maize Cassava Beans 1101009080706050403020100 Pearl millet Progress: Zn Variation Discovered in Germplasm of 8 Staple Crops (ppm DW)
  9. 9. Beans Pearl Millet Polished_Rice Potato_Adv Potato_Native Sweetpotato Unpolished_Rice Wheat Fe vs Zn Ord Crops N Correlation Coefficients 1 Pearl Millet 79 0.86 2 Sweetpotato 89 0.85 3 Unpolished_Rice 110 0.79 4 Wheat 176 0.64 5 Beans 215 0.63 6 Potato_Native 604 0.52 7 Polished_Rice 123 0.41 8 Potato_Adv 310 0.31 FEDW ZnDW 160140120100806040200 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Positive correlation between Fe & Zn allows simultaneous improvement for both
  10. 10. The amount of Fe or Zn required in a biofortified crop for significant impact on nutritional status Breeding Target • ‘Baseline’ = amount obtained from varieties consumed by target population + • ‘Increment’ = amount to be added by breeding =
  11. 11. Consumption level (g/day) Increment of nutrient required for health impact Concentration of nutrient in the crop as consumed (after storage, milling & cooking ) Bioavailability of nutrient in the diet Target Nutrient Content of Staple Foods Influencial Factors
  12. 12. Primary Sources of Food for Populations at Risk of Malnutrition Intakeingrams gen Yams Potato Cassava OFSP Cowpea Lentil Bean Maize W heat Rice Pearl M illet Barley Sorghum 500 400 300 200 100 0 Grains (100% DM) Legumes (100% DM) Roots (33% DM) Tubers (25-33% DM) Intakeingrams gen Yams Potato Cassava OFSP Cowpea Lentil Bean Maize W heat Rice Pearl M illet Barley Sorghum 500 400 300 200 100 0 Grains (100% DM) Legumes (100% DM) Roots (33% DM) Tubers (25-33% DM) Consumption Levels of 13 Staple Food Crops (DW) (DW) (FW) (FW)
  13. 13. Targeting Food & Production Systems High Zn Wheat Targets in India ME1: Temperate Irrigated High Production ME5: Irrigated High Temperate Stress 42 38 46 36 22 19 12 11 12 14 9 8 6 4 9 8 4 2 3 2 4 7 5 18 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Children Women Children AbundanceScarcity Cereals Potato Vegetablesandfruits Pulses Noodles Foodfronsocialprograms Breadandcookies Sugars Meatandchicken Other Dietary Sources of Fe in Huancavelica, Peru
  14. 14. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Pearl Millet Bean Bean Rice Rice Maiz Maiz Wheat Wheat Potato Sweetpotato Fe Fe Zn Fe Zn Fe Zn Fe Zn Fe Fe ppm Baseline & Target Levels for 7 Crops 8 44 8 8 32 64 8 11 22 22 Non-Biofortified Avg. Baseline BreedingTarget Genetic Variation Discovered 30 Target Increment
  15. 15. Breeding Focus by Crop and Micronutrient HarvestPlus investment level I. Zn Rice, Zn Wheat II. Fe Pearl Millet, Fe Bean III. Fe Potato, Fe Sorghum, Fe Lentil. Zn Maize – initially HarvestPlus, then AgroSalud Fe & Zn Sweetpotato in SASHA
  16. 16. Fe (ppm) P (ppm) Rice polished Maize Wheat Bean Cassava Potato Lentil Pearl Millet Yams Phytate: Inhibitor of Fe Absorption 5% SweetPotato10%
  17. 17. Iron Bioavailability in Landrace Potatoes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 704393 703168 705543 702464 700234 700787 701997 703274 703488 Caco2cellsferritinformation(ng ferritin/mgprotein) Caco-2 Cell Ferritin Formation USDA/SRS & CIP
  18. 18. 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 15,5 23,3 31,1 38,8 46,6 54,4 62,1 69,9 77,7 85,4 93,2 mg Ac Ascorbico/ 100g DW Porcetajedepoblación Base Population k = 5% Progeny of selected individuals mg Vitamin C/ 100g Percent Genetic Gains from Selection Gs = k * δp * H2 Selection Intensity HeritabilityGenetic Variation
  19. 19. Non-negotiable Core Traits Product Attributes - Breeding Objectives
  20. 20. Fe Zn FV N=89 PBF N=64 FV N=89 PBF N=64 Genetic Gains for Fe and Zn in OFSP African farmers’ varieties (FV) vs. Pre-breeding families (PBF (ppmindrymatter)
  21. 21. Cycle 1 Families: Source of superior clones Selected genotypes with high micronutrient concentration Fe(mg/kg) 32.0 31.0 30.0 29.0 28.0 27.0 26.0 25.0 24.0 23.0 22.0 21.0 20.0 19.0 18.0 17.0 16.5 16.0 15.0 14.0 12.5 12.0 11.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Boxplot Ranges of Fe (mg/kg) in diploid potato families (NCD-II) Base line (17.5 mg/kg
  22. 22. Biotechnologies –Reduce time and cost to meet breeding goals –Exceed levels feasible by conventional breeding
  23. 23. Identification of genes affecting variation in Fe & Zn in Bean by QTL analysis • Overlapping Fe and Zn QTL suggest common transcriptional control of uptake • Identification of allelic variation for FRO to facilitate transfer of high mineral traits among genepools and varieties Blair et al., 2010
  24. 24. Promoter Genomic Wheat Ferritin clone 1DX5 Glutenin Nos A B C • Introduce extra copies of the most active wheat allele of the TaFer1 gene into wheat. • Biolistic transformation using glutenine1Dx5 promoter to drive endosperm specific expression. Transgenic WT- Bob white Prussian blue stain Targeting Ferritin to the Wheat Endosperm Exon Intron (Aarhus University/Denmark)
  25. 25. Research Agreements & Contracts with 7 Private Companies - # will increase • GxE Performance Testing • Joint Development of Fe/Zn-dense Hybrids (private NARS) & OPVs (public NARS) by Consortium PartnersPartners in Deployment Variation for Fe in Inbred lines & Hybrids Product Delivery: Case of Pearl Millet
  26. 26. Breeding cycles Iron(ppm) 2005 2007 2009 2011 50 65 80 100 Lines in release process Families in pipeline 2010 Baseline Target Incremental gains toward breeding goal for Fe in Bean
  27. 27. Wolfgang H PFEIFFER Product Development & Release Schedule
  28. 28. What Do We Have in Hand to Succeed in Biofortification ?  Micronutrient-enrichment traits are available within the genomes of staple food crops.  Target levels have been defined.  Breeding schemes established.  First-ever genetic gains for mineral traits realized  Mainstreamed into adapted populations.  Product pipelines defined.  Partners engaged  Early-stage efficacy trials: looking good!

×