Phonetics and phonology

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Main concepts of phonetics and phonology

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Phonetics and phonology

  1. 1. PHONETICS ANDPHONOLOGY I FERREYRA CINTIA 2011
  2. 2. LANGUAGE SPEECH WRITING LINGUISTIC PHONETICS ALLOPHONES 1. ARTICULATORY•LEXICON 2. ACOUSTIC•MORPHOLOGY 3. AUDITORY•SYNTAX•SEMANTIC•PRAGMATIC 1--THE PRODUCTION AND PHONOLOGY SOUNDS OF SPEECH PHONEMES 2--DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS VOWELS DIPHTHONGS CONSONANTS
  3. 3. 1-- THE SPEECH MECHANISM THE SPEECH APPARATUS CAVITIES PHARYNXARTICULATORS LARYNX TRACHEA LUNGS DIAPHRAGM
  4. 4. THE LARYNX AND VOCAL FOLDS /p,f,s/ /h/ / m, v , z / / ? /
  5. 5. THE CAVITIES AND ARTICULATORS 1– NASAL CAVITY 1 2– ORAL CAVITY 3– PHARYNX 5 6 27 4 4– TONGUE 5-- PALATE 3 6-- TEETH 7-- LIPS
  6. 6. 2– DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDSVOWEL SOUNDS SHORT / I,- PURE {, V, @, LONG Q, U i:, / / 3:, A:, O:, u: / i u : I : U O : e 3 : @ V { A Q :
  7. 7. EXAMPLES S FRONT MEDIAL FINAL/I/ into /Int@/ l.3minute /mInIt/ /empti//e/ empty l.5 l. 1 -------------- felt /felt/ l. 1 -------------- /{/ anna /{n@/ l. 27 that´s /D{ts/ l. 1 -------------- /V/ up /Vp/ l. 24 suddenly /sVd@nli/ l.7 -------------- /@/ again /@gen/ l. 2 probably /pqQb@bli/ l.1 never /nev@/ l.2/Q/ orange / QqIndZ/ l.20 coffee/kQfi/ l.19 ------------- /U/ --------------------- good / gUd/ l.18 ---------------/i:/ eat / i: t/ p.7 believe /bIli:v/l.5 3:/ earth /3:T/ see / si:/ p.3 l.2 person /p3:sn/ l.9 sir /s3://A:/ asked /A:skt/ p.3 l.6 martin/mA:tIn/ l.6 star /stA:/ l.10 /O:/ all / O:l/ p.10corner /kO:n@/ l.22 saw /sO:/ /u:/ -------------------- juice /dZu:s/ l.20l.10 who /hu:/ l. 6
  8. 8. DIPHTHONGS- CENTRING ENDING IN / @ / / I@/ / e@ / /U@ /- CLOSINGENDING IN / I/ / eI / / aI / / OI / ENDING IN / U / /@U / / aU /
  9. 9. EXAMPLES /I@ / : here´s /hIaz/ l. 3 really /qI@li/ l. 11 /e@/ : hair /he@q/ l.16 there /De@/ p.6 U@/ / : sure/SU@/ l.11 /eI/ : changed / tSeIndZd/ l. 7 famous / feIm@s/ /aI/ l. 8 : brightly /bqaItli/ l. 3/OI/ tried : toilet /tqaId//tOIlet/ l. 27/@U/ : agop.19/@g@U/l. 5/aU/ won´t : shouted /w@Unt//SaUtId/l. 5 l.27 down /daUn/l. 23
  10. 10. CONSONANT SOUNDS VOICED /VOICELESS vVOICING BILABIAL/ LABIO-DENTAL/ DENTAL /ALVEOLAR/ POST –v PLACE OF ARTICULATION ALVEOLAR/ PALATO- ALVEOLAR/ PALATAL/ VELAR/ GLOTTALv MANNER OF ARTICULATION PLOSIVES/ FRICATIVES/ AFFRICATES/ LATERALS/ NASALS/ APPROXIMANTSv MUSCULAR EFFORT FORTIS/ LENIS
  11. 11. PLOSIVE SOUNDS a.a.p.a.a.a. a.a.Closure stop release Closure stop release FORTIS/p , t ,k / LENIS /b , d , g /
  12. 12. / FORTIS – VOICELESS – BILABIAL - PLOSIVE p /Eg. Perhaps /p@h{ps/ l.9 paper /peIp@/ l. 28 : bookshop /bUkSQp/ l.22/b/ : LENIS – VOICED – BILABIAL - PLOSIVEEg. Believe /bIli:v/ l.5 somebody /sVmb@di/ l.6 -----------------/t/ : FORTIS – VOICELESS – ALVEOLAR – PLOSIVEEg. Turned /t3:nd/ l.22 later /leIt@/ l. 21 left /left/ l.21/d/ : LENIS – VOICED – ALVEOLAR - PLOSIVEEg. Day /deI/ l. 9 suddenly /sVd@nli/ l. 7 had /h@d/ l. 12/k/ : FORTIS – VOICELESS – VELAR - PLOSIVEEg. Coffee /kQfi/ l. 3 looked /lUkt/ l. 24 shook /Suk/ l.19/g/ : LENIS – VOICED – VELAR - PLOSIVEEg, Gone /gQn/ l. 1 again /@gen/ l. 2 bag /b{g/ p.5
  13. 13. FRICATIVE SOUNDSp.a. a.a.a.a. Approxim. fricton a.a. Approxim. friction FORTIS/ f , T , s , S / LENIS / v , D , z , Z / / h
  14. 14. / VOICELESS FORTIS LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVE f Eg Felt / felt/ l. 1 coffee /kQfi/ l. 3 / himself / himself/ l. 2/ VOICED LENIS LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVEv.Eg Very /veqi/ l.18 never /nev@/ l. 2 live/ /lIv/ l. 29/ VOICELESS FORTIS DENTAL FRICATIVETEg. Thought /TO:t/ l. 2 nothing /nVTIN// l. 29 with /wIT/ l. 16/ VOICED LENIS DENTAL FRICATIVEDEg. That´s /D{ts/ l. 1 another /@nVD@/ l./ 19 with /wID//s VOICELESS FORTIS ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE/Eg Sorry /sQqi/ l.24 person /p3:sn/ l. 9 face /feIs/ l. 24/ VOICED LENIS ALVEOLAR FRICATIVEzEg ----------------------- crazy /kqeIzi/ l.20 woman´s/ /wUm@nz/ l. 24/ VOICELESS FORTIS PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVESEg Shop /SQp/ l. 4 finished /fInISt/ l./ 19 wash /wQS/ l. 30/ VOICED LENIS PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVEZEg ---------------------- vision /viZn/
  15. 15. AFFRICATE SOUNDS p.a. a.a. Closure stop friction FORTIS /tS / LENIS /dZ / / VOICELESS FORTIS PALATO-ALVEOLAR AFFRICATE tS Eg. Changed /tSeIndZd/ l.7 watched /wQtSt/ / p.4 which /wItS/ p. 13/ VOICED LENIS PALATO ALVEOLAR AFFRICATEdZ/ Just /dZVst/Eg l. 16 suggested /s@dZestId/ l. 18 orange /QqIndZ/ l.20
  16. 16. LATERAL SOUNDS p. a. spa a.a spa ce ce / l // VOICED ALVEOLAR LATERALl/Eg. Long /lQN/ l.12 beatles /bi:tlz/ l. 10 well /wel/ l. 11
  17. 17. NASAL SOUNDS /m, n , N // VOICED BILABIAL NASALm/ martin /mA:tIn/Eg. l. 3 famous /feIm@s/ l. 6 william /wIlj@m/ l. 1/ VOICED ALVEOLAR NASALnEg. No /n@U/ l. 7 minutes /mInIts/ l. 21 then/ /Den/ l. 18/ VOICED VELAR NASALNEg/ ------------------ think /TINk/ l. 11 shining /SaInIN/ l, 10
  18. 18. APPROXIMANT SOUNDS /j, w, q / / VOICED PALATAL APPROXIMANT j /Eg. You /ju/ l. 5 william /wIlj@m/ l. 1 -- ---------------/ VOICED VELARIZED-BILABIAL APPROXIMANTw/Eg. One /wVn/ l. 9 quite /kwaIt/ l. 12 ------------------ / VOICED POST-ALVEOLAR APPROXIMANT q /Eg. Really /qI@li/ l. 11 story /stQqi/ l. 18 far away /fA:q @weI/ l. 12
  19. 19. Chapter 2 First fiss - last kiss?1. William felt empty. `That´s it, then. She´s gone. And I´ll probably2. never see her again,´ he thought to himself.3. `Here´s your coffee,´ Martin said brightly, as he came back into4. the shop.5. `Thanks. You won´t believe who was in here a minute ago.´6. `Who? Somebody famous?´ Martin asked. Excited.7. But William suddenly changed his mind. `Oh…er…no…8. nobody.´9. `Perhaps one day a famous person will come in!´ said Martin,10. his eyes shining.. `I saw one of the Beatles once…Ringo Starr.11. Well, I think it was Ringo Starr. I´m not really sure…he was12. quite far away. He had long hair and a beard.´13. `Hmmm…so you think you saw Ringo, but perhaps you14. didn´t?´15. `Er…yes, that`s right.´16. `Maybe it was just a man with long hair and a beard?´17. `Yes, maybe.´18. `Not a very good story, then, is it?´ suggested William. He19. Shooh his head and finish his coffee. `Right…another one?´20. `Yes. No, let´s go crazy! I´ll have an orange juice.´21. Five minutes later, William left the café and hurried in back to the22. bookshop with the orange juice. But as he turned the corner, he23. walked straight into a woman. The orange juice ran down her shirt.24. `I´m so sorry…´he looked up at the woman´s face. For the25. second time that day, it was Anna Scott! `Oh…really, I´m sorry.26. Here…´27. `What are you doing? ´Anna shouted angrily, as William tried28. to clean her shirt with a paper towel.29. William jumped back. `Nothing, nothing. Listen , I live across30. the street. You can wash at my house.´
  20. 20. / tS{pt@ tu: f3:st kIs lA:stkIs / //wIlj@m felt empti/ D{ts It /Den//Si:z gQn//@nd aIl pqQb@bli nev@ si: h@q @gen/hi TO:t t@ hImself// //hI@z j@ kQfi /ma:tIn sed bqaItli/{z hi keIm b{k Int@ D@ SQp// //T{Nks//ju w@Unt bIli:v hu w@z In hI@q @ mInIt @g@U// //hu:/ sVmb@di feIm@s /ma:tIn A:skt /IksaItId// //b@t wIlj@m sVd@nli tSeIndZd Its maInd// @U/3: /n@U/ n@Ub@di// //p@h{ps wVn deI @ feIm@s p3:sn wIl kVm In/ sed mA:tIn/ hIz aIz SaInIN// aI sO: wVn @v D@ bi:tlz wVns/ qINg@U stA:q// wel/aI TINk It w@z qINg@U stA:q//aIm nQt qI@li SU@ / hi w@z kwaIt fA:q @weI//hi h@d lQN he@q @nd @ bI@d// //hm / s@U tou TINk ju sO: qINg@U/ b@t p@h{ps ju dIdnt// // 3: / jes/ meIbi// //nQt @ veqi gUd stQqi/ Den / Iz It// s@dZestId wIlj@m// hi Suk hIz hed @nd fInISt hIz kQfi// qaIt / @nVD@ wVn // // jes// n@U / lets g@U kqeIzi// / aIl
  21. 21. THANK YOU!

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