Instruction is the means by which that
learning will be achieved
Assessment for learning is best
described as a process by which
assessment information is used by
teachers to adjust their teaching
strategies, and by students to adjust
their learning strategies.
Assessment is a powerful process that
can either optimize or inhibit learning,
depending on how it’s applied.
plan and modify teaching and learning
programmes for individual students, groups
of students and the class as a whole
pinpoint students’ strengths so that both
teachers and students can build on them
identify students’ learning needs in a
clear and constructive way so they can be
involve parents and families in their
Assessment for learning provides
students with information and guidance so
they can plan and manage the next steps
in their learning.
Assessment for learning uses information
to lead from what has been learned to what
needs to be learned next.
Assessment for learning should use a range
of approaches. These may include:
day-to-day activities (such as learning
a simple mental note taken by the teacher
Teachers’ Assessment Tools
Formative assessment tools
are used to
evaluate a student at the beginning or middle of
a class, semester or subject.
Placement tests, interviews and teacher
observation and feedback are examples of
formative assessment tools.
Summative assessment tools are used to
gauge the outcome of the learning process.
They focus on the curriculum presented
during the learning unit and are used to find
out whether or not a student was effectively
taught a particular subject.
A graded test, final exam, quiz, thesis paper
and midterm exam are all examples of
summative teachers' assessment tools.
Summative tools should be designed to
reflect the information given in the course.
Only summative assessment tools should be
Teacher's assessment tools, whether formative or
summative, can be further divided into two other
categories: objective and subjective.
Objective assessment tools have a clearly defined
right and wrong answer. They are used to assess a
student's knowledge of particular facts and figures
that are universal. Examples of objective assessment
tools are true/false and multiple-choice questions.
Math problems are almost always objective
assessment tools, as they leave little room for
interpretation. Objective assessment tools are the
easiest to design and grade and, therefore, are the
more common type of assessment tool.
Subjective assessment tools require a little more
creativity and opinion on the part of the student.
These are questions, papers or tests that rely on the
presentation of arguable material.
Essay questions, research papers and argumentative
speeches are examples of subjective assessment tools.
They can often reveal more than an objective
assessment tool because they allow for more than just
memorization on the part of the student.