Freemind is a Java-based mind mapping package available for Windows, Mac and Linux.exports to PDF and the obscure scalable vector graphics format as well as the likes of HTML, JPEG and PNG.
Historical focus on lone geniusNow more interest in social creativity - eg IDEO:’ We believe in the importance of neighborhoods and communities in fostering innovation’ - builds on Scandinavian tradition of participatory design - also Elizabeth Sanders customers consumers users participants co-creators - also in line with trends to user-led innovation now employed in development of consumer products, games and software eg IBM and Sun in user-led open source projectsLeads to interest in the design of work practices and spaces etc.Our particular interest is in use of technology to support this.
Children love the technology!Lots of production blocking:One boy in group 4 (year 3) appeared to have extreme difficulty in taking turns, and turn-taking in this group was enforced by the teaching assistant (eg ‘No X, let Y have a go!’), sometimes with some difficulty. Strategies for domination included one child holding their finger down to ‘lock out’ other users, as well as simple use of force, pushing each other’s hands out of the way.
Video quality acceptableAudio more of a problem‘The audio quality I just couldn’t hear….. When you concentrate on talking to me that’s fine, but when you chat I didn’t know what’s going on’‘I could hear some noises in the background. I wasn’t sure if they were discussing between themselves or if it was a noise.’Communication not perfectAble to get attention when needed, able to interrupt, able to express own ideas, but harder to understand othersSketching on the whiteboard more of a problemDifficulty creating and manipulating objects on the screen, due to problems with both surface and softwareSome lack of awareness of activities of others – especially for remote participants
Product design using physical artefacts and lots of sketchingAccording to Schön (1983), as summarised in Johnson and Carruthers, 2006, pp1002:The ‘language of designing’ includes drawing and talking – sketching enables experimentation, and when the designer talks about designing, this allows reflectionA designer designs by utilizing her/his repertoire of examples, images, understandings and actions from existing knowledgeAt a certain point, the designer evaluates her/his ideas by considering desirability of their consequencesAccording to Resnick et al, NSF workshop, 2005Support exploration: easy to try things out, then backtrack; make functionality self-revealing; pleasurable and fun; sketching; trying ‘what if’s’.Low threshold, high ceiling, wide walls: easy for novices; possibility of ‘power use’; support for wide range of outputs.Support many paths and many styles: ‘hard’ and ‘soft’; ‘left brain’ and ‘right brain’.Support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster community.Support open interchange: seamless operation with other tools; data import/export; extensibility.Make it as simple as possible – and maybe even simpler.Choose black boxes carefully: primitive elements available determine outputs.Invent things that you would want to use yourself.For collaborative creativity:From Schön (see week 6): the ‘language of designing’ includes drawing and talkingFrom Resnick et al (see week 6): support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster communityFrom Mamykina et al, 2002: enable groups to devise shared language and understanding, and to share knowledge resourcesFrom Fischer et al, 2005: enable development of Communities of Practice and Communities of Interest eg through externalisations or boundary objectsTechnology must supportNatural interpersonal interactionTransitions between activitiesTransitions between personal and group workTransitions between tabletop and external workUse of physical objectsAccessing shared physical and digital objectsFlexible user arrangements (sitting, standing etc)Simultaneous user interactionsFrom Warr and O’Neill 2005:Reduce or eliminate production blocking by allowing multiple users to act in parallelReduce evaluation apprehension by making ideas anonymousORReduce social loafing (or free riding) by attributing ideas
Whiteboard with projection used mainly for viewing: search for inspiration, individual contributions to group work, shared resources, records of previous work etc – this year’s students used Google wave and Yahoo groups to continue work between sessions.Whiteboard with projection and recording is for doing: for design discussions that can usefully be recorded eg physical annotation of digital resources, work with 3d objects, demonstrating potential interactions. Videos can be podcasted and linked into moodle wikis. (Now have bigger tables to facilitate round table discussions.)Whiteboard used for additional note-keeping, brainstorming
Different space - tablesdifferent capabilities - no videoDifferent training
Spaces were:All physicalMainly digital with some physicalMainly physicalMore specific suggestions on use of stations to support techniquesLooking for more case studies
Information Spaces for Creative Design HCID Open Day April 19th, 2011 Sara Jones Centre for HCI Design and Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice City University London email@example.com http://hcid.soi.city.ac.uk/people/Sarajones.html
Team photos Neil Maiden Kristine Karlsen Kos Zachos Helena Sustar Meirion Williams
Outline Background Creativity research at City Techniques Creativity workshops Technologies Software tools Interactive surfaces and digitally augmented spaces
Context Interactive system requirements and design
Creativity research at City (contd) 5 year RCUK research fellowship: Creativity and the development of interactive systems 2 year JISC-funded project: Information Spaces for Creative Conversations Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Masters in Innovation, Creativity and Leadership
Techniques used in creativity workshops Constraint removal Challenging boundaries Creativity triggers Analogical reasoning Solution presentation Storyboarding Divergent Convergent
The challenge in developing creativity support tools ‘preserve appropriate elements of existing knowledge work [creative practice] while shaping new technologies and then integrating them into the workplace’ Shneiderman, 2000
Schön’s view of activities to support According to Schön (1983) :
The ‘language of designing’ includes sketching and talking – sketching enables experimentation, and when the designer talks about designing, this allows reflection
A designer designs by utilizing her/his repertoire of examples, images, understandings and actions from existing knowledge
At a certain point, the designer evaluates her/his ideas by considering desirability of their consequences
Design principles for support tools According to Resnick et al, NSF workshop, 2005:
Choose black boxes carefully: primitive elements available determine outputs
Support exploration: easy to try things out, then backtrack; make functionality self-revealing; pleasurable and fun; sketching; trying ‘what if’s’.
Support many paths and many styles: ‘hard’ and ‘soft’; ‘left brain’ and ‘right brain’.
Support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster community
Support open interchange: seamless operation with other tools; data import/export; extensibility.
Some useful tools are already out there Google wonder wheel
allows you to follow
associations of interest
Mind mapping http://sourceforge.net/projects/freemind/
Compendium Compendium is ‘a knowledge map software tool for visual thinking’ We used it in a constraint removal exercise to map out constraints, ideas and their pros and cons http://compendium.open.ac.uk/openlearn/screencasts.html
Combinformation For searchingfor inspiration, organising ideas and exploring combinations of ideas http://ecologylab.cse.tamu.edu/combinFormation/
Antique Analysts reason with analogical services retrieved by AnTiQue to invent previously unspecified requirements These requirements are ranked as more creative by domain experts (Zachos et al 2008)
Requirements generated are judged as more creative
(Karlsen et al, 2009)
Support for collaborative creativity Historical focus on lone genius being replaced by interest in social creativity, ‘co-creation’. We believe in the importance of neighborhoods and communities in fostering innovation IDEO (Kelley and Litman, 2001)
Additional design principles for collaborative support tools From Mamykina et al, 2002: enable groups to devise shared language and understanding, and to share knowledge resources From Fischer et al, 2005: enable development of Communities of Practice and Communities of Interest eg through externalisations or boundary objects From Warr and O’Neill 2005: Reduce or eliminate production blocking by allowing multiple users to act in parallel Reduce evaluation apprehension by making ideas anonymous OR Reduce social loafing (or free riding) by attributing ideas
Our first exploratory study With children doing a design task (designing a classroom layout) on a multitouch table Lots of production blocking! Also evaluation apprehension Social loafing not such a problem Adults may be different?!
Another exploratory study With adults doing a design task (sketching the user interface for a mobile calendar/clock application) 2 – 3 team members working together on a multitouch table, and 1 in a remote location using a tablet PC Team connected using Adobe Connect and Skype
Mezatop Purpose-built interactive surface is supporting wider range of studies
Further exploration of digitally augmented spaces Inspired by product design involving physical artefacts and dynamic sketching
Creative Design Station capabilities Whiteboard Whiteboard with projection Whiteboard with projection and recording
Creative Design Station use – year 2 Joint work on creativity techniques eg brainstorming, challenging boundaries, creativity triggers, storyboarding. Shared access to reference materials from online spaces, inspirations from internet searches. Joint creation of written materials in online spaces. Shared access to physical artefacts. Private and joint creation of outputs eg storyboards.
Ongoing work and future plans Further evaluation of techniques and technologies - looking for more case studies! FP7 MIRROR project: supporting learning at work through creative problem solving combination of mobile apps and on-line discussion fora Discussion after this!
Please get in touch! Sara Jones Centre for HCI Design and Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice City University London firstname.lastname@example.org http://hcid.soi.city.ac.uk/people/Sarajones.html @svjaok Online discussion at: http://www.google.com/moderator/#16/e=7274f I’ll tweet the link!
References and Related Reading Shneiderman, B., 2000, ‘Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation’, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, vol 7, no 1, pp114-138 Johnson, H and Carruthers, L, 2006, ‘Supporting Creative and Reflective Processes’, Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, vol 64, pp998-1030 Shneiderman, B, Fischer, G, Czerwinski, M, Myers, B and Resnick, M, 2005, ‘Creativity Support Tools: A workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation’ Schon, D, 1983, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action’, Basic Books, New York
References and Related Reading Hewett, T T, 2005, ‘Informing the design of computer-based environments to support creativity’, Int J Human-Computer Studies 63, pp383-409 Zachos, K. Maiden, N., ‘Inventing Requirements from Software: An Empirical Investigation with Web Services’, in Proceedings 16th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE08, 2008 Karlsen, I.K, Maiden, M., Kerne, A., ‘Inventing Requirements with Creativity Support Tools’, in Proceedings REFSQ09, LNCS 5512/2009, Springer, 2009 Centre for HCI Design
References and Related Reading Streitz, N et al, 1999, ‘i-Land: An interactive Landscape for Creativity and Innovation’, CHI’99 Arias et al, 2000, ‘Transcending the Individual Human Mind—Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design’, ACM ToCHI, 7(1), 84-113 Sugimoto et al, 2004, ‘Caretta: A System for Supporting Face-to-Face Collaboration by Integrating Personal and Shared Spaces’, CHI’04 Centre for HCI Design
References and Related Reading Rogers et al, 2006, ‘Extending Tabletops to Support Flexible Collaborative Interactions’, IEEE Tabletop Hilliges et al, 2007, ‘Designing for Collaborative Creative Problem Solving’, Creativity and Cognition 07 Buisine et al, 2007, ‘Computer-Supported Creativity: Evaluation of a Tabletop Mind-Map Application’, LNCS 4562/2007 Mamykina et al, 2002, ‘Collaborative Creativity’, CACM 45(10) Fischer et al, 2005, ‘Beyond Binay Choices: Integrating Individual and Social Creativity’, IJHCS 63, 482-512 Warr, A and O’Neill, E, 2005, ‘Understanding Design as a Social Creative Process’, Creativity and Cognition 05 Centre for HCI Design
References and Related Reading Fischer, G, 2004, ‘Social Creativity: Turning Barriers into Opportunities for Collaborative Design’, Proc 8th Conference on Participatory Design Gumm, D, et al, 2006, ‘Distributed Participatory Design – A Case Study’ Proc Nordichi workshop on DPD Farooq et al, 2005, ‘Supporting Creativity in Distributed Svientific Communities’ Conference on Supporting Group Work Fischer, G, 2005, ‘Distances and Diversity: Sources for Social Creativity’, Proceedings of the 5th conference on Creativity & Cognition Centre for HCI Design