Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
hcid2011 - Creativity for open spaces - Dr Sara Jones (HCID)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

hcid2011 - Creativity for open spaces - Dr Sara Jones (HCID)

1,173
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,173
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Freemind is a Java-based mind mapping package available for Windows, Mac and Linux.exports to PDF and the obscure scalable vector graphics format as well as the likes of HTML, JPEG and PNG.
  • Historical focus on lone geniusNow more interest in social creativity - eg IDEO:’ We believe in the importance of neighborhoods and communities in fostering innovation’ - builds on Scandinavian tradition of participatory design - also Elizabeth Sanders customers  consumers  users  participants  co-creators - also in line with trends to user-led innovation now employed in development of consumer products, games and software eg IBM and Sun in user-led open source projectsLeads to interest in the design of work practices and spaces etc.Our particular interest is in use of technology to support this.
  • Children love the technology!Lots of production blocking:One boy in group 4 (year 3) appeared to have extreme difficulty in taking turns, and turn-taking in this group was enforced by the teaching assistant (eg ‘No X, let Y have a go!’), sometimes with some difficulty. Strategies for domination included one child holding their finger down to ‘lock out’ other users, as well as simple use of force, pushing each other’s hands out of the way.
  • Video quality acceptableAudio more of a problem‘The audio quality I just couldn’t hear….. When you concentrate on talking to me that’s fine, but when you chat I didn’t know what’s going on’‘I could hear some noises in the background. I wasn’t sure if they were discussing between themselves or if it was a noise.’Communication not perfectAble to get attention when needed, able to interrupt, able to express own ideas, but harder to understand othersSketching on the whiteboard more of a problemDifficulty creating and manipulating objects on the screen, due to problems with both surface and softwareSome lack of awareness of activities of others – especially for remote participants
  • Product design using physical artefacts and lots of sketchingAccording to Schön (1983), as summarised in Johnson and Carruthers, 2006, pp1002:The ‘language of designing’ includes drawing and talking – sketching enables experimentation, and when the designer talks about designing, this allows reflectionA designer designs by utilizing her/his repertoire of examples, images, understandings and actions from existing knowledgeAt a certain point, the designer evaluates her/his ideas by considering desirability of their consequencesAccording to Resnick et al, NSF workshop, 2005Support exploration: easy to try things out, then backtrack; make functionality self-revealing; pleasurable and fun; sketching; trying ‘what if’s’.Low threshold, high ceiling, wide walls: easy for novices; possibility of ‘power use’; support for wide range of outputs.Support many paths and many styles: ‘hard’ and ‘soft’; ‘left brain’ and ‘right brain’.Support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster community.Support open interchange: seamless operation with other tools; data import/export; extensibility.Make it as simple as possible – and maybe even simpler.Choose black boxes carefully: primitive elements available determine outputs.Invent things that you would want to use yourself.For collaborative creativity:From Schön (see week 6): the ‘language of designing’ includes drawing and talkingFrom Resnick et al (see week 6): support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster communityFrom Mamykina et al, 2002: enable groups to devise shared language and understanding, and to share knowledge resourcesFrom Fischer et al, 2005: enable development of Communities of Practice and Communities of Interest eg through externalisations or boundary objectsTechnology must supportNatural interpersonal interactionTransitions between activitiesTransitions between personal and group workTransitions between tabletop and external workUse of physical objectsAccessing shared physical and digital objectsFlexible user arrangements (sitting, standing etc)Simultaneous user interactionsFrom Warr and O’Neill 2005:Reduce or eliminate production blocking by allowing multiple users to act in parallelReduce evaluation apprehension by making ideas anonymousORReduce social loafing (or free riding) by attributing ideas
  • Whiteboard with projection used mainly for viewing: search for inspiration, individual contributions to group work, shared resources, records of previous work etc – this year’s students used Google wave and Yahoo groups to continue work between sessions.Whiteboard with projection and recording is for doing: for design discussions that can usefully be recorded eg physical annotation of digital resources, work with 3d objects, demonstrating potential interactions. Videos can be podcasted and linked into moodle wikis. (Now have bigger tables to facilitate round table discussions.)Whiteboard used for additional note-keeping, brainstorming
  • Different space - tablesdifferent capabilities - no videoDifferent training
  • Spaces were:All physicalMainly digital with some physicalMainly physicalMore specific suggestions on use of stations to support techniquesLooking for more case studies
  • Transcript

    • 1. Information Spaces for Creative Design
      HCID Open Day
      April 19th, 2011
      Sara Jones
      Centre for HCI Design and
      Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
      City University London
      saraj@soi.city.ac.uk
      http://hcid.soi.city.ac.uk/people/Sarajones.html
    • 2. Team photos
      Neil Maiden
      Kristine Karlsen
      Kos Zachos
      Helena Sustar
      Meirion Williams
    • 3. Outline
      Background
      Creativity research at City
      Techniques
      Creativity workshops
      Technologies
      Software tools
      Interactive surfaces and digitally augmented spaces
    • 4. Context
      Interactive system
      requirements and design
    • 5. Creativity research at City
    • 6. Creativity research at City (contd)
      5 year RCUK research fellowship: Creativity and the development of interactive systems
      2 year JISC-funded project: Information Spaces for Creative Conversations
      Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
      Masters in Innovation, Creativity and Leadership
    • 7. Techniques used in creativity workshops
      Constraint removal
      Challenging boundaries
      Creativity triggers
      Analogical reasoning
      Solution presentation
      Storyboarding
      Divergent
      Convergent
    • 8. Structuring a creativity workshop
    • 9. Structuring a creativity workshop (contd)
    • 10. Creativity workshop process and outputs
    • 11. Creativity triggers
    • 12. Creativity triggers
    • 13. Constraint removal
    • 14. The challenge in developing creativity support tools
      ‘preserve appropriate elements of existing knowledge work [creative practice] while shaping new technologies and then integrating them into the workplace’
      Shneiderman, 2000
    • 15. Schön’s view of activities to support
      According to Schön (1983) :
      • The ‘language of designing’ includes sketching and talking – sketching enables experimentation, and when the designer talks about designing, this allows reflection
      • 16. A designer designs by utilizing her/his repertoire of examples, images, understandings and actions from existing knowledge
      • 17. At a certain point, the designer evaluates her/his ideas by considering desirability of their consequences
    • Design principles for support tools
      According to Resnick et al, NSF workshop, 2005:
      • Choose black boxes carefully: primitive elements available determine outputs
      • 18. Support exploration: easy to try things out, then backtrack; make functionality self-revealing; pleasurable and fun; sketching; trying ‘what if’s’.
      • 19. Support many paths and many styles: ‘hard’ and ‘soft’; ‘left brain’ and ‘right brain’.
      • 20. Support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster community
      • 21. Support open interchange: seamless operation with other tools; data import/export; extensibility.
    • Some useful tools are already out there
      Google wonder wheel
      • allows you to follow
      associations of interest
    • 22. Mind mapping
      http://sourceforge.net/projects/freemind/
    • 23. Sticky notes
      http://www.labnol.org/software/create-affinity-diagrams-with-sticky-sorter/5465/
    • 24. Compendium
      Compendium is ‘a knowledge map software tool for visual thinking’
      We used it in a constraint removal exercise to map out constraints, ideas and their pros and cons
      http://compendium.open.ac.uk/openlearn/screencasts.html
    • 25. Combinformation
      For searchingfor inspiration,
      organising ideas and
      exploring combinations of
      ideas
      http://ecologylab.cse.tamu.edu/combinFormation/
    • 26. Antique
      Analysts reason with analogical services retrieved by AnTiQue to invent previously unspecified requirements
      These requirements are ranked as more creative by domain experts
      (Zachos et al 2008)
    • 27. Cris
      • Analysts do a scenario walkthrough
      with Combinformation providing creative stimuli
      • Requirements generated are judged as more creative
      (Karlsen et al, 2009)
    • 28. Support for collaborative creativity
      Historical focus on lone genius being replaced by interest in social creativity, ‘co-creation’.
      We believe in the importance
      of neighborhoods and
      communities in fostering
      innovation
      IDEO (Kelley and Litman, 2001)
    • 29. Additional design principles for collaborative support tools
      From Mamykina et al, 2002: enable groups to devise shared language and understanding, and to share knowledge resources
      From Fischer et al, 2005: enable development of Communities of Practice and Communities of Interest eg through externalisations or boundary objects
      From Warr and O’Neill 2005:
      Reduce or eliminate production blocking by allowing multiple users to act in parallel
      Reduce evaluation apprehension by making ideas anonymous
      OR
      Reduce social loafing (or free riding) by attributing ideas
    • 30. Our first exploratory study
      With children doing a design task (designing a classroom layout) on a multitouch table
      Lots of production blocking!
      Also evaluation apprehension
      Social loafing not such a problem
      Adults may be different?!
    • 31. Another exploratory study
      With adults doing a design task (sketching the user interface for a mobile calendar/clock application)
      2 – 3 team members working together on a multitouch table, and 1 in a remote location using a tablet PC
      Team connected using Adobe Connect and Skype
    • 32. Mezatop
      Purpose-built interactive surface is supporting
      wider range of studies
    • 33. Further exploration of digitally augmented spaces
      Inspired by product design involving physical
      artefacts and dynamic sketching
    • 34. Creative Design Station capabilities
      Whiteboard
      Whiteboard with projection
      Whiteboard with projection and recording
    • 35. Creative Design Stations in action – year 1
    • 36. Creative Design Station use – year 1
      Viewing – sharing previously identified or created artefacts
      Planning, recording
      Doing – co-designing or building
    • 37. Creative Design Stations in action – year 2
    • 38. Creative Design Station use – year 2
      Joint work on creativity techniques eg brainstorming, challenging boundaries, creativity triggers, storyboarding.
      Shared access to reference materials from online spaces, inspirations from internet searches.
      Joint creation of written materials in online spaces.
      Shared access to physical artefacts.
      Private and joint creation of outputs eg storyboards.
    • 39. Ongoing work and future plans
      Further evaluation of techniques and technologies
      - looking for more case studies!
      FP7 MIRROR project:
      supporting learning at work through creative problem solving
      combination of mobile apps and on-line discussion fora
      Discussion after this!
    • 40. Online forum for further discussion
    • 41. Please get in touch!
      Sara Jones
      Centre for HCI Design and
      Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
      City University London
      saraj@soi.city.ac.uk
      http://hcid.soi.city.ac.uk/people/Sarajones.html
      @svjaok
      Online discussion at:
      http://www.google.com/moderator/#16/e=7274f
      I’ll tweet the link!
    • 42. References and Related Reading
      Shneiderman, B., 2000, ‘Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation’, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, vol 7, no 1, pp114-138
      Johnson, H and Carruthers, L, 2006, ‘Supporting Creative and Reflective Processes’, Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, vol 64, pp998-1030
      Shneiderman, B, Fischer, G, Czerwinski, M, Myers, B and Resnick, M, 2005, ‘Creativity Support Tools: A workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation’
      Schon, D, 1983, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action’, Basic Books, New York
    • 43. References and Related Reading
      Hewett, T T, 2005, ‘Informing the design of computer-based environments to support creativity’, Int J Human-Computer Studies 63, pp383-409
      Zachos, K. Maiden, N., ‘Inventing Requirements from Software: An Empirical Investigation with Web Services’, in Proceedings 16th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE08, 2008
      Karlsen, I.K, Maiden, M., Kerne, A., ‘Inventing Requirements with Creativity Support Tools’, in Proceedings REFSQ09, LNCS 5512/2009, Springer, 2009
      Centre for HCI Design
    • 44. References and Related Reading
      Streitz, N et al, 1999, ‘i-Land: An interactive Landscape for Creativity and Innovation’, CHI’99
      Arias et al, 2000, ‘Transcending the Individual Human Mind—Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design’, ACM ToCHI, 7(1), 84-113
      Sugimoto et al, 2004, ‘Caretta: A System for Supporting Face-to-Face Collaboration by Integrating Personal and Shared Spaces’, CHI’04
      Centre for HCI Design
    • 45. References and Related Reading
      Rogers et al, 2006, ‘Extending Tabletops to Support Flexible Collaborative Interactions’, IEEE Tabletop
      Hilliges et al, 2007, ‘Designing for Collaborative Creative Problem Solving’, Creativity and Cognition 07
      Buisine et al, 2007, ‘Computer-Supported Creativity: Evaluation of a Tabletop Mind-Map Application’, LNCS 4562/2007
      Mamykina et al, 2002, ‘Collaborative Creativity’, CACM 45(10)
      Fischer et al, 2005, ‘Beyond Binay Choices: Integrating Individual and Social Creativity’, IJHCS 63, 482-512
      Warr, A and O’Neill, E, 2005, ‘Understanding Design as a Social Creative Process’, Creativity and Cognition 05
      Centre for HCI Design
    • 46. References and Related Reading
      Fischer, G, 2004, ‘Social Creativity: Turning Barriers into Opportunities for Collaborative Design’, Proc 8th Conference on Participatory Design
      Gumm, D, et al, 2006, ‘Distributed Participatory Design – A Case Study’ Proc Nordichi workshop on DPD
      Farooq et al, 2005, ‘Supporting Creativity in Distributed Svientific Communities’ Conference on Supporting Group Work
      Fischer, G, 2005, ‘Distances and Diversity: Sources for Social Creativity’, Proceedings of the 5th conference on Creativity & Cognition
      Centre for HCI Design