<ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure & Function of  Macromolecules </li></ul>Slide show modified from Kim Fog...
4  MAJOR  MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Nucle...
POLYMERS <ul><li>Large molecule made by linking smaller subunits together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monomers (small subunits) ...
SEE ANANIMATION
SEE ANANIMATION
CARBOHYDRATES http://www.graphic-design.com/Type/sugar/index.html http://www.ifr.ac.uk/SPM/images/Starch%20products.jpg
MONOSACCHARIDES Simple sugar molecules C 6 H 12 O 6 http://www.cybercolloids.net/library/sugars/glyceraldehyde.gif http://...
NUMBERING <ul><li>Carbons are numbered </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with carbonyl group is #1 </li></ul>
Is it D or L ? <ul><li>For sugars with more than one chiral center, the D or L designation refers to the asymmetric carbon...
Pentoses and  hexoses can  cyclize in water See animation <ul><li>Carbons can be numbered </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with ca...
CARBOHYDRATES SUPPLY ENERGY Images  from:  http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg http://www....
<ul><li>Disaccharides   </li></ul><ul><li>Use dehydration synthesis to join TWO sugar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>covalent...
DISACCHARIDES <ul><li>Glucose + Fructose  ->  Sucrose + H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + Glucose ->  Maltose + H 2 0 </li...
POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars”  <ul><li>Ex: STARCH  </li></ul><ul><li>polymer of  α lpha  glucose  </li></ul><ul><li>linke...
POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars”  TWO KINDS OF STARCH:   amylose = unbranched starch amylopectin = branched starch http://ww...
POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars”  EX: GLYCOGEN alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds like starch More branched than amylopectin FUNCTIO...
POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars”  FUNCTION: Structural PLANTS ~ CELLULOSE Major component in cell walls Most abundant organi...
<ul><li>Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages  can’t hydrolyze beta linkages in cellulose </li></ul><ul...
POLYSACCHARIDES FUNCTION: Structural EX: CHITIN Structural polysaccharide made from ß glucose with a NITROGEN containing g...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of:   Exoskeletons in Arthropods  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell walls in Fungi ...
 
 
 
 
FATTY ACIDS USED CAN : <ul><li>Be same or different in one molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in length </li></ul><ul><li>Var...
FATS <ul><li>LONG HC chain </li></ul><ul><li>NON-POLAR </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROPHOBIC </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul...
 
Lipids, II
Phospholipids <ul><li>HEAD (PHILIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate group-PO 4 -   Negative charge ...
 
!
 
 
 
 
 
PROTEINS http://images.foodnetwork.com/webfood/images/gethealthy/nutritionalallstars/LeanProteins_header.jpg
<ul><li>PROTEINS ARE MADE FROM AMINO ACID SUBUITS </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central carbon </li></...
Each kind of amino acid has a different R group 20 different amino acids are used by cells to make proteins  (There are a ...
See ananimation
POLYPEPTIDES http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html http://www.cherishedtimedesigns.com/image...
Image from:    http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/saunders/courses/online/SBI3C/Cells/Protein-Structure03.jpg A functional PROTEIN is ...
 
 
 
 
 
PROTEIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION <ul><li>Function depends on structure </li></ul><ul><li>4 levels of organization </li></ul><u...
 
Primary Structure <ul><li>Amino acid substitution: in hemoglobin code  sickle-cell anemia </li></ul>A T
Secondary Structure folding along short sections   <ul><li>Due to: </li></ul><ul><li>  R group interactions   (phobic/phil...
Tertiary Structure interactions between side chains <ul><li>Conformation:  irregular contortions from R group bonding </li...
Functional Groups <ul><li>Sulfhydral Group   </li></ul><ul><li>Called:  thiols </li></ul>http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/D...
DISULFIDE BRIDGES <ul><li>STABLIZE 3-D SHAPE </li></ul>http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/02/disulfide-bridges-stabilize-fo...
Quaternary Structure <ul><li>Conformation:    2 or more polypeptide chains aggregated into one macromolecule </li></ul><ul...
See ananimation
WHAT DO PROTEINS DO? * See page 78 in Campbell for other examples
ENZYMES http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/enzyme_.gif Enzymes are protein catalysts  that ac...
<ul><li>PROTEIN CONFORMATION ALSO DEPENDS ON PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Salt concentratio...
<ul><li>Proteins that have denatured are biologically inactive </li></ul><ul><li>Once conditions change, protein may need ...
 
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The main functions of nucleotides are:   information storage (DNA),    protein synthesis (RNA)   ene...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids  are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides.  </li></ul><ul><li>The main func...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids  are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides c...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The sugars are either: </li></ul>ribose deoxyribose OR
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nitrogeneous bases can be:  </li></ul><ul><li>Purines (Adenine and Guanine) ~ double-ring  </li></ul...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Nitrogen base attached to sugar  at C-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate attached to sugar ...
 
DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of living organisms.  </li></ul>Ima...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Deoxyribose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogeneous bases: </li></ul><ul><li>A, C, G and ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Strands run antiparallel </li></ul>http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Complementary strands </li></ul><ul><li>H bonds ~ between paired bases   </li></ul><ul...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Inheritance based on  DNA replication </li></ul><ul><li>Double helix  (Watson & Crick - 1953) </li><...
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Ribose sugar Nitrogeneous bases: A, C, G, and U SINGLE STRANDED http://www.biology.arizona.edu/bioc...
RNA <ul><li>RNA functions in protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of RNA:  </li></ul><ul><li>Messeng...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) DNA -> RNA -> protein
NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy NAD + NADP + FAD Coenzyme A Energy and electron carriers used in photosynthesis ...
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Ch5macromolme

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure & Function of Macromolecules </li></ul>Slide show modified from Kim Foglia @ http://www.explorebiology.com
  2. 2. 4 MAJOR MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul>
  3. 3. POLYMERS <ul><li>Large molecule made by linking smaller subunits together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monomers (small subunits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds </li></ul></ul>Image by Riedell
  4. 4. SEE ANANIMATION
  5. 5. SEE ANANIMATION
  6. 6. CARBOHYDRATES http://www.graphic-design.com/Type/sugar/index.html http://www.ifr.ac.uk/SPM/images/Starch%20products.jpg
  7. 7. MONOSACCHARIDES Simple sugar molecules C 6 H 12 O 6 http://www.cybercolloids.net/library/sugars/glyceraldehyde.gif http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html http://217.60.75.10/llt/biokemi/images/galactose.jpg http://217.60.75.10/llt/biokemi/images/galactose.jpg http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html C 5 H 10 O 5 D-glyceraldehyde C 3 H 6 O 3 Composed of C,H,O (CH 2 O)n 3-7 carbons Name often ends in –ose
  8. 8. NUMBERING <ul><li>Carbons are numbered </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with carbonyl group is #1 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Is it D or L ? <ul><li>For sugars with more than one chiral center, the D or L designation refers to the asymmetric carbon farthest from the aldehyde or keto group. </li></ul><ul><li>Most naturally occurring sugars are D isomers. </li></ul><ul><li>D & L sugars are mirror images with same name. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pentoses and hexoses can cyclize in water See animation <ul><li>Carbons can be numbered </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with carbonyl group is #1 </li></ul>
  11. 11. CARBOHYDRATES SUPPLY ENERGY Images from: http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html Cells burn glucose and store the energy released as ATP
  12. 12. <ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Use dehydration synthesis to join TWO sugar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides = GLYCOSIDIC linkage </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Sucrose (table sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>most common disaccharide </li></ul>http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Biochemistry/bioche1.gif http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/lab_protocols/HSSB-TLC_images/sucrose.gif
  13. 13. DISACCHARIDES <ul><li>Glucose + Fructose -> Sucrose + H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + Glucose -> Maltose + H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + Galactose -> Lactose + H 2 0 </li></ul>
  14. 14. POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” <ul><li>Ex: STARCH </li></ul><ul><li>polymer of α lpha glucose </li></ul><ul><li>linked by α 1-4 glycosidic linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Energy storage in PLANTS Most animals have the enzymes to hydrolyze starch, too </li></ul>http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Assets/Amylopectin.jpg http://www.district87.org/biology87/apbio/biochem/Activity6_notes.pdf
  15. 15. POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” TWO KINDS OF STARCH: amylose = unbranched starch amylopectin = branched starch http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Assets/Amylopectin.jpg
  16. 16. POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” EX: GLYCOGEN alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds like starch More branched than amylopectin FUNCTION: Energy storage in ANIMALS Stored in liver and muscle tissue http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/magazine04/scientific.htm
  17. 17. POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” FUNCTION: Structural PLANTS ~ CELLULOSE Major component in cell walls Most abundant organic compound on Earth beta (ß) 1-4 glycosidic linkages
  18. 18. <ul><li>Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages can’t hydrolyze beta linkages in cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Many herbivores, from cows to termites, have symbiotic relationships with these microbes </li></ul>
  19. 19. POLYSACCHARIDES FUNCTION: Structural EX: CHITIN Structural polysaccharide made from ß glucose with a NITROGEN containing group attached
  20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of: Exoskeletons in Arthropods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell walls in Fungi Dissolvable surgical thread </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. FATTY ACIDS USED CAN : <ul><li>Be same or different in one molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in length </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in number/location of double bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated (single bonds) </li></ul><ul><li> vs. unsaturated fats (double bonds) </li></ul>Kink in chain wherever a cis double bond occurs
  22. 26. FATS <ul><li>LONG HC chain </li></ul><ul><li>NON-POLAR </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROPHOBIC </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storage very rich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2X energy in carbos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cushions organs </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates body Think whale blubber! </li></ul>
  23. 28. Lipids, II
  24. 29. Phospholipids <ul><li>HEAD (PHILIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate group-PO 4 - Negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>TAILS (PHOBIC) </li></ul><ul><li>2 fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>instead of 3 </li></ul>
  25. 31. !
  26. 37. PROTEINS http://images.foodnetwork.com/webfood/images/gethealthy/nutritionalallstars/LeanProteins_header.jpg
  27. 38. <ul><li>PROTEINS ARE MADE FROM AMINO ACID SUBUITS </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carboxyl group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R group (side chain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confers unique chemical properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polar (hydrophilic), nonpolar (hydrophobic), acid or base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Join via DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS reactions </li></ul>
  28. 39. Each kind of amino acid has a different R group 20 different amino acids are used by cells to make proteins (There are a few other aa’s, but rare) R GROUPS
  29. 40. See ananimation
  30. 41. POLYPEPTIDES http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html http://www.cherishedtimedesigns.com/images/BaliCharmBraceletGraduation500.jpg <ul><li>POLYMERS OF AMINO ACIDS ARE CALLED POLYPEPTIDES </li></ul><ul><li>DNA determines the amino acid sequence </li></ul>
  31. 42. Image from:   http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/saunders/courses/online/SBI3C/Cells/Protein-Structure03.jpg A functional PROTEIN is not just the polypeptide chain. A PROTEIN consists of one or more polypeptide chains twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique molecular shape What determines the shape? SEE AN ANIMATION
  32. 48. PROTEIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION <ul><li>Function depends on structure </li></ul><ul><li>4 levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>result in 3-D structure </li></ul>
  33. 50. Primary Structure <ul><li>Amino acid substitution: in hemoglobin code sickle-cell anemia </li></ul>A T
  34. 51. Secondary Structure folding along short sections <ul><li>Due to: </li></ul><ul><li> R group interactions (phobic/philic) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha Helix: coiling; </li></ul><ul><li>ß Pleated Sheet: parallel; </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds between adjacent amino acids hold shape </li></ul>
  35. 52. Tertiary Structure interactions between side chains <ul><li>Conformation: irregular contortions from R group bonding </li></ul><ul><li>√ hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>√ disulfide bridges </li></ul><ul><li>√ hydrogen bonds √ ionic bonds </li></ul>
  36. 53. Functional Groups <ul><li>Sulfhydral Group </li></ul><ul><li>Called: thiols </li></ul>http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Disulfide_bridge.htm
  37. 54. DISULFIDE BRIDGES <ul><li>STABLIZE 3-D SHAPE </li></ul>http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/02/disulfide-bridges-stabilize-folded.html BETWEEN nearby CYSTEINE amino acids (Notice name change when bonded)
  38. 55. Quaternary Structure <ul><li>Conformation: 2 or more polypeptide chains aggregated into one macromolecule </li></ul><ul><li>√ collagen (connective tissue) </li></ul><ul><li>√ hemoglobin </li></ul>
  39. 56. See ananimation
  40. 57. WHAT DO PROTEINS DO? * See page 78 in Campbell for other examples
  41. 58. ENZYMES http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/enzyme_.gif Enzymes are protein catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions in living things Enzymes reduce activation energy required for reaction Enzymes are specific and fit substrate like a lock and key. Enzymes are not changed by reaction and are reusable. http://www.grand-illusions.com/images/articles/toyshop/trick_lock/mainimage.jpg
  42. 59. <ul><li>PROTEIN CONFORMATION ALSO DEPENDS ON PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Salt concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>http://www.desktopfotos.de/Downloads/melt_cd.jpg http://www.nealbrownstudio.com/adm/photo/163_nb_fried_egg.jpg See a movie Choose narrated
  43. 60. <ul><li>Proteins that have denatured are biologically inactive </li></ul><ul><li>Once conditions change, protein may need help returning to its functional shape. </li></ul>Facilitation of folding
  44. 62. NUCLEIC ACIDS
  45. 63. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The main functions of nucleotides are: information storage (DNA), protein synthesis (RNA) energy transfers (ATP and NAD). </li></ul>
  46. 64. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>The main functions of nucleotides are: information storage (DNA), protein synthesis (RNA) energy transfers (ATP and NAD). </li></ul>
  47. 65. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides consist of a pentose (5C) sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar and phosphate alone = nucleo side </li></ul>
  48. 66. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The sugars are either: </li></ul>ribose deoxyribose OR
  49. 67. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nitrogeneous bases can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Purines (Adenine and Guanine) ~ double-ring </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines (Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil) </li></ul><ul><li>~ single-ring </li></ul>
  50. 68. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Nitrogen base attached to sugar at C-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate attached to sugar at C-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate attached to next nucleoside at C-1 by phosphodiester linkage </li></ul><ul><li>Each strand has a 3’ and 5’ end </li></ul>http://staff.um.edu.mt/acus1/3Molgen.htm
  51. 70. DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of living organisms. </li></ul>Image from: http://sbchem.sunysb.edu/msl/dna.gif
  52. 71. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Deoxyribose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogeneous bases: </li></ul><ul><li>A, C, G and T </li></ul><ul><li>DOUBLE HELIX </li></ul><ul><li>sugar & phosphates make up sides of ladder </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen bases form steps </li></ul>
  53. 72. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Strands run antiparallel </li></ul>http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/06t.html
  54. 73. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) <ul><li>Complementary strands </li></ul><ul><li>H bonds ~ between paired bases </li></ul><ul><li>van der Waals ~ between stacked bases </li></ul>http://staff.um.edu.mt/acus1/3Molgen.htm
  55. 74. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Inheritance based on DNA replication </li></ul><ul><li>Double helix (Watson & Crick - 1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Rosalind Franklin’s </li></ul><ul><li>Xray crystallograpy </li></ul>
  56. 75. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Ribose sugar Nitrogeneous bases: A, C, G, and U SINGLE STRANDED http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/06t.html
  57. 76. RNA <ul><li>RNA functions in protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of RNA: </li></ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA (mRNA) ~ blueprint for construction of a protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>~ construction site where the protein is made. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>~ truck delivering the proper amino acid to the site at the right time. </li></ul>
  58. 77. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) DNA -> RNA -> protein
  59. 78. NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  60. 79. NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy NAD + NADP + FAD Coenzyme A Energy and electron carriers used in photosynthesis and respiration More on this next unit!

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