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    Ch5macromolme Ch5macromolme Presentation Transcript

      • Chapter 5
      • The Structure & Function of Macromolecules
      Slide show modified from Kim Foglia @ http://www.explorebiology.com
    • 4 MAJOR MACROMOLECULES
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Proteins
      • Nucleic acids
    • POLYMERS
      • Large molecule made by linking smaller subunits together
        • Monomers (small subunits)
        • Covalent bonds
      Image by Riedell
    • SEE ANANIMATION
    • SEE ANANIMATION
    • CARBOHYDRATES http://www.graphic-design.com/Type/sugar/index.html http://www.ifr.ac.uk/SPM/images/Starch%20products.jpg
    • MONOSACCHARIDES Simple sugar molecules C 6 H 12 O 6 http://www.cybercolloids.net/library/sugars/glyceraldehyde.gif http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html http://217.60.75.10/llt/biokemi/images/galactose.jpg http://217.60.75.10/llt/biokemi/images/galactose.jpg http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html C 5 H 10 O 5 D-glyceraldehyde C 3 H 6 O 3 Composed of C,H,O (CH 2 O)n 3-7 carbons Name often ends in –ose
    • NUMBERING
      • Carbons are numbered
      • Carbon with carbonyl group is #1
    • Is it D or L ?
      • For sugars with more than one chiral center, the D or L designation refers to the asymmetric carbon farthest from the aldehyde or keto group.
      • Most naturally occurring sugars are D isomers.
      • D & L sugars are mirror images with same name.
    • Pentoses and hexoses can cyclize in water See animation
      • Carbons can be numbered
      • Carbon with carbonyl group is #1
    • CARBOHYDRATES SUPPLY ENERGY Images from: http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html Cells burn glucose and store the energy released as ATP
      • Disaccharides
      • Use dehydration synthesis to join TWO sugar molecules
      • covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides = GLYCOSIDIC linkage
      • EX: Sucrose (table sugar)
      • most common disaccharide
      http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Biochemistry/bioche1.gif http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/lab_protocols/HSSB-TLC_images/sucrose.gif
    • DISACCHARIDES
      • Glucose + Fructose -> Sucrose + H 2 0
      • Glucose + Glucose -> Maltose + H 2 0
      • Glucose + Galactose -> Lactose + H 2 0
    • POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars”
      • Ex: STARCH
      • polymer of α lpha glucose
      • linked by α 1-4 glycosidic linkages
      • Function: Energy storage in PLANTS Most animals have the enzymes to hydrolyze starch, too
      http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Assets/Amylopectin.jpg http://www.district87.org/biology87/apbio/biochem/Activity6_notes.pdf
    • POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” TWO KINDS OF STARCH: amylose = unbranched starch amylopectin = branched starch http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Assets/Amylopectin.jpg
    • POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” EX: GLYCOGEN alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds like starch More branched than amylopectin FUNCTION: Energy storage in ANIMALS Stored in liver and muscle tissue http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/magazine04/scientific.htm
    • POLYSACCHARIDES~ “many sugars” FUNCTION: Structural PLANTS ~ CELLULOSE Major component in cell walls Most abundant organic compound on Earth beta (ß) 1-4 glycosidic linkages
      • Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages can’t hydrolyze beta linkages in cellulose
      • Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber
      • Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose
      • Many herbivores, from cows to termites, have symbiotic relationships with these microbes
    • POLYSACCHARIDES FUNCTION: Structural EX: CHITIN Structural polysaccharide made from ß glucose with a NITROGEN containing group attached
          • Major component of: Exoskeletons in Arthropods
          • Cell walls in Fungi Dissolvable surgical thread
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    • FATTY ACIDS USED CAN :
      • Be same or different in one molecule
      • Vary in length
      • Vary in number/location of double bonds
      • Saturated (single bonds)
      • vs. unsaturated fats (double bonds)
      Kink in chain wherever a cis double bond occurs
    • FATS
      • LONG HC chain
      • NON-POLAR
      • HYDROPHOBIC
      • FUNCTION:
      • Energy storage very rich
        • 2X energy in carbos
      • Cushions organs
      • Insulates body Think whale blubber!
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    • Lipids, II
    • Phospholipids
      • HEAD (PHILIC)
      • Glycerol
      • Phosphate group-PO 4 - Negative charge
      • TAILS (PHOBIC)
      • 2 fatty acids
      • instead of 3
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    • !
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    • PROTEINS http://images.foodnetwork.com/webfood/images/gethealthy/nutritionalallstars/LeanProteins_header.jpg
      • PROTEINS ARE MADE FROM AMINO ACID SUBUITS
      • Structure
        • Central carbon
        • Amino group
        • Carboxyl group
        • R group (side chain)
          • Variable group
          • Confers unique chemical properties
          • polar (hydrophilic), nonpolar (hydrophobic), acid or base
      • Join via DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS reactions
    • Each kind of amino acid has a different R group 20 different amino acids are used by cells to make proteins (There are a few other aa’s, but rare) R GROUPS
    • See ananimation
    • POLYPEPTIDES http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html http://www.cherishedtimedesigns.com/images/BaliCharmBraceletGraduation500.jpg
      • POLYMERS OF AMINO ACIDS ARE CALLED POLYPEPTIDES
      • DNA determines the amino acid sequence
    • Image from:   http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/saunders/courses/online/SBI3C/Cells/Protein-Structure03.jpg A functional PROTEIN is not just the polypeptide chain. A PROTEIN consists of one or more polypeptide chains twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique molecular shape What determines the shape? SEE AN ANIMATION
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    • PROTEIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
      • Function depends on structure
      • 4 levels of organization
      • result in 3-D structure
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    • Primary Structure
      • Amino acid substitution: in hemoglobin code sickle-cell anemia
      A T
    • Secondary Structure folding along short sections
      • Due to:
      • R group interactions (phobic/philic)
      • Alpha Helix: coiling;
      • ß Pleated Sheet: parallel;
      • Hydrogen bonds between adjacent amino acids hold shape
    • Tertiary Structure interactions between side chains
      • Conformation: irregular contortions from R group bonding
      • √ hydrophobic
      • √ disulfide bridges
      • √ hydrogen bonds √ ionic bonds
    • Functional Groups
      • Sulfhydral Group
      • Called: thiols
      http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Disulfide_bridge.htm
    • DISULFIDE BRIDGES
      • STABLIZE 3-D SHAPE
      http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/02/disulfide-bridges-stabilize-folded.html BETWEEN nearby CYSTEINE amino acids (Notice name change when bonded)
    • Quaternary Structure
      • Conformation: 2 or more polypeptide chains aggregated into one macromolecule
      • √ collagen (connective tissue)
      • √ hemoglobin
    • See ananimation
    • WHAT DO PROTEINS DO? * See page 78 in Campbell for other examples
    • ENZYMES http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/cat-removed/enzyme_.gif Enzymes are protein catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions in living things Enzymes reduce activation energy required for reaction Enzymes are specific and fit substrate like a lock and key. Enzymes are not changed by reaction and are reusable. http://www.grand-illusions.com/images/articles/toyshop/trick_lock/mainimage.jpg
      • PROTEIN CONFORMATION ALSO DEPENDS ON PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
      • pH
      • Salt concentration
      • Temperature
      http://www.desktopfotos.de/Downloads/melt_cd.jpg http://www.nealbrownstudio.com/adm/photo/163_nb_fried_egg.jpg See a movie Choose narrated
      • Proteins that have denatured are biologically inactive
      • Once conditions change, protein may need help returning to its functional shape.
      Facilitation of folding
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    • NUCLEIC ACIDS
    • Nucleic Acids
      • The main functions of nucleotides are: information storage (DNA), protein synthesis (RNA) energy transfers (ATP and NAD).
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Nucleic acids are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides.
      • The main functions of nucleotides are: information storage (DNA), protein synthesis (RNA) energy transfers (ATP and NAD).
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Nucleic acids are polymers composed of units known as nucleotides.
      • Nucleotides consist of a pentose (5C) sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate.
      • Sugar and phosphate alone = nucleo side
    • Nucleic Acids
      • The sugars are either:
      ribose deoxyribose OR
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Nitrogeneous bases can be:
      • Purines (Adenine and Guanine) ~ double-ring
      • Pyrimidines (Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil)
      • ~ single-ring
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
      • Nitrogen base attached to sugar at C-1
      • Phosphate attached to sugar at C-5
      • Phosphate attached to next nucleoside at C-1 by phosphodiester linkage
      • Each strand has a 3’ and 5’ end
      http://staff.um.edu.mt/acus1/3Molgen.htm
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    • DNA
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the physical carrier of inheritance for 99% of living organisms.
      Image from: http://sbchem.sunysb.edu/msl/dna.gif
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
      • Deoxyribose sugar
      • Nitrogeneous bases:
      • A, C, G and T
      • DOUBLE HELIX
      • sugar & phosphates make up sides of ladder
      • nitrogen bases form steps
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
      • Strands run antiparallel
      http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/06t.html
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
      • Complementary strands
      • H bonds ~ between paired bases
      • van der Waals ~ between stacked bases
      http://staff.um.edu.mt/acus1/3Molgen.htm
    • Nucleic Acids
      • Inheritance based on DNA replication
      • Double helix (Watson & Crick - 1953)
      • Based on Rosalind Franklin’s
      • Xray crystallograpy
    • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Ribose sugar Nitrogeneous bases: A, C, G, and U SINGLE STRANDED http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/06t.html
    • RNA
      • RNA functions in protein synthesis.
      • There are three types of RNA:
      • Messenger RNA (mRNA) ~ blueprint for construction of a protein.
      • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
      • ~ construction site where the protein is made.
      • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
      • ~ truck delivering the proper amino acid to the site at the right time.
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) DNA -> RNA -> protein
    • NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • NUCLEOTIDES can transfer and store energy NAD + NADP + FAD Coenzyme A Energy and electron carriers used in photosynthesis and respiration More on this next unit!