A pevolreview

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A pevolreview

  1. 1. EVOLUTION REVIEW Chapters 22-24 Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
  2. 2. <ul><li>Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a specific environment </li></ul>fitness Inherited characteristic that increases and organism’s chances for survival adaptation
  3. 3. <ul><li>Describe the main points of Darwin’s theory of evolution </li></ul>Natural variation in population provides basis for natural selection to act Overproduction of offspring forces competition for resources (struggle for survival) Organisms best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce; Other organisms die or leave fewer offspring ( survival of the fittest/natural selection ) Species alive today have descended with modification from ancestral species that lived in the distant past All organisms are united into a single “tree of life” (common descent)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Change in a population over time </li></ul>evolution Differences among individuals within a species Natural variation
  5. 5. <ul><li>Structures that develop from the same embryonic tissues, but have different mature forms </li></ul>Homologous structures Organs that are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors Vestigial organs
  6. 6. <ul><li>Preserved remains of an ancient </li></ul><ul><li>organism </li></ul>fossil Islands that Darwin visited on his voyage on the Beagle that started him thinking about how organisms change over time Galapagos
  7. 7. <ul><li>One species of spotted skunk mates in late summer, and another mates in late winter. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation </li></ul>temporal http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html http://www.zwani.com/graphics/antivalentines_day/images/4heart.gif pre http://www.horton-szar.net/clipart/animals4.php
  8. 8. <ul><li>Concept that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time </li></ul>Descent with Modifications Idea that organisms that are best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce Survival of the Fittest
  9. 9. <ul><li>Type of distribution curve shown by </li></ul><ul><li>polygenic traits </li></ul>Bell-shaped curve (OR normal distribution) Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  10. 10. <ul><li>GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A PHYSICAL ADAPTATION </li></ul>Webbed feet, horns, antlers, claws, feathers, wings, camouflage, . . . . there are a million GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION Nocturnal (coming out at night); Flying south for the winter, living in herds, “ wagon train” defense; burrowing; hibernation
  11. 11. <ul><li>When humans select and breed animals with certain useful traits from the natural variation in the population </li></ul>Artificial selection Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments Convergent evolution
  12. 12. <ul><li>Book published by Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>in which he proposed a mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>and provided evidence for his </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Evolution </li></ul>“ On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection” Process by which related organisms evolve differences when they are isolated in different environments Divergent evolution
  13. 13. <ul><li>The bones in the diagrams below are examples of </li></ul><ul><li>____________ structures </li></ul>Homologous http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html
  14. 14. <ul><li>Naturalist who gave Darwin incentive to </li></ul><ul><li>publish his ideas about evolution by </li></ul><ul><li>writing an essay that described similar </li></ul><ul><li>ideas. </li></ul>Alfred Russel Wallace French naturalist who hypothesized that organisms acquire traits during their lifetime through use or disuse which can be passed on to offspring Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  15. 15. <ul><li>Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance of Acquired Traits </li></ul><ul><li>hypothesis </li></ul>Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s Inheritance of Acquired Traits hypothesis First theory about evolution; Organisms do change and adapt to their environments Genes determine which traits are passed on; unless genes are changed the acquired trait will only show in the original organism
  16. 16. <ul><li>Male fireflies of one species signal females of the same species by blinking their lights in a specific pattern. Other firefly species have different patterns. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation </li></ul>Behavioral http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html pre http://www.webweaver.nu/clipart/insects2.shtml
  17. 17. <ul><li>Name 3 kinds of evidence that supports Darwin’s THEORY OF EVOLUTION </li></ul>Fossils Geographic distribution Homologous structures Vestigial organs Embryology DNA Pseudogenes Artificial selection Can see natural selection work antibiotic resistance, new diseases,
  18. 18. <ul><li>One species of garter snake is primarily aquatic, while another closely related species is primarily terrestrial. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation </li></ul>Habitat http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html http://www.zwani.com/graphics/antivalentines_day/images/4heart.gif pre http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/animal/
  19. 19. <ul><li>The idea that all species, living and extinct, were derived from a common ancestor </li></ul>Common descent What Darwin called natural selection? Survival of the fittest
  20. 20. <ul><li>Measuring lima beans and finding beans come in different sizes is an example of </li></ul><ul><li>____________ </li></ul>Natural variation The practice of breeding dogs to produce offspring with specific traits is an example of _________________ artificial selection
  21. 21. <ul><li>A human’s appendix and a skink’s legs are examples of _______________ </li></ul>Vestigial organs How would Lamarck explain these giraffes with longer necks? Giraffes stretched their necks to reach food in tall trees and this acquired characteristic is passed on to their offspring. Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
  22. 22. How would Darwin explain these giraffes with longer necks? Populations naturally have individuals with different sizes of necks (natural variation) The ones with longer necks are better able to get food, survive, and pass on their longer neck alleles. Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
  23. 23. <ul><li>Evolutionary change on the smallest scale like new strains of HIV evolving from current HIV virus is called ______ evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the dominant allele in a Hardy Weinberg problem? </li></ul>micro p
  24. 24. <ul><li>According to this diagram, modern </li></ul><ul><li>whales have a vestigial pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>and femur. What does this suggest </li></ul><ul><li>about ancestors of modern whales? </li></ul>Ancestors of modern whales had legs and walked on land Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
  25. 25. <ul><li>The adaptations in species of finches that Darwin observed on the Gal ά pagos Islands were </li></ul><ul><li>different shaped _____________ </li></ul>beaks Why did Darwin first hesitate to publish his ideas about evolution? His findings challenged fundamental scientific beliefs at the time
  26. 26. <ul><li>A possible explanation for a set of observations or a possible answer to a scientific question </li></ul><ul><li>Change in the DNA sequence of an organism due to mistakes in replication or damage from radiation or chemicals </li></ul>hypothesis mutation
  27. 27. <ul><li>Who is the scientist that proposed </li></ul><ul><li>the idea that forces which have been </li></ul><ul><li>changing the Earth are still at work? </li></ul>Charles Lyell Who realized that human populations were increasing and said eventually there would not be enough food and space for everyone? Thomas Malthus
  28. 28. <ul><li>Whales and wolves share a common ancestor, but have evolved to look very different. This is an example of _____________ evolution. </li></ul>divergent What do we call genes that have lost their function due to mutations? pseudogenes
  29. 29. <ul><li>Tell one piece of evidence that suggests human chromosome #2 evolved by joining 2 smaller ancestor chromosomes. </li></ul>Banding pattern matches It has telomeres in the middle instead of just at the ends. It has an extra inactive centromere instead of just one.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Give an example of homologous structures </li></ul>Human arm, bird wing, whale flipper Give an example of a pseudogene you learned about Vitamin C gene in primates, genes for “smell” in humans
  31. 31. <ul><li>A well supported, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world is called a ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Name the ship that Darwin spent 5 years on traveling around the world. </li></ul>theory H.M.S. Beagle
  32. 32. <ul><li>Who is the scientist that proposed the idea of that forces have been changing the Earth and have been at work for millions of years? </li></ul>James Hutton Who is the scientist that proposed the idea of “Inheritance of Acquired Traits”? Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  33. 33. <ul><li>Who is the scientist that proposed </li></ul><ul><li>an idea about evolution which </li></ul><ul><li>prompted Darwin to publish his theory? </li></ul>Alfred Wallace When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some antelope are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin’s theory of evolution might be used to describe this situation? Survival of the fittest; natural selection
  34. 34. <ul><li>Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance of Acquired Traits </li></ul><ul><li>hypothesis </li></ul>Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s Inheritance of Acquired Traits hypothesis LIVING THINGS CHANGE OVER TIME TO BEST FIT THEIR ENVIRONMENTS TRAITS ARE DETERMINED BY GENES; ACQUIRED TRAITS ARE NOT PASSED ON
  35. 35. <ul><li>Another name for divergent evolution is ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>What Darwin called “survival of the fittest” </li></ul><ul><li>_________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Another name for “struggle for existence” is _______________ </li></ul>Adaptive radiation Natural selection competition
  36. 36. <ul><li>Darwin’s concept of evolution was influenced by all of the following EXCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>A. the work of Charles Lyell and James Hutton </li></ul><ul><li>B. his collection of specimens and fossils </li></ul><ul><li>C. his knowledge of the structure of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>D. his voyage around the world </li></ul><ul><li>E. Malthus’s ideas about populations and resources </li></ul>C. Darwin didn’t know about DNA!
  37. 37. <ul><li>Whales and sharks are not closely related, but have evolved to have similar body shapes and fins because they live in similar environments. This is an example of _____________ evolution. </li></ul>convergent
  38. 38. <ul><li>TELL THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE HOLDS TRUE: </li></ul>Random mating NO mutations LARGE population NO movement IN OR OUT NO natural selection
  39. 39. <ul><li>All of these statements about the structure of </li></ul><ul><li>human chromosome #2 provide evidence for </li></ul><ul><li>evolution EXCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>A. Its banding pattern matches the pattern seen on two smaller chimp chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>B. It has telomeres in the center, as well as at the ends </li></ul><ul><li>C. It carries a functional gene for making vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>D. It has an extra non-functional centromere </li></ul>C. Humans have a nonfunctional vitamin C making gene, and its not on chromosome #2
  40. 40. <ul><li>Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below. </li></ul>Directional selection Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  41. 41. <ul><li>Traits controlled by two or more genes </li></ul>Polygenic trait Process by which related organisms evolve differences when they are isolated in different environments Divergent evolution OR Adaptive radiation
  42. 42. <ul><li>Measuring lima beans and finding beans come in different sizes is an example of ____________ </li></ul>Natural variation Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments or to solve similar problems Convergent evolution
  43. 43. <ul><li>In _____________ selection, individuals near the center of a normal curve of distribution have higher fitness than those at the extremes </li></ul>Stabilizing Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006
  44. 44. <ul><li>A change in a DNA sequence caused by a mistake in DNA replication or exposure to radiation or chemicals </li></ul>mutation Changes in the allele frequency in a small population that are due to random chance and don’t follow the laws of probability Genetic drift
  45. 45. <ul><li>All the genes, including all the different alleles, in a population </li></ul>Gene pool A situation in which the allele frequencies in a population do NOT change and the population does NOT EVOLVE Genetic equilibrium
  46. 46. <ul><li>A change in allele frequencies due to the migration of a small subgroup of a population to a new place </li></ul>Founder effect Idea that allele frequency will remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change Hardy-Weinberg Principle
  47. 47. <ul><li>The copulatory organs of two insect species do not fit together. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation </li></ul>mechanical http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm lhttp://newhaven828.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8347ae50569e200e5538e3c2e8834-320pi pre
  48. 48. <ul><li>Tell the 2 equations needed to solve Hardy Weinberg problems </li></ul>p + q = 1 P 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 The number of times a certain allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the number of times other alleles for the same gene occur Relative frequency
  49. 49. <ul><li>Tell two sources of genetic variation in populations </li></ul>Mutations caused by mistakes in copying DNA caused by radiation or environmental chemicals Gene shuffling during meiosis crossing over independent assortment
  50. 50. <ul><li>In ___________ selection, individuals at the extreme ends of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than those near the center of the curve </li></ul>disruptive Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  51. 51. <ul><li>Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below. </li></ul>Stabilizing selection Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006
  52. 52. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>stabilizing disruptive directional </li></ul>directional selection Lighter colored peppered moths were more common in England prior to the Industrial revolution. As pollution increased, the darker colored moths were less likely to be eaten. Over time darker colored moths have become more abundant in the population.
  53. 53. <ul><li>In ___________ selection individuals at one end of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end </li></ul>directional Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  54. 54. <ul><li>If all the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg are met, what happens to the population? </li></ul><ul><li>Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the RECESSIVE PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem? </li></ul>There is NO EVOLUTION q 2
  55. 55. Can all the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg ever be met? MOST OF THE TIME NO WAY! You can have small & isolated populations (no moving in or out) BUT. . . there is always non-random mating, mutations, & natural selection. So there is ALMOST ALWAYS EVOLUTION HAPPENING !
  56. 56. <ul><li>Darwin believed in the idea that evolution happened slowly over a long period of time called __________ </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of evolution in which long </li></ul><ul><li>stable periods of little evolution </li></ul><ul><li>interrupted by brief periods of rapid change </li></ul>gradualism Punctuated equilibrium
  57. 57. <ul><li>The clan of “blue people” in Kentucky we learned about is an example of ___________ effect </li></ul>founder A change in relative frequency of alleles in a population evolution
  58. 58. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Punctuated equilibrium Horse evolution shows long stable periods of little evolution interrupted by brief periods of rapid change Biology by Miller and Levine Pearson Publishing
  59. 59. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Mass extinction At the end of the Cretaceous period an asteroid hit the Earth causing the loss of many species including the dinosaurs
  60. 60. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Adaptive radiation (divergent evolution) The Galápagos finches evolved through natural selection from a common ancestor into a wide variety of different looking species with different kinds of beaks http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif
  61. 61. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>coevolution Hummingbirds have a beak just the right length to reach the nectar in a cardinal flower and as they feed their foreheads bump into the pollen structure. Cardinal flowers are red which hummingbirds can see, but bees can’t, and their pollen structure is at just the right height for the hummingbird to pick up pollen as it feeds.
  62. 62. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Convergent evolution Whales, sharks, and penguins all have streamlined bodies and fins/flipper for moving in water even though they belong in different animal groups (mammals, fish, and birds)
  63. 63. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Adaptive radiation OR divergent evolution Beaver in North America and capybara in South America are closely related species living in very different environments that have evolved to look different over time. BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine Pearson Publishing Beaver NORTH AMERICA Muskrat Capybara SOUTH AMERICA Coypu Beaver Muskrat Beaver and Muskrat Coypu
  64. 64. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated equilibrium mass extinction </li></ul>Adaptive radiation OR divergent evolution The tortoises on the Galapagos islands share a common ancestor, but over time they have become adapted for obtaining food in different habitats on different islands by having different neck lengths
  65. 65. <ul><li>Similarities that result from CONVERGENT evolution are considered to be ____________ structures. </li></ul>analogous
  66. 66. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>stabilizing disruptive directional </li></ul>Stabilizing selection Human babies born smaller than average are likely to be less healthy and less likely to survive. Larger than average babies are likely to have difficulty being born. The fitness of these larger or smaller weight babies is lower than average-sized babies so human babies tend to born of average size.
  67. 67. <ul><li>Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below. </li></ul>Disruptive selection Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
  68. 68. <ul><li>WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT? </li></ul><ul><li>stabilizing disruptive directional </li></ul>disruptive selection A population of birds lives in an area where plants with medium sized seeds are wiped out by a fungal infection. Birds with unusually large or small beaks would have higher fitness than those with medium sized beaks. Over time the population splits into two subgroups; one that eats small seeds and one that eats large seeds.
  69. 69. <ul><li>Mules produced when a horse and donkey interbreed are sterile. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid ____________ </li></ul>post http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html infertility
  70. 70. <ul><li>All of the following influenced Darwin except </li></ul><ul><li>Lyell Mendel Hutton Malthus Lamarck </li></ul><ul><li>Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the recessive allele in a Hardy Weinberg problem? </li></ul>Mendel q
  71. 71. <ul><li>Sperm of one sponge species cannot penetrate the egg of a closely related species.This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called _________ isolation </li></ul>pre http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html gametic http://sisu.typepad.com/sisu/spongebob.jpg
  72. 72. <ul><li>Evolutionary change above the species level including the appearance of major evolutionary developments like flight </li></ul><ul><li>(EX: fish -> amphibians) is called </li></ul><ul><li>______evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the dominant PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem? </li></ul>macro p 2
  73. 73. <ul><li>Mode of speciation induced when an ancestral population becomes split by a geographic barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Which variable(s) is/are used to represent the frequency of the HETEROZYGOUS PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem? </li></ul>Allopatric “other country” 2pq
  74. 74. <ul><li>Mode of speciation occurring as a result of a radical change in the genome of a subpopulation reproductively isolating it from the parent population (EX: polyploidy) </li></ul><ul><li>The geographic distribution patterns of species that support Darwin’s theory </li></ul>sympatric “same country” biogeography
  75. 75. <ul><li>Two cotton species produce fertile hybrids but the next generation is infertile. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid __________ </li></ul>breakdown http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm http://ipm.ncsu.edu/cotton/InsectCorner/photos/images/Open_cotton_plant.jpg post
  76. 76. <ul><li>__________ occurs when a population gains or loses alleles when individuals move in or out of a population </li></ul>Gene flow Kind of genetic drift in which a sudden change in the environment (ex: earthquake, tidal wave, fire) drastically reduces the size of population Bottleneck effect
  77. 77. <ul><li>The increased chance of survival of individuals that are heterozygous for the sickle cell allele helps to maintain this deleterious recessive allele in populations that live in areas infected by malaria. This is called </li></ul>Heterozygote advantage Kind of genetic drift in which a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and establish a new population whose gene pool is different from the parent population Founder effect
  78. 78. <ul><li>Nearly all the embryos die when eggs of a bullfrog are fertilized artificially with sperm from a leopard frog. This is an example of a ____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid __________ </li></ul>inviability http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm l http://www.animationlibrary.com post
  79. 79. <ul><li>THE END. . . </li></ul><ul><li>or is it ? </li></ul>EVOLUTION IS STILL HAPPENING

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