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A pch22 A pch22 Presentation Transcript

  • DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION A Darwinian View of Life AP BIOLOGY Chapter 22 Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006
  • WHO INFLUENCED DARWIN’S THINKING
    • Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece
    Figure 22.2 Linnaeus (classification) Hutton (gradual geologic change) Lamarck (species can change) Malthus (population limits) Cuvier (fossils, extinction) Lyell (modern geology) Darwin (evolution, nutural selection) Mendel (inheritance) Wallace (evolution, natural selection) 1750 American Revolution French Revolution U.S. Civil War 1800 1850 1900 1795 Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism. 1798 Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” 1809 Lamarck publishes his theory of evolution. 1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology. 1831–1836 Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. Darwin begins his notebooks on the origin of species. 1837 Darwin writes his essay on the origin of species. 1844 Wallace sends his theory to Darwin. 1858 The Origin of Species is published. 1859 Mendel publishes inheritance papers. 1865
    • Aristotle- (384-322 B.C.)
    • Species are fixed (unchanging)
    • BUT recognized similarities
    Image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html Arranged life forms on a scale of increasing complexity scala natura- “scale of nature” http://www.kheper.net/topics/greatchainofbeing/index.html
    • Founder of TAXONOMY-1735
    • Science of grouping & naming
    • Sought to discover order in the diversity of life “for the greater glory of God”
    • Each creature was special- NO evolutionary link
    • Devised classification system based on morphology (form and structure)
    (1707-1778) Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg Binomial Nomenclature: Naming system that gives organisms a two part scientific name- Genus species Still used today
  • LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM
    • Nested hierarchy
    • Taxon = classification unit to which organisms are assigned
    http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/d/d6/150px-Biological_classification_L_Pengo.svg.png Ex: Panthera is a taxon at the genus level Mammalia is a taxon at the class level
  • Kidspiration by Riedell Image Sources: see end of show
    • Kingdom
      • Phylum
      • Class
      • Order
            • Family
            • Genus Species
    Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Panthera leo http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach Kings Play Chess On Fat Green Stools King Phillip Cried Oh For Goodness Sake!
  • GENUS = group of closely related species
    • GENUS = Ursus
    (Includes many kinds of bears) SPECIES = unique to each kind of bear http://www.macecanada.com/images/bears/kodiak_bear.gif http://students.cs.byu.edu/~tole/Virtual%20Zoo/polar-bear.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Black_bear_large.jpg Ursus arctos Ursus maritimus Ursus americanis
    • Genus and species assignments provide 2 part scientific name
    Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg
  • Modern Taxonomy has added more Kingdoms AND more levels (DOMAINS) Linneaus only used 2 kingdoms (Plants & Animals) Domains are larger than Kingdoms and are based on the differences in ribosomal RNA
    • Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
    • George Cuvier –
    • Father of Paleontology
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Georges_Cuvier.jpg Fossils are remains of extinct life forms “ CATASTROPHISM” - boundaries represent floods, droughts, etc. that destroyed many species living at that time ANTI-EVOLUTONIST
    • Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
    • 1795 –James Hutton
    • “ GRADUALISM”
    • Profound changes can result
    • from cumulative effect of
    • slow but continuous
    • processes
    • Proposed that the Earth was shaped by
    • geological forces occurring over very long
    • periods of time, and is MILLIONS not
    • THOUSANDS of years old.
    http://www.creationism.org/books/TaylorInMindsMen/TaylorIMMc03.htm
    • Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
    • 1833-Charles Lyell
    • Incorporated Hutton’s ideas into
    • “ UNIFORMITARIANISM”
    • Geological processes that
    • shaped Earth are still
    • operating at same rate.
    • Darwin read his book on the Beagle voyage
    http://www.biologydaily.com/biology/Sir_Charles_Lyell
    • MODERN GEOLOGY
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/animate/A08.gif
    • Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
    • Thomas Malthus (1798)
    • wrote essay on population growth
    • Human suffering (disease, famine, homelessness, and war) are consequences to human population increasing faster than food and other resources
    http://www.nndb.com/people/250/000024178/malthus.jpg
    • Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
    • Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
    • One of first scientists to recognize
    • that living things changed over time
    • and that all species were descended
    • from other species.
    • 1809- Published his ideas about “Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics” the year Darwin was born
    http://www.educa.rcanaria.es/fundoro/00.corsi.htm
  • The male fiddler crab uses its front claw to attract mates and ward off predators. “ USE or DISUSE” = Use it or lose it Through repeated use, the front claw becomes larger. The fiddler passes on this acquired characteristic to its offspring INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS
  • What’s wrong with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
    • Lamarck didn’t know about
    • genes and how traits are inherited.
    • Acquired traits are not passed on to offspring
    Or are they? . . . New field of EPIGENETICS is exploring this http://www.geocities.com/arnold_schwarzenegger_pictures/
  • What’s right with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
    • Lamarck was first to
    • develop a scientific
    • hypothesis about
    • evolution and recognize
    • that organisms are
    • adapted to their
    • environment
    http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~he599900/giraffeeating.jpg
    • Slide by Kim Foglia@ http://www.explorebiology.com/
    • In 1831, 22-year old Charles Darwin left England as naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle for 5 year voyage around the world.
    • Mission: Chart the South American coastline
    • Darwin noticed plants
    • and animals were different
    • from those he knew in Europe
    • Wrote thousands of pages
    • of observations and
    • collected vast number of
    • specimens
    Who Was Charles Darwin? http://www.solarnavigator.net/history/explorers_history/HMS_Beagle.jpg
    • Who Was Charles Darwin?
    • Darwin spent a month observing life on the Galapagos Islands
    • Each island has different rainfall
    • and vegetation and its own unique
    • assortment of plant and animal
    • species.
    Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006 http://mikebaird.com/ecuador/images/galapagos_off_ecuador_ng_map.jpg
    • Who Was Charles Darwin?
    • Although animals on Galapagos
    • resemble species on the
    • South American mainland,
    • many species were found no
    • where else in the world = ENDEMIC
    http://www.darwinadventure.com/pictures/galapagos_giantortoise.jpg http://www.destination360.com/south-america/ecuador/galapagos-animals.php http://www.photoseek.com/galapago.html
    • DARWIN’S
    • FINCHES
    Darwin collected 14 species of finches and hypothesized that the Galapagos had be colonized by organisms from the mainland that had then diversified on the various
    • After Darwin returned to England in 1836, he spent years examining specimens he brought back from voyage and filling notebooks with his ideas.
    • He did not rush to publish his ideas because they
    • disagreed with the fundamental scientific views of his
    • day.
    • In 1844 he wrote an essay describing his ideas and
    • asked his wife to publish it if he died.
    http://www.elsie.brandeis.edu/images/journals.gif Who Was Charles Darwin?
    • In 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace, another
    • Naturalist working in the West Indies,
    • wrote an essay describing his work that
    • summarized the same ideas Darwin had
    • been thinking about for 25 years!
    http://www.thesecondevolution.com/wallace&darwin.jpg
    • Suddenly Darwin had incentive to publish
    • the results of his work!
    • In 1859
    • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
    • presented evidence
    • and proposed a
    • mechanism for evolution
    • that he called
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/images/s125.jpg
  • Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Darwin Presents his Case Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006
  • Isn’t evolution “ just a theory”? In every day usage “theory” often refers to a hunch or a speculation. When people say, “I have a theory about what happened,” they are often drawing a conclusion based on fragmentary or inconclusive evidence. The formal scientific definition of “theory” is quite different from the every day meaning. It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evohome.htm
  • In Science a theory is a well supported, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. Example: Cell theory Atomic theory Gravitational theory Isn’t evolution just a theory? http://www.avgoe.de/StarChild/DOCS/STARCH00/questions/apple_falling.gif http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/chemistry/atomic_structure2/atom.gif
    • VOCAB
    • ADAPTATION- Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival
    http://www.3kitty.org/travelrama/Photos/123-21-4x6.jpg http://www.wildlife-traps.com/skunks.html http://www.atomtigerzoo.com/photos/images/20060421233733_duckfeet.jpg
    • OVERPRODUCTION of OFFSPRING
    • Capacity to over-reproduce seems characteristic of all species.
    http://atthecreation.com/DEER/too.many.deer.jpg http://www.biospheres.com/photogallery2ag/images/ladybugs_jpg.jpg WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCE means
    • that members of each species must
    • compete for food, space, and
    • other resources.
    http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg
    • WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • GENETIC VARIATION is found naturally in all populations
    http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/animals/images/primary/zebra-herd.jpg Image from www.biologyzone.com
    • WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • Some organisms in a population are less likely to survive.
    http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/rrs/lowres/rrsn69l.jpg
    • VOCAB
    • Ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment = FITNESS
    http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/cga/lowres/cgan170l.jpg
    • WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST =
    • Organisms which are better adapted
    • to their environment tend to produce
    • more offspring than organisms without
    • those traits.
    http://www.poster.net/bedard/bed202.jpg
  • Over time, NATURAL SELECTION results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species’ fitness in its environment. WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY? How Does Evolution Really Work?
    • POPULATIONS evolve NOT INDIVIDUALS.
    • NATURAL SELECTION only works on heritable traits.
    • A trait that is favorable in one environment may be useless or detrimental in another.
    IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER !
  • DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION suggests that each species has descended with changes from other species over time. This idea suggests that all living species are related to each other and that all species, living and extinct, share a common ancestor. WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
    • What do oranges, broccoli and
    • Butterball turkeys have to do
    • with EVOLUTION?
    • (Answers to come in this slide show!)
    http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg THINK ABOUT IT
    • EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION :
    • ________________
    • ________________
    • 3. _______________
    • 4. _______________
    • 5. _______________
    • 6. _______________
    • 7. _______________
    Fossil record Geographic Distribution Anatomical homologies Embryology Molecular homologies Can see Natural selection happen Artificial selection
    • ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WORKS
    • Nature provides the variation through
    • mutation and sexual reproduction and
    • humans select those traits that they find
    • useful
    EX: We have selected for and bred cows to produce more milk, turkeys with more breast meat, etc. http://lazerbrody.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/turkey.gif http://www.pp3moo.com/hm2cow.jpg
  • BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece Prentice Hall Publishing©2005 WE’VE DONE IT WITH PLANTS
  • WE’VE DONE IT WITH ANIMALS http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/dogs_sm.jpg If humans can select for beneficial traits, why can’t nature? If artificial selection can achieve so much change in relatively short time, why can’t major changes happen over thousands of generations?
    • Now you know what broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do with evolution!
    • (Answers about oranges to come in this slide show!)
    http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg THINK ABOUT IT
  • How Do We Know Evolution Happens? The Fossil Record provides evidence that organisms have changed over time. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bifossils.gif
    • If evolution has happened, we should be able to find evidence of evolution in the fossil record AND WE HAVE !
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tiktaalik_BW.jpg BBC Tiktaalik video http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/lines/IAtransitional.shtml
  • Lots of TRANSITIONAL FOSSILS have been found Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p100-107
  • TIK-TAALIK
    • Intermediate between fish and early tetrapods
    • Fins have basic wrist bones and simple fingers
    • Earliest fish with a neck
    • Discovered by Neil Shubin and Ted Daeschler in 2004
    http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/news/tiktaalik_reconstruction.jpg
  • GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION = BIOGEOGRAPHY If Darwin’s theory is correct you would expect to find closely related yet different species living in a geographic region as they spread into nearby habitats and evolve. That’s EXACTLY what we do see!
    • GALAPAGOS FINCHES
    The beaks of Galapagos finches have adapted to eating a variety of foods http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif
    • GALAPAGOS TORTOISES
    http://www.newtonswindow.com/problem-solving.htm Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publisher©2006 Little vegetation Long necks Lots of vegetation Short necks Intermediate vegetation Intermediate necks Tortoises adapted to different habitats as they spread from the mainland to the different islands. = DIVERGENT EVOLUTION = ADAPTIVE RADIATION
  • If Darwin’s theory is correct you would also expect to find different species living in far apart geographic regions but similar habitats becoming more alike as they adapt to similar environments. That’s EXACTLY what we do see!
    • BOTH LIVE IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
    Adapted to similar environments, but evolved independently from different ancestors. SUGAR GLIDER in Australia is a marsupial more closely related to Kangaroos than North American FLYING SQUIRRELS because its ancestors were marsupials.
  • Whales and sharks have a similar body design even though they are very different organisms (one is a fish; the other, a mammal) because they have independently adapted to living in a similar environment. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn1page1.stm http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/TigerShark/scars.JPG = CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
  • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES- Forelimbs of all mammals share same arrangement of bones that can be traced to same embryological origin BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece Prentice Hall Publishing©2005
  • Turtle Alligator Bird Mammal Ancient lobe-finned fish Section 15-3 EVOLUTION explains why certain characteristics in related species have an underlying similarity.
  • amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg
  • VESTIGIAL ORGANS Some homologous structures are vestigial and have no useful function even though they are still present. Examples: Hipbones and pelvis in whales and boa constrictors Cecum (appendix) in humans Skink legs http://www.txtwriter.com/backgrounders/Evolution/EVpage12.html
    • Most mammals have a pouch between their small and large intestine that contains bacteria to digest plants called a cecum.
    http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif In humans the cecum is shrunken and unused. It is our appendix
  • EMBRYOLOGY Development of vertebrate embryos follows same path Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml
  • Same groups of undifferentiated cells develop in the same order to produce the same tissues and organs of all vertebrates, suggesting that they all evolved from a common ancestor. Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
  • Why grow a tail and then lose it?
    • HUMAN EMBRYO has a tail at 4 weeks which disappears at 8 weeks
    • Pharyngeal pouches
    • become gills in fish,
    • parts of throat/ears in humans
    http://www.suite101.com/files/topics/6234/files/tail_HumanTail.gif
    • Nonfunctional legs in skinks
    http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif Why would an organism possess organs without function? Why would an organism grow a part and then discard it? If organisms evolved from ancestors in which that part functioned, the gene code to make the part would still be there even though it doesn’t work. If the organ is not vital to survival, then natural selection would not cause its elimination.
  • MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES
    • All life forms share same genetic machinery (DNA & RNA)
    • Universal genetic code
    • Important genes share highly conserved sequences
  • Similarities in protein sequences suggests similarities in DNA Image from: Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
  • Image from: BIOLOGY AP EDITION by Campbell and Reece; Prentice Hall Publishing©2005 Similarities in DNA and protein sequences suggest relatedness MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES
  • Similarities in karyotypes suggest an evolutionary relationship Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt. Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes
  • Even differences show relatedness Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt. Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.
  • Remember: Protective TELOMERE sequences found at ends of chromosomes http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html
  • 2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together. http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm -> -> ->
  • _________________ Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together. Which chromosomes? http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm -> EXTRA CENTROMERE
  • ________________________ If you take the two smaller chromosomes they have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2 http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm BANDING PATTERN MATCHES
  • Why don’t dogs and cats need to eat fresh fruit, but you do? http://www.naturescornermagazine.com/NaturesBlog/images/dog%20care%20in%20summer.jpg http://www.alpo.com/where.aspx
  • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, and most mammals can make their own vitamin C, but humans can’t make vitamin C. Without fresh fruit, humans end up with scurvy. http://www.med.uc.edu/departme/cellbiol/Image7.gif http://www.rachelleb.com/images/2005_02_22/scurvy.jpg
  • Human DNA contains the gene that codes for the enzyme to make vitamin C, but it is nonfunctional. Guess what other group of organisms lack the ability to make their own Vitamin C? http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg PRIMATES… which includes chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, and other apes .
  • PSEUDOGENES are vestigial genes. EX: Humans have more than 99 different odor receptor genes, but more than 70% of them are nonfunctional. http://www.animationplayhouse.com/new/dogs2.html http://unraveling.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/nose_1.jpg
  • Slide by Kim Foglia@ http://www.explorebiology.com/
  • BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece We can see Natural selection happen
  • BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece We can see Natural selection happen
  • EX: Changes in disease-causing microbes that produce new organisms and new diseases. _______ ___ __________________________ http://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg http://www.hhmi.org/askascientist/images/hiv.gif Can see Natural selection happen Bird flu Antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis HIV Why does evolution matter now?
    • Researchers have developed numerous drugs to combat HIV
      • But using these medications selects for viruses resistant to the drugs
    Graph from BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece Patient No. 1 Patient No. 2 Patient No. 3 Percent of HIV resistant to 3TC Weeks
    • PEPPERED MOTH
    Data from Kim Foglia @ www.biologyzone.com
  • Slide from Kim Foglia@www.biologyzone.com
  • Slide by Kim Foglia@www.biologyzone.com
  • PBS EVOLUTION VIDEO CLIPS
    • Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?
    • QuickTime
    • Who was Charles Darwin?
    • QuickTime
    • How Do we Know Evolution Happens?
    • QuickTime
    • How Does Evolution Really Work?
    • QuickTime |
    • Why Does Evolution Matter Now?
    • QuickTime
    • Why is Evolution Controversial Anyway?
    • QuickTime
  • Image Sources   http://www.kidskonnect.com/Lions/lion.gif http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/blaine/ http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/2428/directory.html http://www.gifs.net   http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm
  • http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/platypus.gif http://www.drtoy.com/news/ http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif http://www.madlantern.com/clipart/cindexw.htm http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif
  • http://www.gifs.net   http://www.dallas-zoo.org/featured/featured.asp?page=wc http://www.animationlibrary.com http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg