Hello. My name is Cindy O’Reilly and I am here tonight to talk about tablet PCs. This presentation will discuss the tablet PCs journey through the innovation diffusion process and how tablet PCs can be used in our schools to enhance the education of our elementary students. I have given each of you a CD which contains this entire presentation. There are a number of links contained throughout the presentation which will direct you to sites on the Internet that will give you more information about tablet PCs and how schools are currently integrating them into their curriculum. I have also given you a handout with photos of students using tablet PCs in their classrooms.
Stage 1 of the Innovation-Development Process is the need for that innovation. In the computing industry, Tablet PCs fulfilled the need of enabling the user to input information using a pen and a touch screen. This is important in our elementary schools because it enables students who have yet to develop their typing skills the ability to take utilize a computer. Tablet PCs also have a built in full keyboard that can be used just like any other keyboard. This makes it possible for students to develop their typing skills and to use the tablet PCs once they already know how to type. Also, young students who have problems navigating a mouse can simply touch the screen to access what they need on the computer. A tablet PC also enables someone to sign something in an electronic format. This feature has many uses for legal documents and other things that require someone’s signature.
Stage 2 of the Innovation-Development Process is the research behind the innovation. Tablet PCs got their start in the late 1980s. They were known then as pen computing or slate computers. The main idea behind pen computers was to find a way to input information other than using a keyboard. Some said that pen technology would eventually replace keyboards because handwriting was easier than keyboarding. Some early versions of pen computers were created by Dr. Charles Elbaum, a Nobel Prize winner. Dr. Elbaum’s started the company Nestor and called the pen computer the NestorWriter handwriting recognizer. Communication Intelligence Corporation created another pen computer called the Handwriter recognition system. There were many other types of pen computers developed also. In 1991, early discussion of pen computers’ abilities showed the possibility that the pen would replace a mouse and pen computers would replace desktops. Microsoft thought that pen computers could become serious competition for Windows computers so they decided to join in with pen computing by introducing a version of Windows for pen computers called Pen Extensions for Windows 3.1.
Stage 3 of the Innovation-Development Process is the development of the innovation. In 1992, both software and hardware was released for pen computers. Software came from GO Corporation PenPoint, Lexicus Longhand handwriting recognition software, and Microsoft. Between 1992 and 1994, hardware was produced by EO, NCR, Samsung, Dauphin, Fujitsu, Telepad, Compaq, Toshiba, and IBM. In fact, IBM’s ThinkPad was first created as a slate computer. After these first pen computers were released, the industry quickly realized that the technology of the day was not ready for handwriting and/or voice recognition. Users found it too difficult to replace keyboard input with their handwriting and/ or their voice. Pen computing died down. In 2002, Microsoft revived pen computing in the form of tablet PCs. Tablet PCs utilize “digital ink” which enables the user to write on the screen and the tablet pc will capture that ink on the screen. The user can save the ink to access at a later time. Tablet PCs also have the ability to translate handwriting into typed text. The other advantage to a tablet PC is that unlike most of the older pen computers, the tablet PC also has a built in full keyboard that works the same as any other keyboard.
Stage 4 of the Innovation-Development Process is the commercialization of the innovation. When pen and slate computers were first marketed to the public, the idea behind them was well received. Press for the new pen computers was mainly positive and people were excited to try out the new technology. People quickly became disappointed in in the pen computers inability to recognize handwriting and voice as a means for input. The press quickly turned on pen computers and criticized the innovation. Because the early pen and slate computers relied so heavily on non-keyboard input (i.e. handwriting and voice recognition), many companies lost millions when the public became disappointed in the products. While the recognition software was good software, much of which is still used today, people became easily frustrated with it because the software required them to adapt their natural handwriting or speech more than they expected they would have to. Bill Gates did not give up on the idea of pen computing and despite the setbacks in the early 1990s, Gates remained a supporter of the technology. Tablet PCs were introduced in 2002. Microsoft marketed the “digital ink” feature of the tablet PCs and did not mention much about the handwriting recognition features. The tablet PCs also incorporated a full keyboard for input.
This timeline demonstrates the tablet PC’s journey through the Innovation-Decision Process. There are links on each point in the process that you can access from the CD I handed out earlier. For example, if you click on the word “Knowledge” you will be directed to the website which is the reference for this information. Tablet PCs reached the knowledge phase of the innovation-decision process in the late 1980s. At this time they were known as pen or slate computers. Also in the late 1980s, developers of the pen and slate computers were persuading companies to buy into the idea of this new type of computer. In the early 1990s, many companies decided to produce both the software and hardware required for the pen and slate computers. Implementation occurred in both the early 1990s with pen and slate computers and in 2002 with Microsoft’s introduction of the tablet PC. When Microsoft created the tablet PC, they had a long-term goal in mind for the diffusion of the innovation. Part of the plan included the release of Windows Vista because this version of Windows included software to enhance the use of tablet PCs. It is predicted that tablet PCs popularity will greatly increase thanks to Windows Vista. This is why some are saying that confirmation will occur in the near future.
Communication of the tablet PC occurred through many channels. When Microsoft launched the Tablet PC, they chose to downplay its voice and handwriting recognition capabilities. This is because the recognition software does not work the way a user would like it to. It is difficult to get recognition software to automatically recognize someone’s handwriting or voice. The user is required to do a lot of adapting to the software as opposed to being able to talk or write as normal. The software is not able to adapt to the user. This frustrates many users who think that they should just be able to use the software immediately and have the computer recognize their speech or handwriting. Microsoft chose to advertise the other capabilities of the Tablet PCs. For example they discussed how the tablet PC uses digital ink. Users write on the screen and the computer captures their handwriting digitally. This can be saved and accessed later. In the early 1990s when slate computers were first introduced, the technology available at that time was not able to support what they were supposed to be able to do. In 2002, when the tablet PC was introduced, advancements in technology enabled it to perform much better than the earlier slate computers did. These are some links to websites that discuss tablet PCs.
In the early 1990s when pen computing was first introduced, there was minor penetration of this technology. After 1994, pen computing was basically a dead technology. In 2002, Microsoft introduced the tablet PC. With the introduction of tablet PCs, Microsoft had a 7 year plan for the full penetration of them. Part of that plan involved the release of Windows Vista and specifically a version of Vista that supported the tablet PC platform. Microsoft is not unpleased with the penetration of the tablet PC thus far because they anticipate penetration levels to greatly increase after the introduction of Vista to support tablet PCs. They feel that the tablet PC is following their predicted pattern for penetration. Walker (2005) predicted that 10% penetration of tablet PCs could be reached by 2010 thanks to Windows Vista.
There are many schools in the United States as well as Canada that have served as early adopters of tablet PCs. Some examples are given here. High school students in Erie, PA piloted a tablet PC program in 2004. The students enjoyed using the tablet PCs to enhance their learning, and especially liked the pen format for input. (Fitzgerald, 2004). Penn State University integrated tablet PCs into their engineering courses. They studied the benefits of the tablet PCs for both the students and professors. (Tablet PCs in Engineering Education, 2005). An elementary school in Ontario, CA purchased tablet PCs in 2003 for their students to use in the classroom. The tablet PCs were able to nearly replace all paper in the classrooms they were used in. (Reid, 2004) The Cornwallis Technology College purchased tablet PCs in 2002 to be used by students. The teachers and students enjoyed using the tablet PCs and especially liked the hand writing features of the tablet PCs. (Using RM Tablet PC at the Cornwallis School, 2009) A lack of success with the early pen computers may be a deterrent to the diffusion of tablet PCs. This may cause some people to be laggards when it comes to tablet PCs. If someone is not a strong supporter of technology use in the classroom to begin with, then they will probably be laggards for diffusion of tablet PCs as well.
There are a few key people in our elementary who have the potential to be the early adopters of the tablet PCs. The library media specialists are trained to be early adopters of educational technologies. I know this because I am one of them. We are viewed as educational technology leaders in our schools and teachers often to come to me for advice on integrating technology into their lessons. The library media specialists should be trained on how to use and integrate the tablet PCs. This will help them to see the potential of the tablet PCs. Once the library media specialists understand how to use and integrate tablet PCs, they will be the ones to help others become interested in this new innovation. One way the library media specialists can assist with the adoption of tablet PCs within a school is when teachers come to the library media specialist looking for resources. The library media specialist can suggest the integration of tablet PCs when appropriate. Teachers who currently integrate other forms of technology such as the laptops should also be trained on how to use and integrate the tablet PCs. Since they are already aware of how some forms of educational technology can enhance their teaching, they would probably be more willing to try something new. They also may have a better understanding of how and when tablet PCs can be integrated into their curriculum. Once other teachers see the tablet PCs being used by these teachers, they may be more wiling to try them out themselves. A suggestion would be to allow release time for the early adopters of tablet PCs so they are able to co-teach lessons with other teachers willing to try the tablet PCs out. More teachers may be willing to try them if they know that they do not have to go it alone and that they will have an experienced teacher with them who can help out if something goes wrong with the tablet PCs. Thanks to the digital ink and drawing capabilities of the tablet PCS, art teachers may be willing to use the tablet PCs so their students can create digital art and utilize other artistic features of the devices. This picture shows how one student used a tablet PC to create a drawing. Art teachers should also receive training on how to use and integrate the tablet PCs into their art classes. Once other teachers see the possibilities of the tablet PCs they will be more willing to give them a try. Also, once the students start using the tablet PCs to do fun things like create artwork, they may start to ask their teachers if they can use them for other things as well. The students’ desire to use the tablet PCs may be the drive some laggard teachers need in order to give the devices a try. Tablet PCs can be used to write music. This feature may grab the attention of the music teachers in our schools and help them to become early adopters of the devices. Here a music demonstrates how music can be written using a tablet PC. Laggards in our schools will be the next people to be trained on how to use the tablet PCs. Enabling these teachers to be comfortable using these devices themselves will be the first step we will take to help them adopt the technology. After they have been trained on how to use the tablet PCs, they will be trained on how to integrate them into their curriculum. The people mentioned above will provide a support system for the laggards to motivate them to try the devices out. Also, as mentioned previously, the students can become a motivator for the teachers as well. Some possible laggards in our schools are teachers who are not already committed to integrating technology. There is also the possibility that there may be some teachers who were familiar with older versions of tablet PCs that were not very successful. If this is the case, we will need help these teachers understand that tablet PCs work differently than those devices did because they do not rely solely on non-keyboard input. The tablet PCs have a full keyboard that can be used just like any other computer. Training these teachers on the differences between older devices and the new tablet PCs will help alleviate these misconceptions.
The perceived attributes that I think will help tablet PCs diffuse into education are relative advantage and compatibility. In order to diffuse tablet PCs in education, I think that educators, administrators, and parents need to realize the relative advantage that tablet PCs have over other educational technologies. Many of these have been mentioned already in this presentation. They include the ability for students to input information using something other than a keyboard. This is helpful for students that do not yet know how to type, as well as for anyone with a disability that would prevent them from being able to type. Also being able to use the pen instead of a mouse is very helpful for students who haven’t developed the necessary coordination to operate a mouse, due to age or a possible learning disability. Another advantage is the artistic creativity that can be created and captured using tablet PCs in both art and musical form. They would also have to realize the compatibility that tablet PCs have to enhancing students’ educational experiences. Because tablet PCs are able to work just like a laptop, the possibilities for them are endless. They are compatible to a laptop, but are so much more too!
In order to diffuse tablet PCs in our elementary schools, a decentralized approach will be used in that all students within a class will have the opportunity to utilize the tablet PCs. This is opposed to only having a small group of children use the tablet PCs (i.e. the students in the talented and gifted (TAG) program). We would want to see how all students use the tablet PCs in order to determine their effectiveness in our classrooms. Also, the tablet PCs will be used by students at multiple grade levels as opposed to only have students from one grade level use them. Again, we would want to see how all students use the tablet PCs.
Within the school, members of the technology department will be called upon to be the change agents. The tech department members will be able to understand the functionality of the tablet PCs and suggest how they can be integrated into classrooms. Library media specialists in the school will also be change agents because they understand the curriculum at each grade level and can work with the technology department members to determine how the tablet PCs can be integrated into the curriculum. The technology department members and the library media specialists will work with the classroom teachers to help the classroom teachers use and integrate the tablet PCs. Communication with teachers throughout the country who have already been using tablet PCs will be encouraged. Having our teachers talk with other teachers who are using them will help our teachers implement their use in our classrooms.
According to Andrews (2005), Microsoft anticipates full diffusion of the tablet PCs in 2010 thanks to the release of Windows Vista. This means that the tablet PC will hopefully meet critical mass soon. In his 2003 book entitled Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers suggested several strategies to help an innovation achieve critical mass. In order to assist our school in achieving critical mass, Rogers’ third strategy will be used which suggests that a the innovation be introduced to an intact group within the system. To do this at our school, a teacher will be selected at each grade level. The teacher will be selected by a committee consisting of the school’s principal, members of the technology department, and the school library media specialists. The teacher selected at each grade level will be one who has previously demonstrated innovativeness in educational technology as well as the willingness to try and implement new things. According to Rogers, if we are able to get this critical mass to buy into the innovation, then others will follow.
Our school needs technology that is user-friendly for elementary-aged students. Students now are having a difficult time using touch pads to operate the laptop’s “mouse” input device. Also, the primary elementary students (grades K-2) are just learning how to read, so they are unable to use a lot of the features available on the laptops we have now. In addition, many of the elementary students have poor keyboarding skills. They need a technology that they can operate regardless of their keyboarding skills, but that will also enable them to practice and improve their keyboarding capabilities. In an elementary school setting, we need technology that is available and ready to use when we need it, but also that will be out of the way when we don’t need it. For example, the desktop computers in our classrooms take up too much space. In an elementary classroom, space needs to be easily transformable so it can be used for centers, small group work, and other such instructional areas. Our school currently has wireless networking, online database subscriptions, software programs, and other such technologies. The use of these technologies is low. We need to be able to enhance the technologies that we already have in place. Students in our schools need an outlet for their artistic abilities. An educational technology that encourages artistic creativity would be ideal.
The pen and touch screen technology that is available with the tablet PCs is very user-friendly for elementary-aged students. Students do not have to have the coordination to maneuver an arrow using the touch pad on the laptop. They can simply touch the screen to operate the table PC. Also, the students can use drawing software and other such software on the tablet PC. Instead of having to write things in words, they can draw pictures. Also they can use the pen to write on the tablet PC using the digital ink feature, so even if they have poor keyboarding skills, they can still use the technology. The tablet PCs also have a full keyboard, so the students will have the opportunity to practice and improve their keyboarding skills. The tablet PCs can be stored in a cart. The batteries of the devices can be charged via the cart and the cart can be wheeled from one classroom to another depending on who wants to use the tablet PCs. They do not take up table space when they are not in use, so classrooms will not lose any space for centers, small group work, etc. The tablet PCs have wireless capabilities so the students will be able to utilize the wireless network and wireless databases. They run Windows Vista, so they will be able to support the latest in educational software.
Please use the CD I handed out earlier to access the links on this slide. Here you will find videos of tablet PCs being used.
The information for this presentation was found using these resources.
More references that were used.
The photographs in this presentation are located on these websites. Also a special thanks to Microsoft clipart which provided the clipart for my slides.
Thank you very much for your time. I can’t wait until I start using tablet PCs with my elementary students!
Stage 2: Research <ul><li>Late 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Early versions of pen computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NestorWriter handwriting recognizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Intelligence Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pen replace mouse? Pen computer replace Desktop? </li></ul><ul><li>Pen Extensions for Windows 3.1 </li></ul>Blickenstorfer, 2005 Bricklin, 2002
Stage 3: Development <ul><li>1992 products released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GO Corporation PenPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexicus Longhand handwriting recognition software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM ThinkPad </li></ul><ul><li>Technology was not ready </li></ul><ul><li>Too difficult to replace keyboard input with pen & voice input </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PCs released by Microsoft in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Uses “Digital Ink” as well as handwriting recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Has keyboard </li></ul>Blickenstorfer, 2005 Bricklin, 2002
Stage 4: Commercialization <ul><li>In early 1990s, press enthusiastic then critical </li></ul><ul><li>Companies lost millions </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft promoting “Digital Ink” features & downplaying handwriting recognition </li></ul>Blickenstorfer, 2005 Bricklin, 2002
Innovation-Decision Process Timeline 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Click on the words on the timeline to link to the source of the information Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Implementation Confirmation
Innovation-Decision Process Communication <ul><li>Microsoft Tablet PC Home Page </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PC Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Education Product Page </li></ul><ul><li>Things to think about before buying </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PC Review </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PC Education Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Top 10 Benefits of Tablet PCs in Education </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times Article--Tablet PCs used in classrooms </li></ul>
<ul><li>Early Adopters </li></ul><ul><li>High school students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering education </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary School in Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Cornwallis Technology College </li></ul><ul><li>Laggards </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of success with early pen computing </li></ul><ul><li>Poor supporters of technology </li></ul>
In our schools… <ul><li>Early adopters </li></ul><ul><li>Library media specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who currently use laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Art teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Laggards </li></ul><ul><li>Not used to integrating technology </li></ul><ul><li>Poor success with early versions </li></ul><ul><li>Music teachers </li></ul>
Approach to Diffusion <ul><li>Decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>All students in class </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple grade levels </li></ul>
Change Agents <ul><li>Members of technology department </li></ul><ul><li>Library media specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who have used tablet PCs with students </li></ul>
Achieving Critical Mass <ul><li>Not at critical mass yet </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers’ (2003) critical mass strategy </li></ul><ul><li>One teacher per grade level 1-5 </li></ul>
Technology Needs of Our School <ul><li>Elementary student friendly technology </li></ul><ul><li>Poor keyboarding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technology that’s ready to use & easily stored </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances use of technologies already in place </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage artistic creativity </li></ul>
Tablet PCs Help Meet Needs <ul><li>Elementary student friendly technology </li></ul><ul><li>Poor keyboarding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technology that’s ready to use & easily stored </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances use of technologies already in place </li></ul>
Tablet PCs in Action <ul><li>Demo by HP on tablet PCs in education </li></ul><ul><li>Students using tablet PC in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Math teacher demonstrating tablet PC lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a tablet PC from Dell </li></ul><ul><li>Writing on a tablet PC </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Blickenstorfer, C. (2005). A brief history of Tablet PCs. Retrieved June 24, 2009 from WebProNews website: http://www.webpronews.com/expertarticles/2005/12/20/a-brief-history-of-tablet-pcs </li></ul><ul><li>Bricklin, D. (2002). About tablet computing old and new. Retrieved June 24, 2009 from Dan Bricklin’s website: http://www.bricklin.com/tabletcomputing.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzgerald, T. J. (2004). The tablet PC takes it place in the classroom. Retrieved July 2, 2009 from New York Times’ website: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/09/technology/circuits/09jott.html?_r=3&ex=1095743441&ei=1&en=327395b18725c278 </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Reid, R. (2004). Tablet PCs go to school. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from PC World’s website: http://www.pcworld.com/article/114383/tablet_pcs_go_to_school.html </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PCs in Engineering Education. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from Penn State University’s website: http://www.engr.psu.edu/ae/cic/projects/tablet_pc.aspx?p=24 </li></ul><ul><li>Using RM Tablet PC at the Cornwallis School. (2009). Retrieved July 14, 2009 from http://www.rm.com/secondary/casestudies/casestudydetail.asp?cref=cs113293 </li></ul><ul><li>Walker, G. (2005). The last word: The future of the Tablet PC. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Veritas et Vesis website: http://www.veritasetvisus.com/VVTP-2,%20Walker.pdf </li></ul>