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Burleson, Olympic Truce Slide Presentation, Ioa, Olympia
 

Burleson, Olympic Truce Slide Presentation, Ioa, Olympia

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The Power of Olympic Truce presention given at the International Olympic Academy, Olympia, Greece, July 2009.

The Power of Olympic Truce presention given at the International Olympic Academy, Olympia, Greece, July 2009.

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    Burleson, Olympic Truce Slide Presentation, Ioa, Olympia Burleson, Olympic Truce Slide Presentation, Ioa, Olympia Presentation Transcript

    • Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
      Presented by Cindy Burleson,
      International Olympic Academy 17th Annual Seminar for Post Graduates
      July 6, 2009, Olympia
      Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com
    • Abstract
       
      The purpose of this study is to explore how Ekecheiria, or Olympic Truce, can move the world towards a culture of peace. To do so, a case study method is employed to test the hypothesis that Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations. The findings show that in observing the principles of Ekecheiria, truce can move the world towards a culture of peace.
       
      Research Question
      Can the ancient Olympic tradition of truce move the world towards a culture of peace?
       
      Importance of question
      Olympic Truce was the basis for The Games in ancient times. In a period of constant war, it became necessary for Greece to establish the “Ekecheiria,” or truce, to ensure competition would take place under conditions of fairness and the order of administered rules. Some have said that during the Ekecheiria period of competition there was a general laying down of arms. Others say that the Ekecheiria peaceful period of competition does not constitute real peace; rather it represents only a truce. Regardless of how long a truce last, if the Olympic Truce is credited with causing legendary periods of peace, then truce is worth exploring as a peace-keeping tool.
       
      Hypothesis
      As a peace-keeping tool, Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions necessary for longer-term peace to occur. As honoring Olympic Truce increases, short-term peace increases. As short term peace increases, long-term peace increases.
       
      Methodology
      The methodology used to test this hypothesis is a case study of the 1998 Nagano Olympic Winter Games. Variables are observance of Olympic Truce as set forth in United Nations resolutions, the diplomatic intervention of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan and the resulting diplomatic resolution to the crisis in Iraq.
       
      Findings
      Olympic truce can move the world towards a culture of peace.
      Keywords: International Development, Olympic Studies, Olympic Truce, Ekecheiria, Sport for Development
      Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
      Presented by Cindy Burleson,
      to the International Olympic Academy 17th Annual Seminar for Post Graduates in Olympia, Greece
      June 6, 2009
      Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com
    • Literature Review
      Since the 8th century B.C., the sacred Greek tradition of Ekecheiria, or the Olympic Truce, has called upon humanity to lay down its arms and work towards building peace, mutual respect, understanding and reconciliation so that the Games can take place in an environment free of conflict, where the rule of order allows for noble competition.
      Herodotus. (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC). Histories.
      Crane, Gregory R. 1996. The Ancient Olympics: A Special Exhibit of the Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University. 2008.
      Thucydides. (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC) 1910. In The Peloponnesian War. London: J. M. Dent.
      References:
      Abrams, Harvey. The Olympic Truce - Myth and Reality. The Classics Technology Center 2000 [cited February 7, 2008. Available from http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/abrams1.html.
      Albright, Madeleine, and Bill Woodward. 2003. Madame Secretary. New York: Hyperion.
      Beacom, Aaron. 2000. Sport in International Relations: A Case for Cross-Disciplinary Investigation. The Sports Historian (became Sport in History in 2003) 20 (2):1-23.
      Cornell, T. J. 2002. On War and Games in the Ancient World. The Global Nexus Engaged:29-40.
      Crane, Gregory R. 1996. The Ancient Olympics: A Special Exhibit of the Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University.
      ———. 2008. Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University.
      Der, Bob. 1995. Stop the Killing! Sports Illustrated for Kids, May 1995, 1.
      Develpment, International Platform on Sport and. 2008. Sport & Development 2008 [cited April 10, 2008 2008]. Available from http://www.sportanddev.org.
      Herodotus. (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC). Histories.
      Hoberman, John. 1995. Toward a Theory of Olympic Internationalism. Journal of Sport History 22 (1):1-37.
      Houlihan, Barrie. 1994. Sport and International Politics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
      Kidane, Fékrou. 1999. Sport and Politics: Diplomacy of an Olympic Truce. Olympic Reveiw (August-September):48-53.
      Kyodo, News. 2008. Samaranch labels Nagano Olympics 'best organized'. The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, February 22, 1998 1998 [cited April 10, 2008 2008]. Available from http://www.shinmai.co.jp/oly-eng/19980222/0006.htm.
      Longman, Jere. 1998. Olympics: Nagano 1998; I.O.C. Ask White House to HOnor Peace Pledge. The New York Times, February 4, 1998, 1.
      Press, Associated. Tradition, future clash as Nagano Games open. CNN/SI 1998 [cited. Available from http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/events/1998/nagano/news/1998/02/07/roundup/.
      Rocke, Jennifer. The Time Line Project 1996 [cited. Available from www.youth.net/olympic/timeline.events.html.
      Thomas, Anthony. 2004. The Real Olympics. Hollywood: Public Broadcasting Service.
      Thucydides. 1910. In The Peloponnesian War. London: J. M. Dent.
      UN. Resolution 687, United Nations Special Commission. The United Nations 1991 [cited April 10, 2008. Available from http://www.un.org/Depts/unscom/unscom.htm.
      ———. 1997. General Assembly Urges 'Olympic Truce' During Winter Games in Nagano, Japan, edited by C. o. t. World: The United Nations.
      ———. 1998. The Olympic Truce. UN Chronicle 35 (1):63.
      Wassong, Stephan. 2002. Pierre de Coubertin's American Studies and Their Importance for the Analysis of His Early Educational Campaign, originally published as Pierre de Coubertins US-amerikanische Studien und ihre Bedeutung für die Analyse seiner frühen Erziehungskampagne © ERGON Verlag, Würzburg, Germany 2002. Würzburg, Germany: ERGON Verlag.
      Wels, Susan. 1995. The Olympic Spirit: 100 Years of the Games. San Francisco: Collins Publishers.
      Yamaguchi, Ko. Outline of the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1997 [cited. Available from http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/japan/opinion/yamaguchi.html.
      The Sport for Development movement can benefit from the temporary peace-keeping practice of Olympic Truce. The idea of countries setting aside differences and laying down weapons for the period of time it takes to participate in the Games can be applied beyond its current scope to improve international relations and achieve longer periods of peace.
      International Platform on Sport and Development. 2008. Sport & Development 2008. Available from http://www.sportanddev.org
      Houlihan, Barrie. 1994. Sport and International Politics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    • Case Study
      Winter Olympics 98                                                 Japan pleads for no military action during games
      Japan is hoping the games will not be overshadowed by international conflict
      Japan's Foreign Minister has asked the United States to refrain from taking any military action against Iraq during the Winter Olympic Games. Foreign Minister Keizo Obuchi expressed Japan's concern about the possible outbreak of hostilities during the games in a late Friday evening phone conversation with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, according to a statement released by the Japanese Foreign Ministry. Ms Albright said that she understood Japan's position, but asked for Japan's full support in backing a US-led effort to force Iraq to abide by a UN-directed weapons inspections, the statement said. Earlier Mr. Obuchi conveyed Japan's concerns to Britain and France. Japan wants its allies to respect a non-binding resolution the United Nations passed in November urging countries to avoid any hostilities with one another during the Olympics.
      IOC backing
      On Tuesday the International Olympic Committee asked the Clinton administration to hold fire during the Olympics, which end on February 22. And in Nagano, IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch expressed confidence that Washington would find a peaceful solution to the crisis with Iraq.
      On Saturday, at the opening ceremony he reiterated the message of peace in his speech. He appealed to the 185 member states of the United Nations to observe the Olympic truce and use diplomacy to solve conflicts.
      "The future of our society truly lies in our youth. Let us build together for them a peaceful and better world," he added.
      Tensions are growing between the Iraq and the international community over the issue of UN inspections.
      Military build-up
      The United States has been increasing the size of its military presence in the Gulf for a possible military attack on Iraq over its non-compliance with UN weapons inspections.
      President Bill Clinton has said no decision has been made to attack Iraq, but his defense secretary, William Cohen, said that the Olympics cannot figure in U.S. military planning.
      Iraq is not sending a delegation to the Nagano Games.  
      Source: British Public Broadcasting
    • Findings
      The case study of the Nagano Olympic Winter Games provided the means to test the hypothesis, which was “Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions for longer-term peace to emerge.”
      The first part of they hypothesis held true, because in the case study as honoring Olympic Truce increased, short-term peace increased.
      However, the second part of the hypothesis dealing with longer term peace is less conclusive. Otherwise stated, this part of the hypothesis says that as short-term peace increases, long-term peace increases. Though the Olympic Truce was helpful in achieving a short-term peace, in the long-run the US has invaded Iraq twice.
      It can be assumed that since this case study met with varied results, other conflicts could ware out much better. A recommended view is that Olympic truce can move us towards a culture of peace.
      In addition to diplomatic relations in foreign affairs, principles of the Olympic Truce can be applied in the everyday lives of individuals. The International Olympic Truce Centre currently supports the view that a major objective of the Olympic Truce is to promote peaceful coexistence among all people. Observance of the Olympic Truce calls for individuals to awaken consciousness and leaders to act conscientiously. Working towards the observance of the Olympic Truce means to encourage contact between adversaries, make humanitarian efforts easier in conflict-torn regions and help youth of the world participate peacefully in healthy competition. Extending the achievements of the Olympic Truce is to create structure for continued dialogue both during the Games and beyond. In the end, the Olympic Truce provides the vision for citizens of the world to build a global Culture of Peace.
      HYPOTHESIS—Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions for longer-term peace to emerge
      TRUE—as honoring Olympic Truce increased, short-term peace increased.
      FALSE—as short-term peace increases, long-term peace increases
      RECOMMENDED VIEW—Olympic truce can move us towards a culture of peace.
    • The U.N. General Assembly has adopted an Olympic truce resolution for every Olympics since the early 1990s.
      Most recently the U.N. adopted an Olympic truce resolution for the 2008 Beijing Games that calls upon the 182 U.N. member states to observe and promote peace during and beyond the Games.
      In doing so it ignored assorted protest groups.
    • During the Beijing Games, much protest surrounded China’s position with Tibet and colossal carbon footprints. Human rights advocates called upon the international community to denounce disgraceful human rights practices.
      Even so, amidst the conflict between Russia and Georgia, the Olympic Truce was called upon in an optimistic appeal for peace.
    • “Olympic Truce in ancient days had the power to stop wars. In modern times, wars have the power to stop the Olympic Games.”
      Shall we revive Ekecheiria to the same statue it held in the ancient world ?
    • Step 1: Make future Olympic Truce Resolutions binding, instead of voluntary.
      To do that, future Olympic Truce resolutions would have be introduced through the UN Security Council.
      Resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council are the only agreements the UN may enforce.
      Step 2: Enforce the Truce.
      Enforcement need not be militaristic, rather enforcement could be symbolic.
      Further still, enforcement could generate development funds for underdeveloped countries.
    • Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
      Presented by Cindy Burleson,
      to the International Olympic Academy 17th Annual Seminar for Post Graduates in Olympia, Greece
      June 6, 2009
      Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com