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Political Boundaries UNCLOS



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  • 1. Political Boundaries Ms. Patten 2013
  • 2. UNCLOS III  United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea      Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Jamaica Entered into force November 16, 1994 Conditions for entry into force: 60 ratifications Parties:158 United States has not ratified 1.15 statute miles equals 1 nautical mile
  • 3. UNCLOS III  Territiorial Waters     Up to 12 nm from the baseline Coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, use any resource Foreign vessels given the right of ‘innocent passage’ Baseline refers to the low water line along the coast
  • 4. UNCLOS III  Contiguous Zone  State could continue to enforce laws regarding activities such as pollution, customs, taxation, smuggling or illegal immigration for up to 12 additional nm
  • 5. Continental Shelf
  • 6. UNCLOS III  Exclusive Economic Zone   200 miles from baseline Coastal nation has sole exploration and exploitation rights over all natural resources in water, seabed and subsoil    fishing oil If the continental shelf lies beyond 200 nm from shore, the coastal state has exclusive rights to the resources up to 350 nm away
  • 7. UNCLOS III  Median Line Principle   When two countries lie closer than 400 nautical miles apart, the EEZ boundary must be drawn between the two countries Countries closer than 24 nm draw a median line between each other’s territorial waters
  • 8. UNCLOS III  High Seas    Subject to UN management US originally withheld approval because of this Meant to provide landlocked states with rights to benefit from Earth’s marine resources
  • 9. What is a frontier?    A frontier is a zone where no state exercises complete political control Geographic area, not a boundary Uninhabited or sparcely settled by a few isolated pioneers seeking to live outside organized society
  • 10. The Antarctic Treaty  The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23, 1961. The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58 and willing to accept a US invitation to the conference at which the treaty was negotiated. These countries were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States
  • 11. The Antarctic Treaty        Area used for peaceful purposes only Freedom of scientific exploration Free exchange of information Does not recognize territorial claims Prohibits nuclear explosions or waste Disputes to be settled peacefully or through the International Court of Justice (UN) Madrid Protocol (1991) bans mining and is up for review in 2041
  • 12. The Kyoto Protocol  “The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.”  TARGETED GASES       Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4269921.stm
  • 13. The Kyoto Protocol    The protocol was agreed to in 1997, based on principles set out in a framework convention signed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol became a legally binding treaty on 16 February 2005. It could only come into force after two conditions had been fulfilled:  It had been ratified by at least 55 countries  It had been ratified by nations accounting for at least 55% of emissions 38 industrialised countries given targets for reducing emissions The first target was met in 2002. But following the decision of the United States and Australia not to ratify, Russia's position became crucial for the fulfilment of the second condition. It finally did ratify on 18 November 2004, and the Kyoto Protocol came into force 90 days later - on 16 February 2005.
  • 14. The Kyoto Protocol    US President George W Bush pulled out of the Kyoto Protocol in 2001, saying implementing it would gravely damage the US economy. His administration dubbed the treaty "fatally flawed", partly because it does not require developing countries to commit to emissions reductions. China and India are two of these countries
  • 15. The Kyoto Protocol