LDC Agriculture


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LDC Agriculture

  1. 1. Agriculture in Less Developed Countries
  2. 2. LDC Agriculture• Five types of agriculture typify the less developed country – Shifting cultivation – Pastoral nomadism – Intensive subsistence wet rice dominant – Intensive subsistence non wet rice dominant – Plantation farming
  3. 3. Shifting Cultivation Slash and burn or swidden agriculture Extensive subsistence Slash and burn- vegetation is removed and burned, releasing nutrients that fertilize Land is cleared, followed by two or three years of cultivation until abandoned because of declining soil fertility and weeds Land is left fallow for up to 20 years Today, practiced in tropical regions (low latitudes) intertillage, human labor, crop rotation, staggered sowing Low population densities; as populations grow…
  4. 4. Shifting Cultivation: Map
  5. 5. Shifting Cultivation Intertillage
  6. 6. Shifting Cultivation Slash and Burn Agriculture
  7. 7. Shifting Cultivation South America Maize Manioc (cassava) Africa Millet Sorghum yams sugarcane plantains
  8. 8. Cassava
  9. 9. Plantains
  10. 10. Maize
  11. 11. Pastoral NomadismSedentary or nomadic, small plots of crops may be plantedand tended by women and childrenExtensive subsistencePracticed in arid or mountainous regions that lack of fertilesoil, deserts, steppes, savannahsReliance on animalsMobile and small populationsSheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks, horses, reindeertranshumance: movement between cooler mountains(summer) and warmer lowlands (winter)
  12. 12. Pastoral NomadismKyrgyz yurt made of felt; known as a ger by theMongolians
  13. 13. Intensive Subsistence densely populated rural areas small, fragmented plots work done by hand or animals no land is wasted (terracing) crops for human consumption
  14. 14. Intensive Subsistence
  15. 15. Intensive Subsistence Wet Ricerefers to planting rice initially on dry land in a nursery and then movingseedlings to a flooded fieldoccupies a small % of Asia’s land but is region’s most important source of foodSoutheast China, East India and Southeast AsiaAll family members contribute to the work loadBuffalo or oxenFound near river valleys and deltasTerraced hillsides, some use of irrigationDouble cropping = two crops a year per fieldCommon in areas with warm wintersWet rice grown in summer and another crop (barley or wheat) grown in drywinter season
  16. 16. Intensive Subsistence Wet Rice
  17. 17. Intensive Subsistence Wet Rice
  18. 18. Intensive Subsistence non-Wet Rice Parts of Asia where summer precip levels are too low and Pearl winter months are too cool Millet, grown in Interior India and northeast Africa China Wheat is most important crop followed by barley Millet, oats, corn, sorghum, soybeans also grown for individual consumptionMillet is a type of grain grown in dry and cool climates wherewheat or barley can’t; can be stored for five years
  19. 19. Millet•Millet is a collective term for a variety of grasses that producesmall, rounded seeds that are harvested for food•in developing nations, millet is used for food, animal bedding,construction materials, and forage fodder for animals•hardy annual capable of growing in conditions that would kill othercrops•thrives in intense heat and poor soil, which makes it a naturalchoice for areas of the world that are turning into deserts•high concentrations of numerous vitamins, as well as a high volumeof protein—a little over one tenth of the grain is protein•millet is gluten free•grows quickly and can be harvested as soon as three months afterplanting, providing an opportunity to get two or even three crops ina year
  20. 20. Millet
  21. 21. Sorghum•used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghummolasses"), fodder, and the production of alcoholicbeverages•Most species are drought tolerant and heat tolerant and areespecially important in arid regions•cereals that thrive in semi-arid regions and provideimportant human food in tropical Africa, central and northIndia, and China•Sorghum produced in the USA and Australia is used foranimal feed
  22. 22. Sorghum
  23. 23. Rice
  24. 24. Intensive Subsistence
  25. 25. Intensive Subsistence non-Wet Rice Cash crops may be grown in this region: cotton, flax, hemp, tobacco Crop rotation will allow some use of double croppingDifferent varieties ofsorghum can be grownfor feed or for making Flax flower and seedsmolasses
  26. 26. Cotton
  27. 27. Plantation A form of commercial agriculture Crops grown in LDC’s but fields and plantations are owned by MDC’s and sold in MDC’s Latin America: coffee, sugarcane, bananas Asia: rubber, palm oil Work spread evenly throughout the year; some double cropping
  28. 28. Plantation Crops: tea lumber coffee banana rubber cacao tobacco sugarcane cotton pineapple
  29. 29. Plantation Breadfruit Native to East Indian ocean and Western Pacific Islands
  30. 30. PlantationTea Plantation, Malaysia
  31. 31. Plantation Cacao •Introduced to the South American region by the Mayas of the Yucatan •Used for chocolate and cocoa •Beans once used as Cacao tree with fruit pods currency •Currently practiced in tropical environments
  32. 32. Plantation Rubber •Native to Central and South America •Now practiced primarily in Asia Rubber tree
  33. 33. Plantation Sugarcane •Caribbean region •Tropics and subtropics •Industry expected to crash by 2009 •In Brazil, can be used in production of fuels Sugarcane
  34. 34. Plantation Pineapple •Native to Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay •Symbol of hospitality •Major producers: Thailand, Philippines, Brazil •Scales arranged in spirals of eight and Pineapple field, Hawaii thirteen, an example of a Fibonacci symbol existing in nature