2012 Birth of Agriculture

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2012 Birth of Agriculture

  1. 1. Ms. Patten 2012
  2. 2. agriculturethe deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food and fiber
  3. 3. WHEN and WHEREThroughout history until about 10,000 BCESouth Asia, East Asia and Southwest Asia Two men return from a hunt. The Hadza are one of the few contemporary African societies that live primarily by foraging.
  4. 4. SIZE AND ORGANIZATIONSmall populations of 25-250 Some prosperous areas could sustain more peoplelarge amounts of landclan/family structureproperty held in common
  5. 5. DIVISION OF LABORrigid rolesgender specialization: men hunted and women gathered
  6. 6. ACTIVITIESnomadic lifestylehunting animalsfishinggathering nuts and berries, bugs, seeds, roots
  7. 7. LIFESTYLE VALUESfew possessions as life was extremely mobilegroups needed to be able to pack up and move on at any time
  8. 8. FOOD SUPPLYinsects, nuts, roots, berries, meat, fish (fresh and dried) Fish trapped in times of low tide, stone traps Harpoons and baskets, spears Hooks made from wood, bone, seashells and hornMost modern day hunters and gatherers have been pushed onto marginalized land: dry, cold and inhospitable
  9. 9. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY Poisoned spears and axes from wood, bone, stone, clubs (used to hit and throw) , sticks, bows/arrows, poisoned waterholes Fire (used to make food digestible and to drive animals off cliffs or into traps) dugout canoe, sticks to carry carcasses, sleds, baskets Rudimentary metal working, stone pots, grinders
  10. 10. SOCIALsmall populations and familiesmobilefire became symbol of communityno carbohydrates meant no cavities = healthy teeth
  11. 11. WHEN10,000BCE or 12,000 yadomestication of plants and animals occurred simultaneously in several parts of the world, leading to the 1st Agricultural Revolution Independent invention
  12. 12. WHERENile River, Mesopotamia, Indus River, Yellow Riverfirst conscious cultivation of plants may have involved root crops and occurred in S and SE Asia
  13. 13. WHERE
  14. 14. Plant and Animal Domestication
  15. 15. Plant and Animal Domestication
  16. 16. Plant and Animal Domestication
  17. 17. Ancient Culture Hearths
  18. 18. SIZE AND ORGANIZATIONfirst permanent settlementssmall amounts of landstratified classes based on jobagriculture enabled people to settle permanently in one area with the assurance that food would be available in seasons to come
  19. 19. DIVISION OF LABORstatus of women fallsspecialization originatesland held in common
  20. 20. ACTIVITIESdomestication of plants and animalscultivation of plantscontrolled reproduction of animalsstorage of goods
  21. 21. LIFESTYLE VALUESsedentary lifestyle emerges This enabled animal domestication (8000-14,000 ya)  Animals first as pets  Animals may have attached themselves to human settlements as scavengers or for protection against predatorspossessions begin to hold value
  22. 22. FOOD SUPPLYflora and faunameats, grains, dairy (?)subsistence agriculturetimliness of planting and harvesting…storage of productsfood surplus/shortages
  23. 23. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGYmetal weaponsearliest use of plowsSedentary = civilization???
  24. 24. SOCIALmore kidsoutmigration of farmers and absorption of foraging peoplesspread of diseaseshorter lifespan due to disease, war, childbirth and poor sanitationmodest population growth
  25. 25. WHEN and WHERElate middle ages-1900coincided with the industrial revolutionbegan in several discrete widely scattered placesEurope
  26. 26. SIZE AND ORGANIZATIONindividual land ownershipintensive and commercial agriculture
  27. 27. DIVISION OF LABORless people employed in agriculturegreater production per worker due to technological advances
  28. 28. ACTIVITIEScrop rotationselective breeding of livestocknitrogenlegumes for nitrogen valuefallow fields Townshend’s Four Field System
  29. 29. LIFESTYLE VALUESgreater diversificationsurpluscommercial farms
  30. 30. FOOD SUPPLYyield increasecereal grainsturnip as animal feednitrogen rich crops
  31. 31. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGYseed drill as alternative to broadcastingthreshing machinestractors replacing animal power Jethro Tull’s Seed Drillcotton ginfertilizerfield drainage brought new land under production for the first time
  32. 32. SOCIALdrastic population increase Made possible the clustering of even larger populationslarger families
  33. 33. WHEN1940’s-presentAlso called the Green Revolution
  34. 34. WHEREBegan in MDCs and spread to LDCs
  35. 35. SIZE AND ORGANIZATIONlarge scale commercial farming
  36. 36. DIVISION OF LABORintensive and extensive agriculture with the assistance of machines
  37. 37. ACTIVITIESexpanded farm acerageheightened role of technology in crop productiondouble cropping-S. Asiabesides cultivation (p) farmers also involve themselves in the manufacturing and sales of their product
  38. 38. LIFESTYLE VALUESfewer farmers< 2% in the US are in agricultureexpansion of secondary and tertiary sector employment
  39. 39. FOOD SUPPLYwheat, rice, millet, corn: miracle grains most affected
  40. 40. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGYBiotechnology Genetically engineered food Selective breeding cloningIrrigation systemsfertilizerspesticides
  41. 41. SOCIALpopulation growthEnvironmental damage pollution erosion

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